Publications by authors named "Osvaldo Morrone"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A global database of C4 photosynthesis in grasses.

New Phytol 2014 Nov 21;204(3):441-446. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Herbarium, Library, Art and Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.12942DOI Listing
November 2014

Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification.

Cladistics 2012 Aug 3;28(4):333-356. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, San Isidro, B1642HYD, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Included in the PACMAD clade of the family Poaceae (Panicoideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, Aristidoideae, Danthonioideae), the tribe Paniceae s.l. is one of the largest tribes of the subfamily Panicoideae, with more than 2000 species. This tribe comprises a huge morphological, cytological and physiological diversity represented by different inflorescence types, several basic chromosome numbers, and at least four major photosynthetic pathways. The tribe Paniceae has been the subject of molecular studies that have confirmed its paraphyly: two major clades were recognized based on their basic chromosome numbers (x = 9, x = 10). The x = 10 Paniceae clade is sister to the Andropogoneae-Arundinelleae s.s. clade (x = 10), while the combined x = 10 clade is sister to the x = 9 clade that contains the remaining genera of Paniceae. As a result of a recent realignment within the tribe in terms of the phylogenetic position of minor and major Paniceae genera, a reanalysis of the whole sampling is performed and new underrepresented taxa are discussed. A total of 155 genera, currently considered within subfamily Panicoideae, are represented here by almost all genera of Paniceae s.l., representatives of Andropogoneae and Arundinelleae s.s., and the endemic and small tribe Steyermarkochloeae; we also included specimens of subfamily Micrairoideae, tribes Isachneae and Eriachneae. The sampling includes as outgroups 18 genera of the PACMAD clade (excluding Panicoideae) and four genera from the BEP clade (Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, Pooideae), rooting with Bromus inermis. A matrix with 265 taxa based on the combined evidence from ndhF plastid sequences (2074 bp) and 57 morphological characters was subjected to parsimony analyses. Jackknife resampling was used to calculate group support. Most clades are characterized by morphological, cytological, anatomical, and/or physiological characters. Major tribal changes are based on the basic chromosome number; the pantropical x = 9 clade is here recognized as Paniceae s.s., while the American x = 10 Paniceae s.l. is restricted to the reinstated tribe Paspaleae. The optimization of the photosynthetic pathway for the Paspaleae-Andropogoneae-Arundinelleae s.s. clade, including the monotypic Reynaudia, shows a plesiomorphic C state while the ancestral state for Paniceae s.s. is ambiguous. If Reynaudia were not included or placed elsewhere, the ancestral photosynthetic pathway for both the Paspaleae-Andropogoneae-Arundinelleae s.s. clade and the Paniceae s.s. would be unambiguously C . In order to explore character evolution further, the morphological characters were mapped onto one of the most parsimonious trees. A relationship between photosynthetic pathways and inflorescence morphology is suggested here for the first time. Based on the optimization of morphological characters and additional data, we propose names for almost all inner clades at the rank of subtribe with a few groups as incertae sedis. With this extensive sampling, we resolved the phylogenetic relationships and the assignation of synapomorphies, and improved the support in subtribe sorting; consequently a robust circumscription of the tribe Paniceae s.l. is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.xDOI Listing
August 2012

Molecular phylogeny of Gavilea (Chloraeinae: Orchidaceae) using plastid and nuclear markers.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2012 Mar 8;62(3):889-97. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion (CONICET, ANCEFN), Labardén 200, Casilla de Correo 22, B1642HYD San Isidro, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

A phylogenetic analysis is provided for 70% of the representatives of genus Gavilea, as well as for several species of the remaining genera of subtribe Chloraeinae: Bipinnula, Chloraea and Geoblasta. Sequences from the plastid markers rpoC1, matK-trnK and atpB-rbcL and the nuclear marker ITS, were analyzed using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference. Monophyly of subtribe Chloraeinae was confirmed, as well as its position inside tribe Cranichideae. Neither Chloraea nor Bipinnula were recovered as monophyletic. Gavilea turned out polyphyletic, with Chloraeachica embedded in the genus while Gavilea supralabellata was related to Chloraea and might be a hybrid between both genera. None of the two sections of Gavilea were monophyletic, and the topologies obtained do not suggest a new division of the genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.026DOI Listing
March 2012

Understanding spikelet orientation in Paniceae (Poaceae).

Am J Bot 2010 May 9;97(5):717-29. Epub 2010 Apr 9.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200. C.C. 22, B1642HYD San Isidro, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Spikelet structure and grouping are key characters to identify grasses. Here we tested the possibility that spikelet pairs, a distinctive morphological structure of many Andropogoneae and Paniceae, are the starting point for a secondary single spikelet condition that can also explain the change of spikelet orientation among Paniceae genera. As a first approach, we studied the inflorescence development of Paspalum simplex, P. stellatum, and Axonopus sufultus to clarify the origin of the spikelet orientation and other basic homologies. The results support that solitary spikelets of A. suffultus are homologous to the subsessile spikelets of P. simplex and that solitary spikelets of P. stellatum are homologous to the pedicellate spikelet of P. simplex. This last homology supports that spikelet orientation results from a differential reduction/abortion of either the pedicellate or the subsessile spikelet primordia. We also discuss the possibility that the RAMOSA and polar auxin pathways could play a role in the abortion of the lateral subsessile spikelets in P. stellatum. However, the apical meristem inhibition observed in A. suffultus and P. stellatum seems to depend on a very different genetic control, suggesting that the single spikelet condition is homoplasic within Paniceae and derived from at least two different genetic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0900031DOI Listing
May 2010

Phylogeny of New World Stipeae (Poaceae): an evaluation of the monophyly of Aciachne and Amelichloa.

Cladistics 2010 Dec;26(6):563-578

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, San Isidro, B1642HYD Buenos Aires, Argentina.

© The Willi Hennig Society 2010. ABSTRACT: The tribe Stipeae, with nearly 550 species, includes 28 core genera, of which 13 occur in America: Achnatherum, Aciachne, Amelichloa, Anatherostipa, Hesperostipa, Jarava, Nassella, Ortachne, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium and Ptilagrostis. Based on 37 species representing 14 Stipeae genera, and using four chloroplast markers and morphological characters, we provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World Stipeae, with our focus on Amelichloa and Aciachne. Parsimony analyses included two approaches: (i) a multiple-sequence alignment where gaps were treated as missing or coded, (ii) using direct sequences by direct optimization as implemented by the program POY v.4.0.2870. Analyses under direct optimization were conducted using the molecular data sets independently and combined, and with morphological data. Different cost regimes were explored and the one producing the highest congruence between partitions was chosen. Among the genera considered, only Piptochaetium, Austrostipa, and Hesperostipa were resolved as monophyletic, while Achnatherum, Amelichloa s.l., Anatherostipa, Jarava and Nassella were polyphyletic, and Aciachne was polyphyletic or paraphyletic. As a result, Amelichloa can be restricted to a monophyletic group if including A. brachychaeta, A. ambigua, A. clandestina and A. caudata, or it should be considered within Nassella. The phylogenetic position of species of Aciachne suggests inbreeding and outbreeding events with species of Anatherostipa, Ortachne and Hesperostipa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2010.00310.xDOI Listing
December 2010

Phylogenetic studies favour the unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum (Poaceae): a combined nuclear, plastid and morphological analysis, and nomenclatural combinations in Cenchrus.

Ann Bot 2010 Jul;106(1):107-30

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, San Isidro, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Backgrounds And Aims: Twenty-five genera having sterile inflorescence branches were recognized as the bristle clade within the x = 9 Paniceae (Panicoideae). Within the bristle clade, taxonomic circumscription of Cenchrus (20-25 species), Pennisetum (80-140) and the monotypic Odontelytrum is still unclear. Several criteria have been applied to characterize Cenchrus and Pennisetum, but none of these has proved satisfactory as the diagnostic characters, such as fusion of bristles in the inflorescences, show continuous variation.

Methods: A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological, plastid (trnL-F, ndhF) and nuclear (knotted) data is presented for a representative species sampling of the genera. All analyses were conducted under parsimony, using heuristic searches with TBR branch swapping. Branch support was assessed with parsimony jackknifing.

Key Results: Based on plastid and morphological data, Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum were supported as a monophyletic group: the PCO clade. Only one section of Pennisetum (Brevivalvula) was supported as monophyletic. The position of P. lanatum differed among data partitions, although the combined plastid and morphology and nuclear analyses showed this species to be a member of the PCO clade. The basic chromosome number x = 9 was found to be plesiomorphic, and x = 5, 7, 8, 10 and 17 were derived states. The nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed a reticulate pattern of relationships among Pennisetum and Cenchrus, suggesting that there are at least three different genomes. Because apomixis can be transferred among species through hybridization, its history most likely reflects crossing relationships, rather than multiple independent appearances.

Conclusions: Due to the consistency between the present results and different phylogenetic hypotheses (including morphological, developmental and multilocus approaches), and the high support found for the PCO clade, also including the type species of the three genera, we propose unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum. Species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum are here transferred into Cenchrus, which has priority. Sixty-six new combinations are made here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2889798PMC
July 2010

Molecular phylogeny of the subtribe Melinidinae (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) and evolutionary trends in the homogenization of inflorescences.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2010 Jul 10;56(1):355-69. Epub 2010 Feb 10.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The subtribe Melinidinae (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) includes 14 genera that present the PCK photosynthetic subtype in addition to several other unique and also common characters. The purpose of this research was (1) to test the monophyly of the subtribe Melinidinae, including 331 ndhF sequences of Panicoids and related genera, (2) to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among genera of Melinidinae using four cpDNA regions, and (3) to study evolutionary trends in the homogenization of inflorescences. As a result, the monophyly of Melinidinae is supported if Urochloa venosa is excluded from the subtribe. Alloteropsis semialata subsp. semialata, an unusual PCK species, is here confirmed within the Forest shade clade. Within Melinidinae, Urochloa and Eriochloa appeared as paraphyletic and polyphyletic genera, respectively. Finally, the general trend in the evolution of the inflorescences in Melinidinae seems to be the reduction from non-homogenized to complete homogenized inflorescences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.009DOI Listing
July 2010

Quantitative biogeography in the South America highlands-recognizing the Altoandina, Puna and Prepuna through the study of Poaceae.

Cladistics 2009 Jun 24;25(3):295-310. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, Labardén 200, CC 22, San Isidro B1642HYD, Argentina.

The distribution data of 340 grass species sampled in a region of 53.219 km in the northwestern corner of Argentina (between ∼21°S and ∼24°S) were analyzed to search for concordance in species distributions by using the program NDM/VNDM. Here, the traditional biogeographic hypothesis proposed for the region is evaluated for the first time by using a quantitative method and an optimal criterion specifically developed within the context of areas of endemism. Three different grid sizes (0.5° × 0.5°, 0.35° × 0.35 ° and 0.2° × 0.2°) were used to analyze three nested data sets: species found in the Andes of Argentina, Bolivia and/or Chile; Andean distributed species; and all grass species found in the study region. The main areas supported by the analyses correspond generally to the traditional biogeographic hypothesis proposed for the region. Local distribution patterns defined by species restricted to the study region were best supported under the small grid sizes, while the bigger grid sizes recovered areas defined by species with a broader distribution. The local distribution patterns emerged in all the analyses even when widespread species were added to the data set.  © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00248.xDOI Listing
June 2009
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