Publications by authors named "Ottavio de Cobelli"

207 Publications

Assessment of PSIM (Prostatic Systemic Inflammatory Markers) Score in Predicting Pathologic Features at Robotic Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Who Met the Inclusion Criteria for Active Surveillance.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Background: circulating levels of lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils have been identified as factors related to unfavorable clinical outcome for many solid tumors. The aim of this cohort study is to evaluate and validate the use of the Prostatic Systemic Inflammatory Markers (PSIM) score in predicting and improving the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men undergoing robotic radical prostatectomy for low-risk prostate cancer who met the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

Methods: we reviewed the medical records of 260 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for active surveillance. We performed a head-to-head comparison between the histological findings of specimens after radical prostatectomy (RP) and prostate biopsies. The PSIM score was calculated on the basis of positivity according to cutoffs (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) 2.0, platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) 118 and monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio (MLR) 5.0), with 1 point assigned for each value exceeding the specified threshold and then summed, yielding a final score ranging from 0 to 3.

Results: median NLR was 2.07, median PLR was 114.83, median MLR was 3.69.

Conclusion: we found a significantly increase in the rate of pathological International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) ≥ 2 with the increase of PSIM. At the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, prostate volume and PSIM, the latter was found the sole independent prognostic variable influencing probability of adverse pathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020355DOI Listing
February 2021

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Prostate Cancer Patient Management-Current Trends and Future Perspectives.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Division of Urology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO)-IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of computer science that aims to build smart devices performing tasks that currently require human intelligence. Through machine learning (ML), the deep learning (DL) model is teaching computers to learn by example, something that human beings are doing naturally. AI is revolutionizing healthcare. Digital pathology is becoming highly assisted by AI to help researchers in analyzing larger data sets and providing faster and more accurate diagnoses of prostate cancer lesions. When applied to diagnostic imaging, AI has shown excellent accuracy in the detection of prostate lesions as well as in the prediction of patient outcomes in terms of survival and treatment response. The enormous quantity of data coming from the prostate tumor genome requires fast, reliable and accurate computing power provided by machine learning algorithms. Radiotherapy is an essential part of the treatment of prostate cancer and it is often difficult to predict its toxicity for the patients. Artificial intelligence could have a future potential role in predicting how a patient will react to the therapy side effects. These technologies could provide doctors with better insights on how to plan radiotherapy treatment. The extension of the capabilities of surgical robots for more autonomous tasks will allow them to use information from the surgical field, recognize issues and implement the proper actions without the need for human intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020354DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of uni- or multifocal perineural invasion in prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):66-76

Department of Maternal-Infant and Urological Sciences, "Sapienza" Rome University, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background: Aim of this study was to correlate perineural invasion (PNI) with other clinical-pathological parameters in terms of prognostic indicators in prostate cancer (PC) cases at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: Prospective study of 288 consecutive PC cases undergoing RP. PNI determination was performed either in biopsy or in RP specimens classifying as uni- and multifocal PNI. The median follow-up time was 22 (range, 6-36) months.

Results: At biopsy PNI was found in 34 (11.8%) cases and in 202 (70.1%) cases at the time of surgery. Among those identified at RP 133 (46.1%) and 69 (23.9%) cases had uni- and multi-PNI, respectively. Presence of PNI was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with unfavorable pathological parameters such higher stage and grade. The percentage of extracapsular extension in PNI negative RP specimens was 18.6% 60.4% of PNI positive specimens. However, the distribution of pathological staging and International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading did not vary according to whether PNI was uni- or multifocal. The risk of biochemical progression increased 2.3 times in PNI positive cases was significantly associated with the risk of biochemical progression (r=0.136; P=0.04). However, at multivariate analysis PNI was not significantly associated with biochemical progression [hazard ratio (HR): 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-3.12; P=0.089]. Within patients with intermediate risk disease, multifocal PNI was able to predict cases with lower mean time to biochemical and progression free survival (chi-square 5.95; P=0.04).

Conclusions: PNI at biopsy is not a good predictor of the PNI incidence at the time of RP. PNI detection in surgical specimens may help stratify intermediate risk cases for the risk of biochemical progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844528PMC
January 2021

Systematic sampling during MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy can overcome errors of targeting-prospective single center experience after 300 cases in first biopsy setting.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Dec;9(6):2510-2518

Urology Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania.

Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and targeted biopsy have become an integral part of the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), as recommended by the European Association of Urology Guidelines. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of MRI and MRI-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion prostate biopsy as first biopsy setting in a tertiary center.

Methods: A cohort of 300 patients was included in the current analysis. All patients presented with clinical or biochemical suspicion of PCa and harbored at least one suspect lesion on mpMRI. MRI-TRUS fusion prostate biopsy, followed by 12 core systematic prostate biopsy were performed by the same operator using a rigid registration system.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 64 years (IQR: 58-68.5 years) and the mean PSA was 6.35 ng/mL (IQR: 4.84-9.46 ng/mL). Overall cancer and csPCa diagnosis rates were 47% and 40.66%. Overall PCa/csPCa detection rates were 20.4%/11.1%, 52%/45% and 68.5%/66.7% for PI-RADS lesions 3, 4 and 5 (P<0.001/P<0.0001). Larger lesion diameter and lesion volume were associated with PCa diagnosis (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy missed PCa diagnosis in 37 cases (of whom 48.6% ISUP 1) in comparison with 9 patients missed by systematic biopsy (of whom 11.1% ISUP 1). In terms of csPCa, systematic biopsy missed 77.7% of the tumors located in the anterior and transitional areas. The rate of csPCa was highest when targeted biopsy was associated with systematic biopsy: 86.52% 68.79% for targeted biopsy 80.14% for systematic biopsy, P=0.0004. In 60.6% of cases, systematic biopsy was positive for PCa at the same site as the targeted lesion. Of these patients, eight harbored csPCa and were diagnosed exclusively on systematic biopsy.

Conclusions: MRI-TRUS fusion prostate biopsy improves the diagnosis of csPCa. The main advantage of an MRI-guided approach is the diagnosis of anterior and transitional area tumors. The best results in terms of csPCa diagnosis are obtained by the combination of MRI-TRUS fusion with systematic biopsy. The systematic biopsy performed during MRI-targeted biopsy could have an important role in overcoming errors of MRI-TRUS fusion systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807351PMC
December 2020

Association of statin use and oncological outcomes in patients with first diagnosis of T1 high grade non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer: results from a multicentre study.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, G. d'Annunzio University of Chieti, Urology Unit, SS. Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: We aimed to test the hypothesis that the immune-modulatory effect of statins may improve survival outcomes in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We focused on a cohort of patients diagnosed with high risk NMIBC, that were treated with intravesical BCG immunotherapy.

Patients And Methods: We included patients at first diagnosis of T1 high grade NMIBC after transurethral resection of bladder (TURB). All procedures were performed at 18 different tertiary institutions between January 2002 and December 2012. Univariable and multivariable models were used to test differences in terms of residual tumour, disease recurrence, disease progression and overall mortality (OM) rates.

Results: Overall, 1510 patients with T1 high grade NMIBC at TURB were included in our analyses. Of these, 402 (26.6%) were statin users. At multivariable analysis, statin use was associated with a higher rates of high grade BC at re-TURB (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.04-1.78; p=0.022), while at follow-up it was not independently associated with OM (HR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.50-1.03; p=0.068) and disease progression rates (HR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.79-1.19; p=0.753). Conversely, statin use has been shown to be independently associated with a lower risk of recurrence (HR:0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.95; p=0.009). The median recurrence-free survival was 47 (95%CI 40-49) months for those classified as non-statin users vs. 53 (95%CI 48-68) months in those classified as statin users.

Conclusions: Statin daily intake do not compromise oncological outcomes in high risk NMIBC patients treated with BCG. Moreover, statin may have a beneficial effect on recurrence rates in this cohort of patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.20.04076-XDOI Listing
January 2021

Protocol of the Italian Radical Cystectomy Registry (RIC): a non-randomized, 24-month, multicenter study comparing robotic-assisted, laparoscopic, and open surgery for radical cystectomy in bladder cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jan 11;21(1):51. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Urology, Policlinico Abano Terme, Abano Terme, PD, Italy.

Background: Bladder cancer is the ninth most common type of cancer worldwide. In the past, radical cystectomy via open surgery has been considered the gold-standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer. However, in recent years there has been a progressive increase in the use of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy. The aim of the current project is to investigate the surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of patients with bladder cancer who undergo radical cystectomy comparing three different surgical techniques (robotic-assisted, laparoscopic, and open surgery). Pre-, peri- and post-operative factors will be examined, and participants will be followed for a period of up to 24 months to identify risks of mortality, oncological outcomes, hospital readmission, sexual performance, and continence.

Methods: We describe a protocol for an observational, prospective, multicenter, cohort study to assess patients affected by bladder neoplasms undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. The Italian Radical Cystectomy Registry is an electronic registry to prospectively collect the data of patients undergoing radical cystectomy conducted with any technique (open, laparoscopic, robotic-assisted). Twenty-eight urology departments across Italy will provide data for the study, with the recruitment phase between 1st January 2017-31st October 2020. Information is collected from the patients at the moment of surgical intervention and during follow-up (3, 6, 12, and 24 months after radical cystectomy). Peri-operative variables include surgery time, type of urinary diversion, conversion to open surgery, bleeding, nerve sparing and lymphadenectomy. Follow-up data collection includes histological information (e.g., post-op staging, grading, and tumor histology), short- and long-term outcomes (e.g., mortality, post-op complications, hospital readmission, sexual potency, continence etc).

Discussion: The current protocol aims to contribute additional data to the field concerning the short- and long-term outcomes of three different radical cystectomy surgical techniques for patients with bladder cancer, including open, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted. This is a comparative-effectiveness trial that takes into account a complex range of factors and decision making by both physicians and patients that affect their choice of surgical technique.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04228198 . Registered 14th January 2020- Retrospectively registered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07748-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802145PMC
January 2021

Metabolic syndrome predicts worse perioperative outcomes in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for non-metastatic prostate cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 3;37:101519. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides) may undermine early perioperative outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP). We tested this hypothesis.

Materials & Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified RP patients. The effect of MetS was tested in four separate univariable analyses, as well as in multivariable regression models predicting: 1) overall complications, 2) length of stay, 3) total hospital charges and 4) non-home based discharge. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics.

Results: Of 91,618 patients: 1) 50.2% had high blood pressure, 2) 8.0% had BMI≥30, 3) 13.0% had altered fasting glucose, 4) 22.8% had high triglycerides and 5) 0.03% had low HDL cholesterol. Respectively, one vs. two vs. three vs. four MetS components were recorded in 36.2% vs. 19.0% vs. 5.5% vs. 0.8% patients. Of all patients, 6.3% exhibited ≥3 components and qualified for MetS diagnosis. The rates of MetS increased over time (EAPC:+9.8%; p < 0.001). All four tested MetS components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose and high triglycerides) achieved independent predictor status in all four examined endpoints. Moreover, a highly statistically significant dose-response was also confirmed for all four tested endpoints.

Conclusion: MetS and its components consistently and strongly predict early adverse outcomes after RP. Moreover, the strength of the effect was directly proportional to the number of MetS components exhibited by each individual patient, even if formal MetS diagnosis of ≥3 components has not been met.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.12.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Contemporary rates and predictors of open conversion during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 11;36:131-137. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: To test contemporary rates and predictors of open conversion at minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN: laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy).

Materials And Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified all MIPN patients and patients that underwent open conversion at MIPN. First, estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) tested temporal trends of open conversion. Second, univariable and multivariable logistic regression models predicted open conversion at MIPN. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics.

Results: Of 7649 MIPN patients, 287 (3.8%) underwent open conversion. The rates of open conversion decreased over time (from 12 to 2.4%; EAPC: 24.8%; p = 0.004). In multivariable logistic regression models predicting open conversion, patient obesity achieved independent predictor status (OR:1.80; p < 0.001). Moreover, compared to high volume hospitals, medium volume (OR:1.48; p = 0.02) and low volume hospitals (OR:2.11; p < 0.001) were associated with higher rates of open conversion. Last but not least, when the effect of obesity was tested according to hospital volume, the rates of open conversion ranged from 2.2 (non obese patients treated at high volume hospitals) to 9.8% (obese patients treated at low volume hospitals).

Conclusion: Overall contemporary (2008-2015) rate of open conversion at MIPN was 3.8% and it was strongly associated with patient obesity and hospital surgical volume. In consequence, these two parameters should be taken into account during preoperative patients counselling, as well as in clinical and administrative decision making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.12.004DOI Listing
March 2021

How Can the COVID-19 Pandemic Lead to Positive Changes in Urology Residency?

Front Surg 2020 24;7:563006. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Urology, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

The COVID-19 outbreak, in a few weeks, overloaded Italian hospitals, and the majority of medical procedures were postponed. During the pandemic, with hospital reorganization, clinical and learning activities performed by residents suffered a forced remodulation. The objective of this study is to investigate how urology training in Italy has been affected during the COVID-19 era. In this multi-academic study, we compared residents' training during the highest outbreak level with their previous activity. Overall 387 (67.1%) of the 577 Italian Urology residents participated in a 72-h anonymous online survey with 36 items sent via email. The main outcomes were clinical/surgical activities, social distancing, distance learning, and telemedicine. Clinical and learning activity was significantly reduced for the overall group, and after categorizing residents as those working only in COVID hospitals, both "junior" and "senior" residents, and those working in any of three geographical areas created (Italian regions were clustered in three major zones according to the prevalence of COVID-19). A significant decrease in outpatient activity, invasive diagnostic procedures, and endoscopic and major surgeries was reported. Through multivariate analysis, the specific year of residency has been found to be an independent predictor for all response modification. Being in zone 3 and zone 2 and having "senior" resident status were independent predictors associated with a lower reduction of the clinical and learning activity. Working in a COVID hospital and having "senior" resident status were independent predictors associated with higher reduction of the outpatient activity. Working in zone 3 and having "senior" resident status were independent predictors of lower and higher outpatient surgical activity, respectively. Working in a COVID hospital was an independent predictor associated with robotic surgical activity. The majority of residents reported that distance teaching and multidisciplinary virtual meetings are still not used, and 44.8% reported that their relationships with colleagues decreased. The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge, including changes in the training and education of urology residents. The COVID era can offer an opportunity to balance and implement innovative solutions that can bridge the educational gap and can be part of future urology training.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.563006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732553PMC
November 2020

Integration of Lipidomics and Transcriptomics Reveals Reprogramming of the Lipid Metabolism and Composition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Metabolites 2020 Dec 13;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation-Urology, Andrology and Kidney Transplantation Unit, University of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is fundamentally a metabolic disease. Given the importance of lipids in many cellular processes, in this study we delineated a lipidomic profile of human ccRCC and integrated it with transcriptomic data to connect the variations in cancer lipid metabolism with gene expression changes. Untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed on 20 ccRCC and 20 paired normal tissues, using LC-MS and GC-MS. Different lipid classes were altered in cancer compared to normal tissue. Among the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), significant accumulations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found. Integrated lipidomic and transcriptomic analysis showed that fatty acid desaturation and elongation pathways were enriched in neoplastic tissue. Consistent with these findings, we observed increased expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase(SCD1) and FA elongase 2 and 5 in ccRCC. Primary renal cancer cells treated with a small molecule SCD1 inhibitor (A939572) proliferated at a slower rate than untreated cancer cells. In addition, after cisplatin treatment, the death rate of tumor cells treated with A939572 was significantly greater than that of untreated cancer cells. In conclusion, our findings delineate a ccRCC lipidomic signature and showed that SCD1 inhibition significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation and increased cisplatin sensitivity, suggesting that this pathway can be involved in ccRCC chemotherapy resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10120509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763669PMC
December 2020

First-line systemic therapy for metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer: An updated systematic review with novel findings.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jan 13;157:103198. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Regional Reference Center for Rare Tumors, Department of Oncology and Hematology, AOU Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy; Centro di Referenza Nazionale per l'Analisi e Studio di Correlazione tra Ambiente, Animale e Uomo, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055, Portici (Na), Italy. Electronic address:

Although both docetaxel and androgen-receptor-axis-targeted (ARAT) agents have yielded survival improvements in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared to ADT alone in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) patients, the optimal therapeutic choice remains to be established. We analyzed estimates of the hazard ratios for death (OS-HRs) in patients treated in the first-line setting enrolled in the GETUG-AFU15, CHAARTED, STAMPEDE, LATITUDE, ENZAMET, and TITAN trials. Overall, men with mCSPC receiving ADT with vs. without either an ARAT agent or docetaxel as first-line systemic therapy showed a pooled OS-HR of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.61-0.78), with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.045, I = 52.5 %). Network meta-analysis showed an OS-HR in patients receiving an ARAT agent vs. docetaxel of 0.78 (95 %CI: 0.67-0.91). In conclusion, the evidence analysed indicates that an ARAT agent may provide improved OS outcomes compared to docetaxel. Prospective randomized trials are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.103198DOI Listing
January 2021

Salvage high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for perineal recurrence of prostate cancer after surgery and radiotherapy: a case report.

J Contemp Brachytherapy 2020 Oct 30;12(5):492-496. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Radiotherapy, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Perineal seeding of tumor cells from prostate cancer (PCa) is very rare, and no standard treatment exists for this atypical presentation with no evidence of distant metastases. Local excision or external beam radiotherapy are used as local salvage treatments for such perineal masses, including those occurring after biopsy, surgery, or interstitial brachytherapy. We report on a patient who presented no evidence of disease and no late urinary or gastrointestinal toxicities at 58 months after receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) for perineal recurrence of PCa after radical prostatectomy and salvage external beam radiotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case treated with HDR-BT in this scenario.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/jcb.2020.100383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701923PMC
October 2020

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) reporting with the METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer (MET-RADS-P): inter-observer agreement between readers of different expertise levels.

Cancer Imaging 2020 Oct 27;20(1):77. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122, Milan, Italy.

Background: The METastasis Reporting and Data System for Prostate Cancer (MET-RADS-P) guidelines are designed to enable reproducible assessment in detecting and quantifying metastatic disease response using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in patients with advanced prostate cancer (APC). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the inter-observer agreement of WB-MRI examination reports produced by readers of different expertise when using the MET-RADS-P guidelines.

Methods: Fifty consecutive paired WB-MRI examinations, performed from December 2016 to February 2018 on 31 patients, were retrospectively examined to compare reports by a Senior Radiologist (9 years of experience in WB-MRI) and Resident Radiologist (after a 6-months training) using MET-RADS-P guidelines, for detection and for primary/dominant and secondary response assessment categories (RAC) scores assigned to metastatic disease in 14 body regions. Inter-observer agreement regarding RAC score was evaluated for each region by using weighted-Cohen's Kappa statistics (K).

Results: The number of metastatic regions reported by the Senior Radiologist (249) and Resident Radiologist (251) was comparable. For the primary/dominant RAC pattern, the agreement between readers was excellent for the metastatic findings in cervical, dorsal, and lumbosacral spine, pelvis, limbs, lungs and other sites (K:0.81-1.0), substantial for thorax, retroperitoneal nodes, other nodes and liver (K:0.61-0.80), moderate for pelvic nodes (K:0.56), fair for primary soft tissue and not assessable for skull due to the absence of findings. For the secondary RAC pattern, agreement between readers was excellent for the metastatic findings in cervical spine (K:0.93) and retroperitoneal nodes (K:0.89), substantial for those in dorsal spine, pelvis, thorax, limbs and pelvic nodes (K:0.61-0.80), and moderate for lumbosacral spine (K:0.44).

Conclusions: We found inter-observer agreement between two readers of different expertise levels to be excellent in bone, but mixed in other body regions. Considering the importance of bone metastases in patients with APC, our results favor the use of MET-RADS-P in response to the growing clinical need for monitoring of metastasis in these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40644-020-00350-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590732PMC
October 2020

Increased Mortality Among Men Diagnosed With Impaired Fertility: Analysis of US Claims Data.

Urology 2021 Jan 2;147:143-149. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine whether male infertility or impaired spermatogenesis is associated with mortality.

Methods: The Optum de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart database was queried from 2003 to 2017. Infertile men were compared to subjects undergoing semen analysis (ie, infertility testing). Infertile men with oligozoospermia or azoospermia were included. Mortality was determined by data linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Results were adjusted for age, smoking, obesity, year of evaluation, and health care visits as well as for most prevalent comorbidities. We separately examined men with prevalent or incident cardiovascular disease and cancer diagnoses to determine associations with mortality.

Results: A total of 134,796 infertile men and 242,282 controls were followed for a mean of 3.6 and 3.1 years respectively. Overall, infertile men had a higher risk of death (Hazard Ratio [HR]= 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27-1.60) The diagnosis of azoospermia was associated with a significantly increased risk of death (HR= 2.01, 95% CI: 1.60-2.53) with a higher trend among men with oligospermia (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.92-1.49) compared to controls. Subanalysis was done excluding prevalent cardiovascular and malignant disease (alone and combined) showing similar hazard ratios.

Conclusion: Male infertility is associated with a higher risk of mortality especially among azoospermic men. Prevalent disease (which is known to be higher among infertile men) did not explain the higher risk of death among infertile men. The implications for treatment and surveillance of infertile men require further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.07.087DOI Listing
January 2021

MRI-targeted or systematic random biopsies for prostate cancer diagnosis in biopsy naïve patients: follow-up of a PRECISION trial-like retrospective cohort.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Urology, IEO European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Via Ripamonti 435, Milan, Italy.

Background: To test clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) rates during follow-up in biopsy naïve patients that underwent two different diagnostic pathways: (1) SB GROUP (n = 354): systematic random biopsies (SB) vs. (2) TB GROUP (n = 264): multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and only targeted biopsies (TB) of PI-RADS ≥ 3 lesions. Patients with PI-RADS ≤ 2 score avoided prostate biopsies.

Methods: Retrospective single centre study of 618 biopsy naive patients (2015-2018). Two different definitions of csPCa were used: (1) csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 2 (ISUP grade group [GG] ≥ 2) and (2) csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 3. Kaplan-Meier plots and univariable Cox regression models tested rates over time of csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 2 and caPCa ISUP GG ≥ 3 in SB GROUP vs. TB GROUP.

Results: At initial biopsy, TB achieved higher rates of csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 2 (35.3 vs. 18.9%; p < 0.001) and csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 3 (12.6 vs. 6.2%; p = 0.04), relative to SB. After a median time follow-up of 36 months, the rates of csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 2 (6.1 vs. 4.4%; p = 0.6) and csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 3 (3.3 vs. 1.1%; p = 0.2) were similar in SB GROUP vs. TB GROUP. Moreover, in TB GROUP patients that avoided prostate biopsies because of negative baseline mpMRI (n = 145), only 4.1% exhibited csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 2 during follow-up. Moreover, none of these patients (PI-RADS ≤ 2) had csPCa ISUP GG ≥ 3.

Conclusions: In biopsy naïve setting, a diagnostic pathway including pre-biopsy mpMRI and TB of only PCa suspicious lesions is not associated with higher rates of csPCa during follow-up, relative to a diagnostic pathway of SB. Moreover, patients with negative baseline mpMRI could safely avoid prostate biopsies and could be followed with repeated PSA testing, since only a small proportion of them would harbor csPCa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-020-00290-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy for Nonmetastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder: A Comparison Between Intracorporeal Versus Extracorporeal Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder.

J Endourol 2021 Feb 30;35(2):151-158. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

To compare surgical, oncologic, functional outcomes and complication rate between intracorporeal neobladder (ICNB) and extracorporeal neobladder (ECNB) orthotopic ileal neobladder of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) in patients with nonmetastatic bladder carcinoma (BC). From 2014 to 2019, we prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed 101 patients with nonmetastatic BC treated with RARC and ortothopic neobladder. Chi-squared test estimated differences in proportions of functional and oncologic outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression models (MLRMs) focused on overall, early (<30 days from discharge), and late complication rate (>30 days from discharge) in ICNB ECNB. Of all patients, 57 (56.4%) ICNB and 44 (43.6%) ECNB patients were identified. At least one complication occurred in 75.4% 72.7% in ICNB ECNB, respectively ( = 0.9). In MLRMs, focusing on complication rate, there was no statistically significant difference between ICNB ECNB for overall ( = 0.8), early ( = 0.6), and late complications ( = 0.8). No statistically significant differences were recorded for tumor relapse rate, cancer-specific and other cause mortality. No positive surgical margins were recorded in both groups. Daytime and nighttime continence recovery were 89.4% 87.1% ( = 1.0) and 63.8% 51.6% ( = 1.0) for ICNB ECNB. Potency recovery was 59.1% 54.3% ( = 0.5) for ICNB ECNB. No statistically significant differences in complication rate (overall, early, or late) were identified, when ICNB and ECNB were compared. Similarly, no statistically significant difference was found in oncologic and functional outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0622DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Age on Cancer-specific Mortality in Patients With Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Population-based Competing-risks Analysis Across Disease Stages.

Am J Clin Oncol 2020 12;43(12):880-888

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: The objective of the study is to test the effect of age on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB), across all disease stages.

Materials And Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry (2004-2016), we identified 207,714 patients. Age was categorized as: below 60 versus 60 to 69 versus 70 to 79 versus 80 years and above. Multivariable competing-risks regression (CRR) models were used according to disease stage (low-risk nonmuscle invasive: TaN0M0 low grade, high-risk nonmuscle invasive: Ta high grade or Tis-1N0M0, muscle invasive: T2-3N0M0, regional: T4N0M0/TanyN1-3M0, and metastatic: TanyNanyM1).

Results: Overall, 33,970 (16.4%) versus 52,173 (25.1%) versus 64,537 (31.1%) versus 57,034 (27.4%) patients were below 60 versus 60 to 69 versus 70 to 79 versus 80 years and above, respectively. In multivariable CRR models that focused on low-risk nonmuscle invasive UCUB, advanced age was associated with higher CSM rates (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.04 in patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001). Moreover, advanced age was also associated with higher CSM rates in high-risk nonmuscle invasive UCUB (HR: 2.77 in patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001) and in muscle invasive UCUB patients (HR: 1.38 in patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001). Conversely, lower CSM rates with advanced age were observed in multivariable CRR that focused on regional (HR: 0.91 for patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P=0.02) or metastatic UCUB (HR: 0.75 for patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001).

Conclusions: The direction and the magnitude of the association between advanced age and CSM in UCUB patients changes according to tumor stage. In low-risk nonmuscle invasive, high-risk nonmuscle invasive, and muscle invasive UCUB, more advanced age is associated with higher CSM rates. Conversely, in regional and metastatic UCUB patients, more advanced age is associated with lower CSM rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000766DOI Listing
December 2020

Adjuvant radiotherapy in node positive prostate cancer patients: a debate still on. when, for whom?

BJU Int 2020 Sep 24. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Division of Radiation Oncology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence-free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results: At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow-up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate-specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions: Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15228DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of Mexican-American vs Caucasian prostate cancer active surveillance candidates.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jan 17;39(1):74.e1-74.e7. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: We compared upgrading and upstaging rates in low risk and favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer (CaP) patients according to racial and/or ethnic group: Mexican-Americans and Caucasians.

Methods: Within Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2010-2015), we identified low risk and favorable intermediate risk CaP patients according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Descriptives and logistic regression models were used. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was performed to test the association between Mexican-American vs. Caucasian racial and/or ethnic groups and upgrading either to Gleason-Grade Group (GGG II) or to GGG III, IV or V, in low risk or favorable intermediate risk CaP patients, respectively.

Results: We identified 673 (2.6%) Mexican-American and 24,959 (97.4%) Caucasian CaP patients. Of those, 14,789 were low risk (434 [2.9%] Mexican-Americans vs. 14,355 [97.1%] Caucasians) and 10,834 were favorable intermediate risk (239 [2.2%] Mexican-Americans vs. 10,604 [97.8%] Caucasians). In low risk CaP patients, Mexican-American vs. Caucasian racial and/or ethnic group did not result in either upgrading or upstaging differences. However, in favorable intermediate risk CaP patients, upgrading rate was higher in Mexican-Americans than in Caucasians (31.4 vs. 25.5%, OR 1.33, P = 0.044), but no difference was recorded for upstaging. When comparisons focused on upgrading to GGG III, IV or V, higher rate was recorded in Mexican-American relative to Caucasian favorable intermediate risk CaP patients (20.4 vs. 15.4%, OR 1.41, P = 0.034).

Conclusion: Low risk Mexican-American CaP patients do not differ from low risk Caucasian CaP patients. However, favorable intermediate risk Mexican-American CaP patients exhibit higher rates of upgrading than their Caucasian counterparts. This information should be considered at treatment decision making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.08.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Adding systematic biopsy to magnetic resonance ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy of the prostate in men with previous negative biopsy or enrolled in active surveillance programs: A prospective single center, randomized study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Sep;99(37):e22059

Department of Maternal-Child and Urological Sciences, "Sapienza" Rome University, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy (TBx) of the prostate demonstrated to improve detection rate (DR) of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in biopsy-naive patients achieving strong level of evidence. Nevertheless, the csPCa yield for TBx alone versus TBx plus systematic biopsy (SBx) after accounting for overlapping of SBx cores with TBx cores, in prior-negative or active surveillance (AS) patients has not been well established.The objective of the study was to investigate benefits in terms of detection rate and pathological stratification of prostate cancer (PCa) using contextual SBx during MRI-TBx.Patients previously submitted to negative-SBx (cohort A) and those enrolled in an AS program (cohort B) who showed at least 1 suspicious area with a PIRADSv2 score ≥ 3 were prospectively and randomly assigned to only TBx strategy versus TBx plus SBx strategy. SBx locations could not encompass the TBx sites, so that the results of each type of biopsy were independent and did not overlap.A total of 312 patients were included in the 2 cohorts (cohort A: 213 cases; cohort B: 99 cases). No significant differences were found in terms of overall PCa-DR (77.6% vs 69.6% respectively; P = .36) and csPCa-DR (48.2% vs 60.9 respectively; P = .12). The MRI-TBx alone cohort showed higher csPCa/PCa ratio (87.5% vs 62.2%; P = .03). The MRI-TBx plus SBx group subanalysis showed significantly higher csPCa-DR obtained at the MRI-TBx cores when compared with the SBx cores (43.7% vs 24.1%, respectively; P = .01). Independently to age, prostatic-specific antigen and prostate imaging-reporting and data system score, either in rebiopsy (OR 0.43, 0.21-0.97) or AS (OR 0.46, 0.32-0.89) setting, SBx cores were negatively associated with the csPCa-DR when combined to TBx cores.MRI-TBx should be considered the elective method to perform prostate biopsy in patients with previous negative SBx and those considered for an AS program. Adding SBx samples to MRI-TBx did not improve detection rate of csPCa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489582PMC
September 2020

MRI-based radiomics signature for localized prostate cancer: a new clinical tool for cancer aggressiveness prediction? Sub-study of prospective phase II trial on ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy (AIRC IG-13218).

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 27;31(2):716-728. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Division of Radiotherapy, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Radiomic involves testing the associations of a large number of quantitative imaging features with clinical characteristics. Our aim was to extract a radiomic signature from axial T2-weighted (T2-W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole prostate able to predict oncological and radiological scores in prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: This study included 65 patients with localized PCa treated with radiotherapy (RT) between 2014 and 2018. For each patient, the T2-W MRI images were normalized with the histogram intensity scale standardization method. Features were extracted with the IBEX software. The association of each radiomic feature with risk class, T-stage, Gleason score (GS), extracapsular extension (ECE) score, and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) score was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: Forty-nine out of 65 patients were eligible. Among the 1702 features extracted, 3 to 6 features with the highest predictive power were selected for each outcome. This analysis showed that texture features were the most predictive for GS, PI-RADS v2 score, and risk class; intensity features were highly associated with T-stage, ECE score, and risk class, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) ranging from 0.74 to 0.94.

Conclusions: MRI-based radiomics is a promising tool for prediction of PCa characteristics. Although a significant association was found between the selected features and all the mentioned clinical/radiological scores, further validations on larger cohorts are needed before these findings can be applied in the clinical practice.

Key Points: • A radiomic model was used to classify PCa aggressiveness. • Radiomic analysis was performed on T2-W magnetic resonance images of the whole prostate gland. • The most predictive features belong to the texture (57%) and intensity (43%) domains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07105-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical evaluation and disease management of PI-RADS 3 lesions. Analysis from a single tertiary high-volume center.

Scand J Urol 2020 Aug 10:1-5. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Division of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and pathological implications of Prostate Cancer (PCa) patients with a Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3 lesion at multi parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI).

Methods: We included 356 patients with a PI-RADS score 3 lesion at mpMRI who underwent prostate biopsy for a suspect of PCa at a single tertiary high-volume centre between 2013 and 2016. We developed Uni- (UVA) and multi variable (MVA) logistic regression analyses assessing the predictors of three endpoints: 1) diagnosis of PCa, 2) active surveillance (AS) criteria and 3) clinically significant (CS) PCa at final pathology.

Results: PCa was diagnosed in 285 patients (80%), out of these 154 (56%) were eligible for AS according to Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria. Over the 228 (64%) patients who underwent surgery, 93 (40.8%) had a CS disease at final pathology. Hundred and ninety-three (84.6%) had a pT2 disease and 35 (15.4%) had a pT3 disease. The size of the main lesion, age, PSA and prostate volume efficiently predicted PCa at MVA (all  < 0.05). None of our predictors were significantly associated with AS characteristics. Over those patients who underwent surgery, the biopsy Gleason Score ( = 0.007) efficiently predicted a CS PCa at final pathology.

Conclusions: mpMRI-detected PI-RADS 3 lesions should be sent to a prostate biopsy if other clinical parameters suggest the presence of a PCa. In case of diagnosis of a PCa, patients should undergo confirmatory biopsy before being included in AS protocols to avoid underestimation of a CS disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2020.1798503DOI Listing
August 2020

Mixed-beam approach for high-risk prostate cancer: Carbon-ion boost followed by photon intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dosimetric and geometric evaluations (AIRC IG-14300).

Phys Med 2020 Aug 2;76:327-336. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Scientific Directorate, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Background And Purpose: The aim was to evaluate dosimetric uncertainties of a mixed beam approach for patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The treatment consists of a carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) boost followed by whole-pelvis intensity-modulated RT (IMRT).

Materials And Methods: Patients were treated with a CIRT boost of 16.6 Gy/4 fractions followed by whole-pelvis IMRT of 50 Gy/25 fractions, with consequent long term androgen deprivation therapy. Deformable computed tomography image registration (DIR) was performed and corresponding doses were used for plan sum. A comparative IMRT photon plan was obtained as whole-pelvis IMRT of 50 Gy/25 fractions followed by a boost of 28 Gy/14 fractions. DIR performances were evaluated through structure-related and image characteristics parameters.

Results: Until now, five patients out of ten total enrolled ended the treatment. Dosimetric parameters were lower in CIRT + IMRT than IMRT-only plans for all organs at risk (OARs) except femoral heads. Regarding DIR evaluation, femoral heads were the less deformed OAR. Penile bulb, bladder and anal canal showed intermediate deformation. Rectum was the most deformed. DIR algorithms were patient (P)-dependent, as performances were the highest for P3 and P4, intermediate for P2 and P5, and the lowest for P1.

Conclusions: CIRT allows better OARs sparing while increasing the efficacy due to the higher radio-biological effect of carbon ions. However, a mixed beam approach could introduce DIR problems in multi-centric treatments with different operative protocols. The development of this prospective trial will lead to more mature data concerning the clinical impact of implementing DIR procedures in dose accumulation applications for high-risk PCa treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.07.012DOI Listing
August 2020

Phase II prospective trial "Give Me Five" short-term high precision radiotherapy for early prostate cancer with simultaneous boost to the dominant intraprostatic lesion: the impact of toxicity on quality of life (AIRC IG-13218).

Med Oncol 2020 Jul 28;37(8):74. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Division of Radiotherapy, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy.

As part of the AIRC IG-13218 (NCT01913717), we analyzed data from patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with extreme hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) and simultaneous boost to the intraprostatic lesion. The aim of the study is to identify clinically meaningful information through the analysis of validated questionnaires testing gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) RT-related toxicity and their impact on quality of life (QoL). At the end of RT treatment, clinical assessment and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements were performed every 3 months for at least 2 years and GI and GU toxicities were evaluated contextually. QoL of enrolled patients was assessed by International Prostate Symptoms score (IPSS), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC QLQ prostate specific (QLQ-PR25), and sexual activity by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Patients' score changes were calculated at the end of RT, at one month after RT and at 12 and 24 months. Sixty-five prospectively enrolled patients were analyzed. Extensive analysis of different QoL assessments showed that patients' tolerance was satisfactory across all the considered time points, with no statistically significant change of QoL from baseline compared to that before RT. Overall survival and biochemical progression-free survival at 2-years were of 98% and 97%, respectively. Despite the toxicity of extreme hypofractionation was low and tumor control was encouraging, a longer follow-up is necessary to confirm our findings. The increasing dose to the dominant intraprostatic lesion does not worsen the RT toxicity and consequently does not affect patients' QoL, thus questioning the possibility of an even more escalated treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-020-01397-3DOI Listing
July 2020

Circulating preoperative testosterone level predicts unfavourable disease at radical prostatectomy in men with International Society of Urological Pathology Grade Group 1 prostate cancer diagnosed with systematic biopsies.

World J Urol 2020 Jul 18. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", 8031, Naples, Italy.

Purpose: The association between circulating total testosterone (T) levels and clinically significant PCa is still a matter of debate. In this study, we evaluated whether serum testosterone levels may have a role in predicting unfavorable disease (UD) and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with clinically localized (≤ cT2c) ISUP grade group 1 PCa at biopsy.

Methods: 408 patients with ISUP grade group 1 prostate cancer, undergone to radical prostatectomy and T measurement were included. The outcome of interest was the presence of unfavourable disease (UD) defined as ISUP grade group [Formula: see text] 3 and/or pT [Formula: see text] 3a.

Results: Statistically significant differences resulted between serum testosterone values and ISUP grade groups (P < 0.0001). Significant correlation was found analyzing testosterone values versus age (P < 0.0001), and versus PSA (P = 0.008). BCR-free survival was significantly decreased in patients with low levels of testosterone (P = 0.005). These findings were confirmed also in the ISUP 1-2 subgroups (P = 0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that T outperformed PSA in predicting UD (AUC 0.718 vs AUC 0.525; P < 0.001) and was and independent risk factor for BCR.

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that circulating total T was a significant predictor of UD at RP in patients with preoperative low- to intermediate-risk diseases, confirming the potential role of circulating androgens in preoperative risk assessment of PCa patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03368-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Radical penectomy, a compromise for life: results from the PECAD study.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Jun;9(3):1306-1313

Department of Urology, ASL 2 Abruzzo, Hospital "S. Pio da Pietrelcina", Vasto, Italy.

Background: The use of organ sparing strategies to treat penile cancer (PC) is currently supported by evidence that has indicated the safety, efficacy and benefit of this surgery. However, radical penectomy still represents up to 15-20% of primary tumor treatments in PC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of radical penectomy in PC patients.

Methods: Data from a retrospective multicenter study (PEnile Cancer ADherence study, PECAD Study) on PC patients treated at 13 European and American urological centers (Hospital "Sant'Andrea", Sapienza University, Roma, Italy; "G.D'Annunzio" University, Chieti and ASL 2 Abruzzo, Hospital "S. Pio da Pietrelcina", Vasto, Italy; Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; Hospital of Budapest, Hungary; Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Urology and Andrology Unit II, University of Bari, Italy; Hospital "Spedali Civili", Brescia, Italy; Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; Ceara Cancer Institute, Fortaleza, Brazil; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center, Warsaw, Poland) between 2010 and 2016 were used. Medical records of patients who specifically underwent radical penectomy were reviewed to identify main clinical and pathological variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 1- and 5-year OS and DFS.

Results: Of the entire cohort of 425 patients, 72 patients (16.9%) treated with radical penectomy were extracted and were considered for the analysis. The median age was 64.5 (IQR, 57.5-73.2) years. Of all, 41 (56.9%) patients had pT3/pT4 and 31 (43.1%) pT1/pT2. Moreover, 36 (50.0%) were classified as pN1-3 and 5 (6.9%) M1. Furthermore, 61 (84.7%) had a high grade (G2-G3) with 6 (8.3%) positive surgical margins. The 1- and 5-year OS rates were respectively 73.3% and 59.9%, while the 1- and 5-year DFS rates were respectively 67.3% and 35.1%.

Conclusions: PC is an aggressive cancer particularly in more advanced stage. Overall, more than a third of patients do not survive at 5 years and more than 60% report a disease recurrence, despite the use of a radical treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau.2020.04.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354339PMC
June 2020

Minimally invasive versus open radical cystectomy: long term oncologic outcomes compared.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Jun;9(3):1006-1008

Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-2020-03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354333PMC
June 2020

Pathological findings at radical prostatectomy of biopsy naïve men diagnosed with MRI targeted biopsy alone without concomitant standard systematic sampling.

Urol Oncol 2020 Dec 26;38(12):929.e11-929.e19. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Urology, IEO European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To test international society of urological pathology grade group (ISUP GG) concordance rates between multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) targeted biopsies (TB) vs. standard systematic biopsies (SB) and radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens, in biopsy naïve patients.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective single center study included 80 vs. 500 biopsy naïve patients diagnosed with TB vs. SB and treated with RP between 2015 and 2018. First, we compared ISUP GG concordance rates and the percentages of undetected clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa: ISUP GG  ≥ 3), between TB vs. SB and RP. Second, multivariable logistic regression models tested predictors of concordance rates before and after 1:3 propensity score (PS) matching. Third, among TB patients, univariable logistic regression models tested variables associated with ISUP GG concordance at RP.

Results: Overall, ISUP GG concordance rates were, respectively, 55 vs. 41.4% for TB vs. SB (P = 0.02). However, no differences in concordance rates were observed in patients with biopsy ISUP GG1 (31 vs. 33.9% for TB vs. SB; P = 0.8). Moreover, 15 vs. 18.8% csPCa were missed by TB vs. SB, respectively (P = 0.4). In multivariable logistic regression models, TB were associated with higher concordance rates before (odds ratio [OR]: 1.13; P = 0.04) and after 1:3 PS matching (OR: 1.15; P 0.03), compared to SB. In TB patients, age (OR: 0.98; P = 0.04), maximum cancer core involvement (MCCI; OR: 1.02; P = 0.02) and maximum cancer core length (MCCL; OR: 1.01; P = 0.07) were associated with ISUP GG concordance. Moreover, a trend for lower concordance rates was observed with higher PSA-D (OR: 0.77; P = 0.1). Finally, intermediate lesion location at mpMRI was associated with lowest concordance rates (44%).

Conclusion: In biopsy naïve patients treated with RP, TB achieved higher rates of ISUP GG concordance, but same percentages of csPCa missed, compared to SB. Moreover, only patients with ISUP GG ≥2, but not patients with ISUP GG1, exhibited higher concordance rates. Finally, age, MCCI, MCCL, PSA-D, and lesion location were associated with concordance between TB and RP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.05.027DOI Listing
December 2020

A Guide for Oncologic Patient Management during Covid-19 Pandemic: The Initial Experience of an Italian Oncologic Hub with Exemplificative Focus on Uro-Oncologic Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, 20100 Milan, Italy.

The recent exponential increase in the number of COVID-19 patients in Italy led to the adoption of specific extraordinary measures, such as the need to convey treatment of all non-deferrable cancer patients to specialized centres (hubs). We reported a comprehensive summary of guidelines to create and run an oncologic hub during the COVID-19 pandemic. Oncologic hubs must fulfil some specific requirements such as a high experience in oncologic patient treatment, strict strategies applied to remain a "COVID-19-free" centre, and the creation of a dedicated multidisciplinary "hub team". Cancer treatment of patients who belong to external centres, namely spoke centres, could be organized in different pathways according to the grade of involvement and/or availability of the medical team of the spoke centre. Moreover, dedicated areas should be created for the management and treatment of patients who developed COVID-19 symptoms after hospitalization (i.e., dedicated wards, operation rooms and intensive care beds). Lastly, hospital staff must be highly trained for both preventing COVID-19 contagion and treating patients who develop the infection. We provided a simplified, but complete and easily applicable guide. We believe that this guide could help those clinicians who have to treat oncologic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352384PMC
June 2020

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and High-Risk Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Are There Any Common Features?

Urol Int 2020 9;104(7-8):510-522. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Urology, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is a huge health, social and economic issue and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Bladder cancer, on the contrary, is a well-known disease burdened by a high rate of affected patients and risk of recurrence, progression and death.

Summary: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV) often involves mild clinical symptoms but in some cases, it can lead to pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction. Factors associated with developing a more severe disease are increased age, obesity, smoking and chronic underlying comorbidities (including diabetes mellitus). High-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) progression and worse prognosis are also characterized by a higher incidence in patients with risk factors similar to COVID-19. Immune system response and inflammation have been found as a common hallmark of both diseases. Most severe cases of COVID-19 and high-risk NMIBC patients at higher recurrence and progression risk are characterized by innate and adaptive immune activation followed by inflammation and cytokine/chemokine storm (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8). Alterations in neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets accompany the systemic inflammatory response to cancer and infections. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio for example have been recognized as factors related to poor prognosis for many solid tumors, including bladder cancer, and their role has been found important even for the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Key Messages: All these mechanisms should be further analyzed in order to find new therapeutic agents and new strategies to block infection and cancer progression. Further than commonly used therapies, controlling cytokine production and inflammatory response is a promising field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316644PMC
August 2020