Otto Cars

Otto Cars

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Publications by authors named "Otto Cars"

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Reply to Prim et al., "Is Colistin Susceptibility Testing Finally on the Right Track?"

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Apr 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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April 2018

Predicting mutant selection in competition experiments with ciprofloxacin-exposed Escherichia coli.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Mar 7;51(3):399-406. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

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March 2018

Unavailability of old antibiotics threatens effective treatment for common bacterial infections.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Mar;18(3):242-244

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

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March 2018

Colistin Is Extensively Lost during Standard Experimental Conditions.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 11 24;61(11). Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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November 2017

A Novel Microfluidic Assay for Rapid Phenotypic Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria Detected in Clinical Blood Cultures.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(12):e0167356. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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July 2017

Assessment of early combination effects of colistin and meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in dynamic time-kill experiments.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2017 Jul 6;49(7):521-527. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

a Department of Medical Sciences , Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.

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July 2017

Erratum to 'Forgotten antibiotics: a follow-up inventory study in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia': [International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 49/1 (2017) 98-101].

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2017 04 3;49(4):482. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

ReAct-Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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April 2017

Evaluation of automated time-lapse microscopy for assessment of in vitro activity of antibiotics.

J Microbiol Methods 2017 01 9;132:69-75. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

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January 2017

Forgotten antibiotics: a follow-up inventory study in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2017 Jan 16;49(1):98-101. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

ReAct-Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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January 2017

Universal Access to Effective Antibiotics is Essential for Tackling Antibiotic Resistance.

J Law Med Ethics 2015 ;43 Suppl 3:17-21

Senior Professor of Infectious Diseases at the Department of Medical Sciences at Uppsala University, Sweden and Founder of Re-Act: Action in Antibiotic Resistance.

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December 2016

Antimicrobial resistance-a threat to the world's sustainable development.

Ups J Med Sci 2016 Aug 14;121(3):159-64. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

a ReAct Europe, Department of Medical Sciences , Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.

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August 2016

UN High-Level Meeting on antimicrobials--what do we need?

Lancet 2016 Jul;388(10041):218-20

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

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July 2016

Dynamic interaction of colistin and meropenem on a WT and a resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as quantified in a PK/PD model.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2016 May 4;71(5):1279-90. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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May 2016

Prevalence of hypermutators among clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2016 Mar 9;71(3):661-5. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Uppsala, 75105 Uppsala, Sweden.

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March 2016

In memoriam: William A. Craig.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 20;59(6):2971. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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February 2016

A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model allows prediction of antibiotic killing from MIC values for WT and mutants.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2015 Nov 7;70(11):3051-60. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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November 2015

Antibiotic resistance: An ethical challenge.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2015 Oct 20;46(4):359-61. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

ReAct - Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 256, 75105 Uppsala, Sweden.

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October 2015

Changes in patterns of antibiotic use in Chinese public hospitals (2005-2012) and a benchmark comparison with Sweden in 2012.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2015 Jun 8;3(2):95-102. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

National Institute of Hospital Administration, National Health and Family Commission of P.R. China, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

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June 2015

Framework for optimisation of the clinical use of colistin and polymyxin B: the Prato polymyxin consensus.

Lancet Infect Dis 2015 Feb 21;15(2):225-34. Epub 2014 Oct 21.

Departments of Pathology and Paediatrics and School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

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February 2015

[Simple measures in the county councils can provide safer treatment in sepsis. Early diagnosis crucial--laboratories must manage blood cultures faster].

Authors:
Otto Cars

Lakartidningen 2015 Feb 10;112. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Section of Infectious Diseases - Medical Sciences,Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden Infectious Diseases - Medical Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.

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February 2015

An international legal framework to address antimicrobial resistance.

Bull World Health Organ 2015 Feb;93(2):66

ReAct - Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .

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February 2015

Antibiotic use worldwide.

Lancet Infect Dis 2014 Dec 17;14(12):1179-80. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

ReAct-Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 05, Sweden.

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December 2014

Antibiotic resistance--problems, progress, and prospects.

N Engl J Med 2014 Nov 1;371(19):1761-3. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

From the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (C.N.); and the Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (O.C.).

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November 2014

Mutant prevention concentrations of pradofloxacin for susceptible and mutant strains of Escherichia coli with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Oct 25;44(4):354-7. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Box 552, Uppsala University, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden.

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October 2014

A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model developed for the effect of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro with evaluation of population pharmacokinetic variability on simulated bacterial killing.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2014 May 27;69(5):1350-61. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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May 2014

Access, excess, and ethics--towards a sustainable distribution model for antibiotics.

Ups J Med Sci 2014 May 15;119(2):134-41. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

International Maternal and Child Health Unit, Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.

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May 2014

Securing access to effective antibiotics for current and future generations. Whose responsibility?

Authors:
Otto Cars

Ups J Med Sci 2014 May 27;119(2):209-14. Epub 2014 Apr 27.

ReAct, Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden.

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May 2014

Consistent global approach on reporting of colistin doses to promote safe and effective use.

Clin Infect Dis 2014 Jan 8;58(1):139-41. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

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January 2014

Global survey of polymyxin use: A call for international guidelines.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2013 Sep;1(3):131-134

Action on Antibiotic Resistance (ReAct), Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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September 2013

Frequent emergence of porin-deficient subpopulations with reduced carbapenem susceptibility in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli during exposure to ertapenem in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 Jun 10;68(6):1319-26. Epub 2013 Mar 10.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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June 2013

3Rs for innovating novel antibiotics: sharing resources, risks, and rewards.

BMJ 2012 Apr 3;344:e1782. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Program on Global Health and Technology Access, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

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April 2012

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model for gentamicin and its adaptive resistance with predictions of dosing schedules in newborn infants.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012 Jan 28;56(1):179-88. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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January 2012

[Metronidazole cream approved for nonprescription use].

Lakartidningen 2011 Oct 5-11;108(40):1976

Läkemedelsverket.

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December 2011

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices of antibiotics predicted by a semimechanistic PKPD model: a step toward model-based dose optimization.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Oct 1;55(10):4619-30. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Box 591, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

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October 2011

Posaconazole in human serum: a greater pharmacodynamic effect than predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Jul 18;55(7):3099-104. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

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July 2011

Protein binding: do we ever learn?

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Jul 2;55(7):3067-74. Epub 2011 May 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

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July 2011

Radical reduction of cephalosporin use at a tertiary hospital after educational antibiotic intervention during an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2011 May 4;66(5):1161-7. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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May 2011

Predicting in vitro antibacterial efficacy across experimental designs with a semimechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Apr 31;55(4):1571-9. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Box 591, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

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April 2011

Voriconazole-induced inhibition of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B in Candida strains with reduced susceptibility to voriconazole: an effect not predicted by the MIC value alone.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Apr 31;55(4):1629-37. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

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April 2011

Critical shortage of new antibiotics in development against multidrug-resistant bacteria-Time to react is now.

Drug Resist Updat 2011 Apr 23;14(2):118-24. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

European Medicines Agency (EMA), London, United Kingdom.

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April 2011

The global need for effective antibiotics-moving towards concerted action.

Drug Resist Updat 2011 Apr 1;14(2):68-9. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

ReAct, Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Uppsala University, SE-751 05 Uppsala, Sweden.

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April 2011

[Focus on improved antibiotics use in the government's patient safety initiative].

Lakartidningen 2011 Jan 19-26;108(3):96-7

Smittskyddsinstitutet, Stockholm.

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March 2011

The global need for effective antibiotics: challenges and recent advances.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2010 Nov 16;31(11):509-15. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 256, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden.

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November 2010

Foreign travel is a major risk factor for colonization with Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a prospective study with Swedish volunteers.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010 Sep 14;54(9):3564-8. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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September 2010

Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of colistin in pediatric patients.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010 Sep 28;54(9):3985-7. Epub 2010 Jun 28.

3rd Department of Pediatrics, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.

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September 2010

Tackling antibiotic resistance.

BMJ 2010 May 18;340:c2071. Epub 2010 May 18.

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May 2010

Quantitative analysis of colistin A and colistin B in plasma and culture medium using a simple precipitation step followed by LC/MS/MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2009 Apr 24;49(3):760-7. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy, Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Biomedicum, Box 591, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.

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April 2009

Alcohol-based hand-disinfection reduced children's absence from Swedish day care centers.

Acta Paediatr 2008 Dec 1;97(12):1672-80. Epub 2008 Oct 1.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unit for Infectious Disease Control, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

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December 2008

Estimation of cefuroxime dosage using pharmacodynamic targets, MIC distributions, and minimization of a risk function.

J Clin Pharmacol 2008 Nov;48(11):1270-81

AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, Clinical Pharmacology & DMPK, SE-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.

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November 2008

Meeting the challenge of antibiotic resistance.

BMJ 2008 Sep 18;337:a1438. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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September 2008

Characterization of the inhibitory effect of voriconazole on the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B against Candida albicans in an in vitro kinetic model.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2008 Jul 12;62(1):142-8. Epub 2008 Apr 12.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

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July 2008

Clinical and economic impact of common multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008 Mar 10;52(3):813-21. Epub 2007 Dec 10.

Clinical Microbiology L2:02, Karolinska Institutet-MTC, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm SE-17176, Sweden.

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March 2008

Tissue concentrations: do we ever learn?

J Antimicrob Chemother 2008 Feb 6;61(2):235-7. Epub 2007 Dec 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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February 2008

[Antibiotic resistant S aureus--increased mortality and more expensive health care].

Lakartidningen 2007 Oct 17-23;104(42):3052-6

Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö.

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November 2007

Dose-related selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2007 Oct 16;60(4):795-801. Epub 2007 Jul 16.

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden.

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October 2007

Pharmacodynamic effects of telavancin against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains in the presence of human albumin or serum and in an in vitro kinetic model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007 Sep 9;51(9):3311-6. Epub 2007 Jul 9.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

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September 2007

Optimizing drug exposure to minimize selection of antibiotic resistance.

Clin Infect Dis 2007 Sep;45 Suppl 2:S129-36

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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September 2007

Semimechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for assessment of activity of antibacterial agents from time-kill curve experiments.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007 Jan 23;51(1):128-36. Epub 2006 Oct 23.

Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy, Uppsala University, Box 591, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

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January 2007

Pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli: simulation of human plasma concentrations after intravenous dosage in an in vitro kinetic model.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2006 Nov 26;58(5):960-5. Epub 2006 Aug 26.

Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lunds University S-20502 Malmö, Sweden.

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November 2006

A population pharmacokinetic model for cefuroxime using cystatin C as a marker of renal function.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006 Sep;62(3):297-303

Division of Pharmokinetics and Drug Therapy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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September 2006

Selection of ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli in an in vitro kinetic model: relation between drug exposure and mutant prevention concentration.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2006 Jun 19;57(6):1116-21. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden.

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June 2006

National campaigns to improve antibiotic use.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006 May 28;62(5):373-9. Epub 2006 Mar 28.

Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

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May 2006

[Quinolones--a cure which became a threat. Accelerating resistance development demands stricter indications].

Lakartidningen 2005 Nov 28-Dec 4;102(48):3651-6, 3659

Klinisk bakteriologi, Akademiska laboratoriet, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.

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January 2006

Pharmacodynamic model to describe the concentration-dependent selection of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005 Dec;49(12):5081-91

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Sweden.

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December 2005

Reduction in outpatient antibiotic sales for pre-school children: interrupted time series analysis of weekly antibiotic sales data in Sweden 1992-2002.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2005 Jul 16;56(1):208-15. Epub 2005 May 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm.

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July 2005

Mutant prevention concentrations of ciprofloxacin for urinary tract infection isolates of Escherichia coli.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2005 Jun 28;55(6):938-43. Epub 2005 Apr 28.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Box 596, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, S-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

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June 2005

Standardization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) terminology for anti-infective drugs: an update.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2005 May 16;55(5):601-7. Epub 2005 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Weg door Jonkerbos 100, 6532 sz Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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May 2005

Pharmacodynamic studies of amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae: comparison of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation (2000 mg twice daily) with standard dosage regimens.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2004 Dec 24;54(6):1062-6. Epub 2004 Nov 24.

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Bacteriology, Uppsala University, 20502 Malmö, Sweden.

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December 2004

Defined daily doses of antimicrobials reflect antimicrobial prescriptions in ambulatory care.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2004 Jun 29;53(6):1109-11. Epub 2004 Apr 29.

Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Unit, National Center for Antimicrobials and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.

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June 2004

Weekly antibiotic prescribing and influenza activity in Sweden: a study throughout five influenza seasons.

Scand J Infect Dis 2003 ;35(11-12):836-42

Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance (STRAMA), Solna, Sweden.

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February 2004

Bacteria with increased mutation frequency and antibiotic resistance are enriched in the commensal flora of patients with high antibiotic usage.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2003 Oct 12;52(4):645-50. Epub 2003 Sep 12.

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

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October 2003

Postantibiotic, postantibiotic sub-MIC, and subinhibitory effects of PGE-9509924, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003 Oct;47(10):3352-6

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

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October 2003

Fitness of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis assessed by competition on the skin of human volunteers.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2003 Aug 15;52(2):258-63. Epub 2003 Jul 15.

Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology, Box 552, Uppsala University, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden.

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August 2003

Suboptimal antibiotic dosage as a risk factor for selection of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: in vitro kinetic model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003 Feb;47(2):518-23

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Bacteriology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

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February 2003

Antibiotic prescription rates vary markedly between 13 European countries.

Scand J Infect Dis 2002 ;34(5):366-71

Unit of Research and Development in Primary Care, Jönköping, Sweden.

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January 2003

New automated method for determining postantifungal effect of amphotericin B against Candida species: effects of concentration, exposure time, and area under the curve.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 Dec;46(12):4016-8

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

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December 2002

[Alarming signals concerning the increasing antibiotic resistance].

Authors:
Otto Cars

Lakartidningen 2002 Aug;99(32-33):3184-6

Antibiotikaresistensgruppen, Smittskyddsinstitutet, Solna.

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August 2002

Pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pyogenes in an in vitro kinetic model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 Jun;46(6):2046-8

Antibiotic Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

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June 2002

Standardization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) terminology for anti-infective drugs.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002 Apr;19(4):355-8

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Weg door Jonkerbos 100, 6532 sz Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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April 2002