Publications by authors named "Osten Ljunggren"

136 Publications

The association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Klotho Gene and Mortality in Elderly Men: The MrOS Sweden Study.

Sci Rep 2020 06 24;10(1):10243. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The Klotho (KL) gene is involved in phosphate homeostasis. Polymorphisms in this gene have been reported to be associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we used computational tools to predict the damage-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human KL gene. We further investigated the association of SNPs in the KL gene and mortality in the Swedish multicenter prospective Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort. This study included 2921 men (aged 69-81 years) with mean 4.49 ± 1.03 years follow-up. 18 SNPs in the KL gene were genotyped using Sequenom. These SNPs were identified by in silico tools for the coding and noncoding genome to predict the damaging SNPs. After quality analyses, SNPs were analyzed for mortality risk using two steps approach on logistic regression model screening and then Cox regression model confirmation. Two non-synonymous SNPs rs9536314 and rs9527025 were found to be potentially damaging SNPs that affect KL protein stability and expression. However, these two SNPs were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality (crude Hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-3.07 in rs9536314; crude HR 1.82, 95% CI 0.998-3.33 in rs9527025) or cardiovascular mortality (crude HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.56-4.14 in rs9536314; crude HR 1.54, 95% CI 0.55-4.33 in rs9527025) in additive model using Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, these two potentially damaging SNPs (rs9536314 and rs9527025) in the KL gene were not associated with all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality in MrOs cohort. Larger scales studies and meta-analysis are needed to confirm the correlation between polymorphisms of the KL gene and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66517-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314825PMC
June 2020

Associations of Bone Turnover Markers with Cognitive Function in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

Dis Markers 2020 21;2020:8641749. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Patients undergoing hemodialysis experience a greater risk of cognitive impairment than the general population, but limited data elucidates the biomarkers on this. We evaluated the association of bone turnover markers on cognitive function among 251 prevalent hemodialysis enrollees in a cross-sectional study.

Methods: 251 hemodialysis patients (median age = 57.8, 55% men) and 37 control subjects (mean age = 61.2, 56% men) without a prior stroke or dementia diagnosis were enrolled. Serum concentrations of 8 bone markers were analyzed as the association of cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)) using linear regression analysis.

Results: A lower cognitive function was noted in hemodialysis patients compared to control subjects. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) was the only bone marker found to be associated with cognitive function (MoCA and CASI tests) in hemodialysis patients without a prior stroke or dementia diagnosis. In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, the association remained significant in MoCA ( = 1.14, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.11) and CASI ( = 3.06, 95% CI 0.24 to 5.88). Short-term memory ( = 0.52, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.02), mental manipulation ( = 0.51, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.96), and abstract thinking ( = 0.57, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.09) were the significant subdomains in the CASI score related to RANKL.

Conclusions: Serum RANKL levels were potentially associated with better cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Further large-scale and prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8641749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196142PMC
February 2021

High Plasma Erythropoietin Predicts Incident Fractures in Elderly Men with Normal Renal Function: The MrOS Sweden Cohort.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 02 20;35(2):298-305. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Preclinical studies on the role of erythropoietin (EPO) in bone metabolism are contradictory. Regeneration models indicate an anabolic effect on bone healing, whereas models on physiologic bone remodeling indicate a catabolic effect on bone mass. No human studies on EPO and fracture risk are available. It is known that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) affects bone mineralization and that serum concentration of FGF23 is higher in men with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Recently, a direct association between EPO and FGF23 has been shown. We have explored the potential association between EPO and bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk, and FGF23 in humans. Plasma levels of EPO were analyzed in 999 men (aged 69 to 81 years), participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, MrOS Sweden. The mean ± SD EPO was 11.5 ± 9.0 IU/L. Results were stratified by eGFR 60 mL/min. For men with eGFR ≥60 mL/min (n = 728), EPO was associated with age (r = 0.13, p < 0.001), total hip BMD (r = 0.14, p < 0.001), intact (i)FGF23 (r = 0.11, p = 0.004), and osteocalcin (r = -0.09, p = 0.022). The association between total hip BMD and EPO was independent of age, body mass index (BMI), iFGF23, and hemoglobin (beta = 0.019, p < 0.001). During the 10-year follow-up, 164 men had an X-ray-verified fracture, including 117 major osteoporotic fractures (MOF), 39 hip fractures, and 64 vertebral fractures. High EPO was associated with higher risk for incident fractures (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43 per tertile EPO, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.63), MOF (HR = 1.40 per tertile EPO, 95% CI 1.08-1.82), and vertebral fractures (HR = 1.42 per tertile EPO, 95% CI 1.00-2.01) in a fully adjusted Cox regression model. In men with eGFR<60 mL/min, no association was found between EPO and BMD or fracture risk. We here demonstrate that high levels of EPO are associated with increased fracture risk and increased BMD in elderly men with normal renal function. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3900DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of glucocorticoids on vitamin D-metabolizing 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) in Saos-2 cells and primary human osteoblasts.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2019 10 25;496:110525. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Vitamin D is essential for bone function and deficiency in active vitamin D hormone can lead to bone disorders. Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids results in osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. Much remains unclear regarding the effects of these compounds in bone cells. In the current study, human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells and primary human osteoblasts were found to express mRNA for the vitamin D receptor as well as activating and deactivating enzymes in vitamin D metabolism. These bone cells exhibited CYP24A1-mediated 24-hydroxylation which is essential for deactivation of the active vitamin form. However, bioactivating vitamin D hydroxylase activities could not be detected in either of these cells. Several glucocorticoids, including prednisolone, down regulated CYP24A1 mRNA and CYP24A1-mediated 24-hydroxylase activity in both Saos-2 and primary human osteoblasts. Also, prednisolone significantly suppressed a human CYP24A1 promoter-luciferase reporter gene in Saos-2 cells co-transfected with the glucocorticoid receptor. Thus, the results of the present study show suppression by glucocorticoids on CYP24A1 mRNA, CYP24A1-mediated metabolism and CYP24A1 promoter activity in human osteoblast-like cells. As part of this study we examined if glucocorticoids are formed locally in Saos-2 cells. The experiments indicate formation of 11-deoxycortisol, a steroid with glucocorticoid activity, which can bind the glucocorticoid receptor. Our data showing suppression by glucocorticoids on CYP24A1 expression in human osteoblasts suggest a previously unknown mechanism for effects of glucocorticoids in human bone, where these compounds may interfere with regulation of active vitamin D levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2019.110525DOI Listing
October 2019

Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of osteogenesis imperfecta type V including heterotopic ossification of muscle origins and attachments.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 07 16;7(7):e00723. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders, characterized by bone fragility and a propensity to fracture.

Methods: In this report we describe the clinical phenotype of two patients, a 28-year-old woman and her mother (54 years old), both with a history of short stature and multiple fractures.

Results: Exome sequencing revealed the recurring IFITM5:c.-14 C>T variant causing OI type V. Both patients had several fractures during childhood. CT-scan and scintigraphy showed ossification of the origin and attachment of muscles and hypertrophic callus formation.

Conclusion: Ossification of the origin and attachment of muscles seems to be part of the phenotype in patients with OI type V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625150PMC
July 2019

Differing impact of clinical factors on the risk of fracture in younger and older women in the general population and an osteoporosis clinic population.

Arch Osteoporos 2019 04 8;14(1):45. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Quantify Research, Stockholm, Sweden.

This study assesses the impact of risk factors for fracture in women aged 80+ and 60-79. The results suggest that risk assessment which fits younger women may not be suited for the 80+ strata as many common risk factors are less predictive in the older compared to the younger cohort.

Purpose: This study assesses whether the impact of classical risk factors for fracture due to osteoporosis is different in women aged 80+ and women aged 60-79. Since most prior research on the contribution of risk factors is based on patients below 80 years of age, this study aims to fill this knowledge gap to increase the accuracy of risk assessment in the oldest old.

Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study using Swedish national health register data and BMD data from osteoporosis clinics. Women aged at least 60 were identified from a random sample of the general population and from the BMD databases and allocated to two populations representing patients at different stages of risk assessment. The relative impact of risk factors on fracture risk was assessed using multivariate competing risk regression with fracture as outcome and death as competing event.

Results: A total of 163,329 women were included from the general population (52,499 aged 80+) and 22,378 from the BMD databases (4563 aged 80+). The clinical risk factors with relatively highest effect on fracture risk in the older patients were prior fracture and hip T-score below - 2.5 SD. Other included risk factors showed lower impact in the older compared to the younger strata.

Conclusions: This study confirms our understanding of the key risk factors for fracture: age, prior fracture, and a low T-score. Regarding remaining risk factors, risk assessment which fits younger women may not be suited for the 80+ strata as many common risk factors are less predictive in the older compared to the younger cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-019-0592-3DOI Listing
April 2019

Disentangling the genetics of lean mass.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 02;109(2):276-287

Icelandic Heart Association Holtasmari, Kopavogur, Iceland.

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass.

Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci.

Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms).

Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500901PMC
February 2019

Haplotypes in the CYP2R1 gene are associated with levels of 25(OH)D and bone mineral density, but not with other markers of bone metabolism (MrOS Sweden).

PLoS One 2018 21;13(12):e0209268. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: Polymorphisms in the CYP2R1 gene encoding Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase have been reported to correlate with circulating levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 (25(OH)D). It is unknown whether these variations also affect overall bone metabolism. In order to elucidate the overall associations of polymorphisms in the CYP2R1, we studied haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene and serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), as well as bone mineral density (BMD).

Methods: Baseline data on serum parameters and BMD from MrOS Sweden, a prospective population-based cohort study of elderly men (mean age 75 years, range 69-81), were analyzed. Genotyping was performed for eight SNPs covering the CYP2R1 gene in 2868 men with available samples of DNA. Subjects were followed up concerning incidence of fracture during five years.

Results: There was a significant genetic association with circulating levels of 25(OH)D (4.6-18.5% difference in mean values between SNP alleles), but there were no correlations with levels of calcium, phosphate, PTH or FGF23 for any genetic variant. No differences were found in fracture incidence between the variants. There was an inverse relationship between lower BMD and concomitant higher 25(OH)D for three of the haplotypes (p < 0.005).

Conclusions: Common variants in the CYP2R1 gene encoding Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase correlate with levels of circulating 25(OH)D but do not otherwise associate with measures of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Presence of the specific haplotypes may be an indicator of risk for low 25(OH)D levels, and may in addition be correlated to bone mineral density.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209268PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303094PMC
May 2019

Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 10 14;29(10):2583-2592. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, contributes to the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders in CKD and is an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Central elements of FGF23 regulation remain incompletely understood; genetic variation may help explain interindividual differences.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of circulating FGF23 concentrations among 16,624 participants of European ancestry from seven cohort studies, excluding participants with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m to focus on FGF23 under normal conditions. We evaluated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed FGF23 concentration, adjusted for age, sex, study site, and principal components of ancestry. A second model additionally adjusted for BMI and eGFR.

Results: We discovered 154 SNPs from five independent regions associated with FGF23 concentration. The SNP with the strongest association, rs17216707 (=3.0×10), lies upstream of , which encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the T allele at this locus is associated with 5% higher FGF23 concentration. Another locus strongly associated with variations in FGF23 concentration is rs11741640, within and upstream of (a gene involved in renal phosphate transport). Additional adjustment for BMI and eGFR did not materially alter the magnitude of these associations. Another top locus (within , the ABO blood group transferase gene) was no longer statistically significant at the genome-wide level.

Conclusions: Common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and renal phosphate transport are associated with differences in circulating FGF23 concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018020192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171267PMC
October 2018

Effects of Teriparatide in Patients with Osteoporosis in Clinical Practice: 42-Month Results During and After Discontinuation of Treatment from the European Extended Forsteo® Observational Study (ExFOS).

Calcif Tissue Int 2018 10 16;103(4):359-371. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, UK.

This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes in patients prescribed teriparatide and followed up for 18 months after stopping the drug in real-life conditions. The Extended Forsteo® Observational Study analysed incident clinical fractures in 6-month intervals using logistic regression with repeated measures. Changes in back pain (visual analogue scale) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; EQ-5D questionnaire) were analysed using mixed models for repeated measures. Patients were analysed if they had a post-baseline visit, regardless of whether and for how long they took teriparatide. Of 1531 patients analysed (90.7% female, mean age: 70.3 years), 76 (5.0%) never took teriparatide. Median treatment duration was 23.6 months. The adjusted odds of clinical fracture decreased by 47% in the > 12- to 18-month treatment period (p = 0.013) compared with the first 6-month period, with no statistically significant reduction in the > 18- to 24-month interval. The clinical fracture rate remained stable during the 18 months' post-teriparatide, when approximately 98% of patients took osteoporosis medication (51% bisphosphonates). Clinical vertebral fractures were reduced at every time period compared with the first 6 months. Adjusted mean back pain scores decreased and EQ-5D scores increased significantly at each post-baseline observation. In a real-life clinical setting, the risk of clinical fractures declined during 24 months of teriparatide treatment. This reduction was maintained 18 months after stopping teriparatide. In parallel, patients reported significant improvements in back pain and HRQoL. The results should be interpreted in the context of the non-controlled design of this observational study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-018-0437-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153867PMC
October 2018

Falls Predict Fractures Independently of FRAX Probability: A Meta-Analysis of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 03 8;33(3):510-516. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Although prior falls are a well-established predictor of future fracture, there is currently limited evidence regarding the specific value of falls history in fracture risk assessment relative to that of other clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. We therefore investigated, across the three Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study cohorts, whether past falls predicted future fracture independently of FRAX and whether these associations varied with age and follow-up time. Elderly men were recruited from MrOS Sweden, Hong Kong, and USA. Baseline data included falls history (over the preceding 12 months), clinical risk factors, BMD at femoral neck, and calculated FRAX probabilities. An extension of Poisson regression was used to investigate the associations between falls, FRAX probability, and incident fracture, adjusting for age, time since baseline, and cohort in base models; further models were used to investigate interactions with age and follow-up time. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to synthesize the individual country associations. Information on falls and FRAX probability was available for 4365 men in USA (mean age 73.5 years; mean follow-up 10.8 years), 1823 men in Sweden (mean age 75.4 years; mean follow-up 8.7 years), and 1669 men in Hong Kong (mean age 72.4 years; mean follow-up 9.8 years). Rates of past falls were similar at 20%, 16%, and 15%, respectively. Across all cohorts, past falls predicted incident fracture at any site (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.90), major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) (HR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.33, 1.83), and hip fracture (HR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.27, 2.05). Relationships between past falls and incident fracture remained robust after adjustment for FRAX probability: adjusted HR (95% CI) any fracture: 1.63 (1.45, 1.83); MOF: 1.51 (1.32, 1.73); and hip: 1.54 (1.21, 1.95). In conclusion, past falls predicted incident fracture independently of FRAX probability, confirming the potential value of falls history in fracture risk assessment. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5842893PMC
March 2018

High doses of cholecalciferol alleviate the progression of hyperparathyroidism in patients with CKD Stages 3-4: results of a 12-week double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 03;33(3):466-471

Uppsala University, Medical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Calcidiol insufficiency may accelerate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We tested the effect of a substantial increase in calcidiol on mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: Ninety-five patients with CKD Stages 3-4, parathyroid hormone (PTH) above 6.8 pmol/L and calcidiol below 75 nmol/L were randomized to receive either cholecalciferol 8000 IU/day or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was difference in the mean change in iPTH after 12 weeks. The proportion of participants having a 30% reduction in PTH and the effect on hand grip strength, fatigue and different biochemical variables were also investigated.

Results: Baseline calcidiol was 57.5 ± 22 and 56.8 ± 22 nmol/L in the cholecalciferol and placebo groups, respectively. The corresponding concentrations of PTH were 10.9 ± 5 and 13.1 ± 9 pmol/L. Calcidiol increased to 162 ± 49 nmol/L in patients receiving cholecalciferol, and PTH levels remained constant at 10.5 ± 5 pmol/L. In the placebo group, calcidiol remained stable and PTH increased to 15.2 ± 11 pmol/L. The mean change in PTH differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.01). The proportion of subjects reaching a 30% decrease in PTH did not differ. No effect on grip strength, fatigue, phosphate or fibroblast growth factor 23 was observed. Cholecalciferol treatment resulted in stable calcium concentrations and a substantial increase in calcitriol.

Conclusion: Treatment with high daily doses of cholecalciferol in patients with CKD Stages 3-4 halts the progression of SHPT and does not cause hypercalcaemia or other side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfx059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6018863PMC
March 2018

Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass.

Nat Commun 2017 07 19;8(1):80. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Division of Statistical Genomics, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 × 10). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00031-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517526PMC
July 2017

Low Serum DHEAS Predicts Increased Fracture Risk in Older Men: The MrOS Sweden Study.

J Bone Miner Res 2017 Aug 30;32(8):1607-1614. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The adrenal-derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. DHEAS is considered an inactive precursor, which is converted into androgens and estrogens via local metabolism in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEAS for fracture risk is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEAS levels and incident fractures in a large cohort of older men. Serum DHEAS levels were analyzed with mass spectrometry in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study in Sweden (n = 2568, aged 69 to 81 years). Incident X-ray validated fractures (all, n = 594; non-vertebral major osteoporotic, n = 255; hip, n = 175; clinical vertebral, n = 206) were ascertained during a median follow-up of 10.6 years. DHEAS levels were inversely associated with the risk of any fracture (hazard ratio [HR] per SD decrease = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.24), non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.16-1.48), and hip fractures (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37) but not clinical vertebral fractures (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.95-1.26) in Cox regression models adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) and prevalent fractures. Further adjustment for traditional risk factors for fracture, bone mineral density (BMD), and/or physical performance variables as well as serum sex steroid levels only slightly attenuated the associations between serum DHEAS and fracture risk. Similarly, the point estimates were only marginally reduced after adjustment for FRAX estimates with BMD. The inverse association between serum DHEAS and all fractures or major osteoporotic fractures was nonlinear, with a substantial increase in fracture risk (all fractures 22%, major osteoporotic fractures 33%) for those participants with serum DHEAS levels below the median (0.60 μg/mL). In conclusion, low serum DHEAS levels are a risk marker of mainly non-vertebral fractures in older men, of whom those with DHEAS levels below 0.60 μg/mL are at highest risk. © The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3123DOI Listing
August 2017

Low serum iron is associated with high serum intact FGF23 in elderly men: The Swedish MrOS study.

Bone 2017 May 14;98:1-8. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Departments of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Dept of Geriatric Medicine, Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes. Increased serum levels of FGF23 have been associated with increased risks of osteoporotic fractures and cardiovascular disease, particularly in participants with poor renal function. Serum iron (Fe) has been suggested as a regulator of FGF23 homeostasis.

Objective: To determine whether Fe and iron status are determinants of the levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in elderly men.

Methods: The MrOS study is a population-based study of elderly men (N=1010; mean age, 75.3years; range, 69-81years). The levels of Fe, transferrin saturation (TS), and ferritin were evaluated in relation to the serum concentrations of iFGF23 before and after adjustments for confounders.

Results: TS <15% was found in 3.5% (34/977) of the participants, who had a higher median level iFGF23 compared with the remaining subjects (47.4μmol/L vs. 41.9μmol/L, p=0.008). The levels of iFGF23 correlated negatively (un-adjusted) with the levels of Fe (r=-0.17, p<0.001), TS (r=-0.16, p<0.001) and serum ferritin (r=-0.07, p=0.022). In addition, in participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFRCystatin C>60mL/min, the levels of iFGF23 correlated (age-adjusted) negatively with the levels of Fe (r=-0.15, p<0.001) and TS (r=-0.17, p<0.001). The level of iFGF23 correlated positively (un-adjusted) with lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) (r=0.14, p<0.001), total body BMD (r=0.11, p=0.001), and total hip BMD (r=0.09, p=0.004). The corresponding correlations, when adjusted for age, weight, and height were: r=0.08, p=0.018; r=0.05, p=0.120; and r=0.02, p=0.624, respectively. No associations were found between BMD and the levels of Fe or TS. Multiple step-wise linear regression analyses [adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity index, cystatin C, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum vitamin D 25-OH (25OHD), phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), erythropoietin, hemoglobin, lumbar spine BMD, apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio] were performed in three separate models with Fe, TS or ferritin as potential explanatory variables. Fe and TS, but not ferritin, were independent predictors of iFGF23 level (standardized β-values: -0.10, p<0.001; -0.10, p<0.001; and -0.05, p=0.062, respectively).

Conclusion: Low levels of Fe in elderly men are associated with high levels of iFGF23, independently of markers of inflammation and renal function, suggesting an iron-related pathway for FGF23 regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2017.02.005DOI Listing
May 2017

Risk factors for low back pain and sciatica in elderly men-the MrOS Sweden study.

Age Ageing 2017 01;46(1):64-71

Clinical and Molecular Osteoporosis Research Unit, Departments of Orthopedics and Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital , Malmö, Sweden.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify whether factors beyond anatomical abnormalities are associated with low back pain (LBP) and LBP with sciatica (SCI) in older men.

Material And Methods: Mister Osteoporosis Sweden includes 3,014 men aged 69–81 years. They answered questionnaires on lifestyle and whether they had experienced LBP and SCI during the preceding 12 months. About 3,007 men answered the back pain (BP) questions, 258 reported BP without specified region. We identified 1,388 with no BP, 1,361 with any LBP (regardless of SCI), 1,074 of those with LBP also indicated if they had experienced LBP (n = 615), LBP+SCI (n = 459).

Results: About 49% of those with LBP and 54% of those with LBP+SCI rated their health as poor/very poor (P < 0.001). Men with any LBP to a greater extent than those without BP had poor self-estimated health, depressive symptoms, dizziness, fall tendency, serious comorbidity (diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, pulmonary disease and/or cancer) (all P < 0.001), foreign background, were smokers (all P < 0.01), had low physical activity and used walking aids (all P < 0.05). Men with LBP+SCI to a greater extent than those with LBP had lower education, lower self-estimated health, comorbidity, dizziness and used walking aids (all P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In older men with LBP and SCI, anatomical abnormalities such as vertebral fractures, metastases, central or lateral spinal stenosis or degenerative conditions may only in part explain prevalent symptoms and disability. Social and lifestyle factors must also be evaluated since they are associated not only with unspecific LBP but also with LBP with SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afw152DOI Listing
January 2017

Lower prostate cancer risk in Swedish men with the androgen receptor E213 A-allele.

Cancer Causes Control 2017 03 7;28(3):227-233. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Building 91, Plan 10, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: In a previous population-based study on 3369 European men with self-reported prostate cancer (PCa), it was shown that androgen receptor (AR) haplotype designated H2 was associated with high levels of serum PSA (prostate-specific antigen) concentration, and, at the same time, with low risk for PCa. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding in other cohorts, with registry-based cancer diagnosis.

Methods: Using data from two population-based cohorts; the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, n = 12,121) and the Swedish Osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS, n = 1,120), 628 men with PCa and 1,374 controls were identified and genotyped. PCa data were collected from the Swedish national cancer registry. PCa odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for carriers of the particular AR haplotype, tagged by the rs6624304 T-allele.

Results: The 15% of men who were carriers of the AR haplotype H2 had approximately one-third lower risk for PCa diagnosis compared to those with the most common H1 variant (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45-0.94; p = 0.021). The same trend, although not statistically significant (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.47-1.24; p = 0.275), was observed in MrOS Sweden. When both cohorts were merged, an even more significant result was observed (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51-0.90; p = 0.008).

Conclusions: Swedish men with the variant AR haplotype H2, tagged by rs6624304, have significantly lower risk of PCa compared to those with the more common variant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-017-0859-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5325831PMC
March 2017

Low Testosterone, but Not Estradiol, Is Associated With Incident Falls in Older Men: The International MrOS Study.

J Bone Miner Res 2017 Jun 27;32(6):1174-1181. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Fracture risk is determined by bone strength and the risk of falls. The relationship between serum sex steroids and bone strength parameters in men is well known, whereas the predictive value of sex steroids for falls is less studied. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) and the likelihood of falls. Older men (aged ≥65 years) from the United States (n = 1919), Sweden (n = 2495), and Hong Kong (n = 1469) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study had baseline T and E2 analyzed by mass spectrometry. Bioavailable (Bio) levels were calculated using mass action equations. Incident falls were ascertained every 4 months during a mean follow-up of 5.7 years. Associations between sex steroids and falls were estimated by generalized estimating equations. Fall rate was highest in the US and lowest in Hong Kong (US 0.50, Sweden 0.31, Hong Kong 0.12 fall reports/person/year). In the combined cohort of 5883 men, total T (odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.91) and BioT (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.88) were associated with incident falls in models adjusted for age and prevalent falls. These associations were only slightly attenuated after simultaneous adjustment for physical performance variables (total T: OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.96; BioT: OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). E2, BioE2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were not significantly associated with falls. Analyses in the individual cohorts showed that both total T and BioT were associated with falls in MrOS US and Sweden. No association was found in MrOS Hong Kong, and this may be attributable to environmental factors rather than ethnic differences because total T and BioT predicted falls in MrOS US Asians. In conclusion, low total T and BioT levels, but not E2 or SHBG, are associated with increased falls in older men. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466469PMC
June 2017

[Bisphosphonates first-line pharmacological treatment].

Lakartidningen 2016 11 1;113. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Osteoporosmottagningen - Geriatriska kliniken, Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhset, Mölndal Mölndal, Sweden Geriatric Medicine - Institute of Medicine Mölndal, Sweden.

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November 2016

The Limited Clinical Utility of Testosterone, Estradiol, and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Measurements in the Prediction of Fracture Risk and Bone Loss in Older Men.

J Bone Miner Res 2017 Mar 14;32(3):633-640. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Measurement of serum testosterone (T) levels is recommended in the evaluation of osteoporosis in older men and estradiol (E2) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with the rate of bone loss and fractures, but the clinical utility of sex steroid and SHBG measurements for the evaluation of osteoporosis in men has not been examined. To evaluate whether measurements of T, E2, and/or SHBG are useful for the prediction of fracture risk or the rate of bone loss in older men, we analyzed longitudinal data from 5487 community-based men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in the United States, Sweden, and Hong Kong. Serum T, E2, and SHBG levels were assessed at baseline; incident fractures were self-reported at 4-month intervals with radiographic verification (US), or ascertained via national health records (Sweden, Hong Kong). Rate of bone loss was assessed by serial measures of hip bone mineral density (BMD). We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) to assess improvement in prediction. Mean age at baseline was 72 to 75 years and the prevalence of low T levels (<300 ng/dL) was 7.6% to 21.3% in the three cohorts. There were 619 incident major osteoporotic and 266 hip fractures during follow-up of approximately 10 years. Based on ROC curves, there were no improvements in fracture risk discrimination for any biochemical measure when added to models, including the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) with BMD. Although minor improvements in NRI were observed for the dichotomous parameters low bioavailable E2 (BioE2) (<11.4 pg/mL) and high SHBG (>59.1 nM), neither sex steroids nor SHBG provided clinically useful improvement in fracture risk discrimination. Similarly, they did not contribute to the prediction of BMD change. In conclusion, there is limited clinical utility of serum E2, T, and SHBG measures for the evaluation of osteoporosis risk in elderly men. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896330PMC
March 2017

Fracture Rate, Quality of Life and Back Pain in Patients with Osteoporosis Treated with Teriparatide: 24-Month Results from the Extended Forsteo Observational Study (ExFOS).

Calcif Tissue Int 2016 09 30;99(3):259-71. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK.

We describe the pre-planned interim analysis of fracture outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and back pain in patients with severe osteoporosis treated with teriparatide for up to 24 months in the Extended Forsteo (Forsteo(®) is a registered trade name of Eli Lilly and Company) Observational Study (ExFOS), a prospective, multinational, observational study. Data on incident clinical fractures, HRQoL (EQ-5D questionnaire) and back pain [100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS)] were collected. The number of patients with fractures was summarised in 6-month intervals and fracture rate over each 6-month period was assessed using logistic regression for repeated measures. Changes from baseline in EQ-5D and back pain VAS were analysed using mixed models for repeated measures. Of 1454 patients in the active treatment cohort, 90.6 % were female and 14.4 % were taking glucocorticoids. During teriparatide treatment (median duration 23.7 months), 103 patients (7.1 %) sustained a total of 122 incident clinical fractures (21 % vertebral, 79 % non-vertebral). A 49 % decrease in the odds of fractures and a 75 % decrease in the odds of clinical vertebral fractures were observed in the >18- to 24-month period versus the first 6-month period (both p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores and back pain VAS scores were significantly improved from baseline at each post-baseline observation during teriparatide treatment. In conclusion, patients with severe osteoporosis showed a significant reduction in the incident fracture rate during 24 months of teriparatide treatment in routine clinical practice, accompanied by a significant improvement in HRQoL and reduction in back pain. Results should be interpreted in the context of the non-controlled design of this observational study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-016-0143-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4960288PMC
September 2016

Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations Reflect Sex Differences in Mineral Metabolism and Growth in Early Infancy.

Horm Res Paediatr 2016 5;85(4):232-41. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in the regulation of mineral homeostasis in early life is inadequately understood. We aimed to explore the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum FGF23 and to elucidate longitudinal changes in FGF23, in addition to studying its association with mineral metabolism in early infancy.

Methods: Altogether 113 healthy infants received vitamin D3 10, 30 or 40 µg/day from age 0.5 to 3.0 months. Cord blood at birth and capillary blood samples at 3 months were analyzed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium and intact and C-terminal FGF23.

Results: In repeated-measures ANCOVA, intact FGF23 concentration increased with time (p < 0.001) and C-terminal FGF23 decreased (p < 0.001). At 3 months, girls had a higher concentration of intact FGF23 (51 vs. 26 pg/ml, p < 0.001) and a greater increase over time (x0394;FGF23 intact 45 vs. 16 pg/ml, p = 0.001) than boys. Vitamin D did not affect serum intact or C-terminal FGF23 concentrations. Girls showed a positive correlation between phosphate and intact FGF23 (p = 0.004), whereas in boys phosphate and C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely (p = 0.006).

Conclusions: A substantial sex-related difference in intact FGF23 concentration exists during early infancy, possibly related to differences in skeletal growth between boys and girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000443988DOI Listing
April 2017

Hypercalcaemia in a Patient with 2p13.2-p16.1 Duplication.

Horm Res Paediatr 2016 17;85(3):213-8. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, x00D6;rebro University, x00D6;rebro, Sweden.

Background: Partial duplication of 2p is a rare condition that causes facial anomalies, psychomotor delay, and growth failure. Hypercalcaemia is rare in children. So far, duplication of 2p has never been associated with hypercalcaemia.

Methods: Here, we report a girl with a partial duplication of 2p presenting with moderate to severe hypercalcaemia at the age of 2 years. She also had hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, decreased renal function, and secondary hyperparathyroidism at presentation. She was thoroughly investigated, including genetic testing of the CYP24A1, CASR, ALPL, and NOD2 genes, to determine the cause of hypercalcaemia.

Results: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were increased. Hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria responded well to glucocorticoids but not to cinacalcet. Hyperparathyroidism resolved with improving renal function. Apart from the known duplication of 2p, no pathogenic variants were detected in the studied genes. The duplication of 2p contains the PPP3R1 gene, which encodes for the calcineurin B subunit.

Conclusion: We conclude that partial duplication of 2p can be associated with hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria and hypothesise that the underlying mechanism is an increased extra-renal, parathyroid hormone-independent 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase activity, leading to raised amounts of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The increased enzymatic activity could possibly be caused by calcineurin B subunit-related macrophage stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000442747DOI Listing
December 2016

A Meta-Analysis of Trabecular Bone Score in Fracture Risk Prediction and Its Relationship to FRAX.

J Bone Miner Res 2016 05 19;31(5):940-8. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Epi-Centre for Healthy Ageing, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural index of bone microarchitecture derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. TBS is a bone mineral density (BMD)-independent predictor of fracture risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether TBS predicted fracture risk independently of FRAX probability and to examine their combined performance by adjusting the FRAX probability for TBS. We utilized individual-level data from 17,809 men and women in 14 prospective population-based cohorts. Baseline evaluation included TBS and the FRAX risk variables, and outcomes during follow-up (mean 6.7 years) comprised major osteoporotic fractures. The association between TBS, FRAX probabilities, and the risk of fracture was examined using an extension of the Poisson regression model in each cohort and for each sex and expressed as the gradient of risk (GR; hazard ratio per 1 SD change in risk variable in direction of increased risk). FRAX probabilities were adjusted for TBS using an adjustment factor derived from an independent cohort (the Manitoba Bone Density Cohort). Overall, the GR of TBS for major osteoporotic fracture was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.53) when adjusted for age and time since baseline and was similar in men and women (p > 0.10). When additionally adjusted for FRAX 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture, TBS remained a significant, independent predictor for fracture (GR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.24-1.41). The adjustment of FRAX probability for TBS resulted in a small increase in the GR (1.76, 95% CI 1.65-1.87 versus 1.70, 95% CI 1.60-1.81). A smaller change in GR for hip fracture was observed (FRAX hip fracture probability GR 2.25 vs. 2.22). TBS is a significant predictor of fracture risk independently of FRAX. The findings support the use of TBS as a potential adjustment for FRAX probability, though the impact of the adjustment remains to be determined in the context of clinical assessment guidelines. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2734DOI Listing
May 2016

Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of incident cancer in elderly men - results from MrOS (Osteoporotic Fractures in Men) in Sweden.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016 May 19;84(5):764-70. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Center for Bone and Arthritis Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy (CBAR), Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objective: Studies of the association between circulating IGF-I and cancer risk have shown conflicting results. We have previously observed a U-shaped association between IGF-I and cancer mortality. This study test the hypotheses of a U-shaped association between IGF-I and incident cancer.

Design: Elderly men (2368), randomly recruited from the general community.

Methods: IGF-I was measured in a cohort of elderly men. Complete data for incident cancer were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards regressions with or without a spline approach.

Results: Three hundred and sixty-nine participants had incident cancer after baseline. Prostate cancer was most frequent (n = 140). There was no association between serum IGF-I and all cancer or prostate cancer incidence. However, there was a nonlinear association between IGF-I and nonprostate cancer incidence (P = <0·05). Exploratory analyses were performed for low and high serum IGF-I (quintiles 1 and 5) vs intermediate (quintiles 2-4, referent). There was a tendency of increased nonprostate cancer risk in men with high IGF-I (HR = 1·26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0·92-1·71, P = 0·15). After excluding participants with follow-up of less than 2·6 years (half median follow-up time), to control for potential diagnostic delay, the association was statistically significant (HR = 1·55, CI: 1·03-2·35).

Conclusion: There was a significant nonlinear association between IGF-I and nonprostate cancer. No association between IGF-I and prostate cancer was observed. Future studies are warranted to further investigate this nonlinear association, including whether IGF-I concentration is a reproducible, and useful, risk marker of nonprostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.12962DOI Listing
May 2016

Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture.

Nature 2015 Oct 14;526(7571):112-7. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA.

The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 × 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 × 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 × 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755714PMC
October 2015

Swedish osteoporosis care.

Arch Osteoporos 2015 11;10:222. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Quantify Research, Hantverkargatan 8, 112 21, Stockholm, Sweden.

The objective of this study was to review and describe the current state of Swedish osteoporosis care and to highlight ongoing challenges. This report encompasses quantitative health outcomes based on Swedish registry data as well as organizational and management aspects. Swedish osteoporosis care is characterized by a significant burden of disease, difficulties in identifying high-risk patients, and fragmented pathways for patients in need of secondary fracture prevention. This report aimed to describe the current state, gaps, and challenges in Swedish osteoporosis care, using Swedish national databases, questionnaires, and interviews with healthcare representatives. A secondary aim was to develop quality and process measures to compare differences between counties and to use those measures to describe the interaction between quantitative health outcomes and aspects of care organization and management. In conjunction with fractures, a considerably smaller proportion of men are treated than women, and a smaller proportion of older women are treated compared to younger groups. Between 3 and 16 % of patients receive treatment after a fracture, and the treatment rate in this patient group can likely increase. In addition to an unsatisfactory treatment rate, a limited number of those treated continue treatment throughout the recommended treatment durations, leading to increased risk of fracture. With a substantial variation between counties, there is a clear difficulty to identify non-persistent patients and switch to an alternative treatment. Collaboration around the patient across specialties has been lacking, and systems for secondary prevention have been concentrated to a few counties. However, when this study was conducted, there was a general trend towards implementing regional care programs. This report suggests possible strategies for improving quality of care and, hopefully, it can provide a basis for future evaluations and regional improvement of osteoporosis care in Sweden and other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-015-0222-7DOI Listing
July 2016

Genetic epidemiology, prevalence, and genotype-phenotype correlations in the Swedish population with osteogenesis imperfecta.

Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Aug 6;23(8):1042-50. Epub 2015 May 6.

1] Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary bone fragility disorder, caused by collagen I mutations in 90% of cases. There are no comprehensive genotype-phenotype studies on >100 families outside North America, and no population-based studies determining the genetic epidemiology of OI. Here, detailed clinical phenotypes were recorded, and the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were analyzed in 164 Swedish OI families (223 individuals). Averages for bone mineral density (BMD), height and yearly fracture rate were calculated and related to OI and mutation type. N-terminal helical mutations in both the α1- and α2-chains were associated with the absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta (P<0.0001 vs 0.0049), while only those in the α1-chain were associated with blue sclera (P=0.0110). Comparing glycine with serine substitutions, α1-alterations were associated with more severe phenotype (P=0.0031). Individuals with type I OI caused by qualitative vs quantitative mutations were shorter (P<0.0001), but did not differ considering fractures or BMD. The children in this cohort were estimated to represent >95% of the complete Swedish pediatric OI population. The prevalence of OI types I, III, and IV was 5.16, 0.89, and 1.35/100 000, respectively (7.40/100 000 overall), corresponding to what has been estimated but not unequivocally proven in any population. Collagen I mutation analysis was performed in the family of 97% of known cases, with causative mutations found in 87%. Qualitative mutations caused 32% of OI type I. The data reported here may be helpful to predict phenotype, and describes for the first time the genetic epidemiology in >95% of an entire OI population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2015.81DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795106PMC
August 2015