Publications by authors named "Ossama Ashraf Ahmed"

9 Publications

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Growth differentiation factor 15: an emerging diagnostic biomarker of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients.

Egypt Liver J 2021 19;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Clinical Pathology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis are of the major health concern worldwide. Assessment of liver fibrosis is necessary to determine disease severity and prognosis at the time of presentation to determine suitable treatment. Liver biopsy is considered as standard golden method in diagnosis of liver fibrosis. However, this procedure is invasive; thus, multiple laboratory and radiologic tests are used to help determination of the degree of fibrosis. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in regulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. It is suggested that GDF-15 plays an important role in pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate efficiency of growth differentiation factor 15 in diagnosing liver fibrosis. The study was a case-control study conducted on 55 chronic HCV patients recruited from hepatitis C virus clinic at Faculty of Medicine Ain Shams Research Institute (MASRI), and 30 healthy subjects age- and sex-matched. The patients were classified into three subgroups according to the degree of liver fibrosis assessed by fibro-scan. Serum concentration of GDF-15 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Our results revealed a highly significant statistical rise in GDF-15 levels among studied chronic HCV patients with liver fibrosis when compared to the control group ( < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the degree of fibrosis assessed by fibro-scan and GDF-15 serum levels. Levels of GDF-15 were significantly higher in patients with mild degree of fibrosis (patients' subgroup І) when compared with the controls' group ( < 0.01) suggesting the role of this marker in early detection of liver fibrosis. A statistically significant increase in serum GDF-15 levels was noticed among patients with advanced fibrosis "subgroup ІІІ" compared to those with mild fibrosis "subgroup І" ( < 0.05). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of GDF-15 were 96.7%, 98.2%, respectively at a cut-off value of 150 ng/L for discrimination between patients' and controls' groups.

Conclusion: Growth differentiation factor 15 could be a potential marker of liver fibrosis especially in early detection as its levels were significantly higher in patients' group with liver fibrosis than controls' group and there was a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver fibrosis and GDF-15 serum levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43066-021-00075-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814860PMC
January 2021

Remdesivir Efficacy in COVID-19 Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

To date, no antiviral therapy has shown proven clinical effectiveness in treating patients with COVID-19. We assessed the efficacy of remdesivir in hospitalized Egyptian patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either remdesivir (200 mg on the first day followed by 100 mg daily for the next 9 days intravenously infused over 30-60 minutes) in addition to standard care or standard care alone. The primary outcomes were the length of hospital stay and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation was assessed as a secondary outcome. Two hundred patients (100 in each group) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. The remdesivir group showed a significantly lower median duration of hospital stay (10 days) than the control group (16 days; P < 0.001). Eleven of the patients in the remdesivir group needed mechanical ventilation compared with eight patients in the control group (P = 0.469). The mortality rate was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.602). Mortality was significantly associated with older age, elevated C-reactive protein levels, elevated D-dimer, and the need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.039, 0.003, 0.001, and < 0.001 respectively). Remdesivir had a positive influence on length of hospital stay, but it had no mortality benefit in Egyptian patients with COVID-19. Its use, in addition to standard care including dexamethasone, should be considered, particularly in low- and middle-income countries when other effective options are scarce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-0606DOI Listing
September 2021

The outcome of re-treatment of relapsed hepatitis C virus infection in a resource-limited setting.

Virusdisease 2021 Sep 27;32(3):582-588. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of different combination regimens in re-treatment of HCV in the setting of inaccessibility of resistance testing. This real-life prospective study included 86 chronic HCV infected patients who experienced failure of treatment treated at Faculty of Medicine Ain shams Research Institute (MASRI) since 2018. 64% of the patients were males, with median age 50.2 years. They were re-treated using 1 of 3 proposed regimens of DAA combinations. One group received PAR/OMB/SOF/RBV for 12 weeks, another group received SOF/DAC/SIM/RBV for 12 weeks and a third received SOF/DAC/RBV for 24 weeks. Response to different regimens was assessed by comparing sustained virologic response (SVR) of each. Monitoring the occurrence of adverse events was performed. SVR was achieved in all but 3 patients (96.5% SVR), one in the SOF/DAC/SIM/RBV group and two in the SOF/DAC/RBV group. The group receiving RBV had more anaemia and hyperbilirubinemia. The first treatment regimen used was a significant predictor to SVR achievement. This study presents alternative treatment regimens for re-treatment of HCV patients in areas with limited resources in the case of non-availability of other regimens as velpatasvir, voxilaprevir, grazoprevir, elbasvir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-021-00712-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473466PMC
September 2021

Direct-acting antiviral regimens in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A real-world single-center experience.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Background And Study Aims: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has always been identified as a major health threat and a potential cause of liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and other associated problems. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has represented a paradigm shift in HCV management. In this study, we aim to observe the rate of sustained virologic response (SVR12) in a large scale of patients at a single center as well as record the post-treatment changes in the hematologic, hepatic, and renal biochemical profiles.

Patients And Methods: In total, 1933 chronic HCV genotype 4 mono-infected non-HCC patients who completed the treatment with six different DAA regimens in the Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Research Institute (MASRI), were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The rate of sustained virologic response after 12 weeks off-therapy (SVR12) was assessed. The baseline characteristics to predict the SVR12 were then analyzed. The post-treatment changes in many profiles were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The overall SVR12 rate was 96.2% (after excluding 84 cases who were lost to follow-up). It was achieved in 346/375 patients (92.3%), 466/477 patients (97.7%), 60/62 patients (96.8%), 11/11 patients (100%), 532/545 patients (97.6%), and 445/463 patients (96.1%) who received sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF/DCV), sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin (SOF/DCV/RBV), sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), sofosbuvir/ledipasvir/ribavirin (SOF/LDV/RBV), sofosbuvir/simeprevir (SOF/SMV), and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r + RBV), respectively. In total, 73 patients (3.8%) failed to achieve SVR12. The baseline aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cirrhotic status, and treatment regimen were determined to have a significant impact on SVR12. In the overall treated population, the levels of serum AST, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, creatinine, bilirubin, and hemoglobin and platelet count improved significantly after treatment. Furthermore, sustained virologic response was strongly related to cirrhosis and its degree.

Conclusion: The interferon-free DAA regimens offered high SVR12 rates in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV infection. They were associated with a significant improvement in the hematologic, hepatic, and renal biochemical profiles. The baseline AST, liver cirrhosis, and treatment regimen might have an impact on achieving SVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2021.06.001DOI Listing
September 2021

Do Zinc Supplements Enhance the Clinical Efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine?: a Randomized, Multicenter Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Oct 27;199(10):3642-3646. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

No specific treatment for COVID-19 infection is available up till now, and there is a great urge for effective treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality during this pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the effect of combining chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) and zinc in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. This was a randomized clinical trial conducted at three major University hospitals in Egypt. One hundred ninety-one patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were randomized into two groups: group I (96) patients received both HCQ and zinc, and group II (95) received HCQ only. The primary endpoints were the recovery within 28 days, the need for mechanical ventilation, and death. The two groups were matched for age and gender. They had no significant difference regarding any of the baseline laboratory parameters or clinical severity grading. Clinical recovery after 28 days was achieved by 79.2% in the zinc group and 77.9% in zinc-free treatment group, without any significant difference (p = 0.969). The need for mechanical ventilation and the overall mortality rates did not show any significant difference between the 2 groups either (p = 0.537 and 0.986, respectively). The age of the patient and the need for mechanical ventilation were the only risk factors associated with the patients' mortality by the univariate regression analysis (p = 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). Zinc supplements did not enhance the clinical efficacy of HCQ. More randomized studies are needed to evaluate the value of adding zinc to other therapies for COVID 19. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04447534.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02512-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695238PMC
October 2021

Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 10;103(4):1635-1639

Department of Internal Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The COVID-19 pandemic is showing an exponential growth, mandating an urgent need to develop an effective treatment. Indeed, to date, a well-established therapy is still lacking. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) added to standard care in patients with COVID-19. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial conducted at three major university hospitals in Egypt. One hundred ninety-four patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study after signing informed consent. They were equally randomized into two arms: 97 patients administrated HCQ plus standard care (HCQ group) and 97 patients administered only standard care as a control arm (control group). The primary endpoints were recovery within 28 days, need for mechanical ventilation, or death. The two groups were matched for age and gender. There was no significant difference between them regarding any of the baseline characteristics or laboratory parameters. Four patients (4.1%) in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) patients in the control group needed mechanical ventilation ( = 0.75). The overall mortality did not differ between the two groups, as six patients (6.2%) died in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) died in the control group ( = 0.77). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that HCQ treatment was not significantly associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients. So, adding HCQ to standard care did not add significant benefit, did not decrease the need for ventilation, and did not reduce mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543820PMC
October 2020

Impact of IL28B gene polymorphism on efficacy and safety of direct acting antivirals in hepatitis C Egyptian patients.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Aug 26;42(4):1207-1216. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Badr City, Egypt.

Background Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the major causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. IL28B gene polymorphism has a direct relation to the response of interferon-based regimens. However, the effect of IL28B gene polymorphism on efficacy of the new direct acting antivirals used in treatment of chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients hasn't been studied yet. Objective This study aimed to investigate the frequency of IL28B genotypes and impact of its polymorphism on the efficacy and safety of two direct acting antiviral regimens. Setting Patients were recruited form faculty of Medicine Ain shams research institute, Cairo, Egypt. Methods Easy to treat chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients were included in this prospective study. Patients were randomized into two groups, group 1 received sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir and group 2 received paritaprevir, ombitasvir and ritonavir plus ribavirin. Both treatment regimens were given for 3 months. Laboratory evaluation and IL28B rs 12979860 genotyping were performed at baseline. Follow ups were performed monthly. Fibrosis was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Main outcome measures The frequency of IL28B genotypes and their correlation with safety and efficacy of direct acting antiviral regimens. Results CT genotype was present in 52.42% of patients while CC and TT genotypes were present in 28.16% and 19.42% of patients, respectively. IL28B genotypes weren't correlated to sustained virologic response in both treatment groups. Baseline fibroscan scores didn't show any significant relations with IL28B genotypes. Aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio increased significantly at the end of treatment in group1. CC genotype had shown higher ratio values at the end of treatment in Group 2. Conclusion CT genotype is the predominant genotype in easy to treat HCV Egyptian patients. IL28B genotypes hasn't any predictive value on the efficacy or the safety of direct acting antiviral regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01085-2DOI Listing
August 2020

Sofosbuvir Plus Daclatasvir in Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4 Infection in a Cohort of Egyptian Patients: An Experiment the Size of Egyptian Village.

Int J Hepatol 2018 20;2018:9616234. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Tropical Medicine & Infectious Diseases Department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background And Aims: As indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO), Egypt is positioned as the country with the world's highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is transmitted through unexamined blood transfusions, different employments of syringes, and poor cleansing, as per the WHO. Our study aimed at screening and management of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 infected patients in Bardeen village, Sharkeya Governorate, Egypt, with Sofosbuvir plus Daclatasvir, as well as estimating the safety and efficacy of that regimen.

Methods: Screening of adult patients in Bardeen village was done from March 2016 till November 2016 using hepatitis C virus antibodies by third-generation ELISA testing. Positive results were confirmed by PCR. Patients eligible for treatment received Sofosbuvir 400 mg and Daclatasvir 60 mg daily for 12 weeks and were assessed for sustained virologic response at 12 weeks following the end of treatment (SVR 12).

Results: Out of 2047 subjects screened for hepatitis C virus, 249 (12.2%) showed positive results. 221 out of those 249 subjects (88.7%) had detectable RNA by PCR. Treatment of eligible patients (183 patients) with Sofosbuvir plus Daclatasvir for 12 weeks resulted in 96% achievement of sustained virologic response at week 12. Adverse events were tolerable.

Conclusion: Sofosbuvir plus Daclatasvir regimen is safe and effective for treatment of chronic hepatitis C Genotype 4 infected patients with minimal adverse events. HCV eradication program implemented in Egypt can be a model for other countries with HCV and limited resources. The availability of generic drugs in Egypt will help much in eradication of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9616234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884208PMC
March 2018

Comparative analysis of the diagnostic performance of adult, cercarial and egg antigens assessed by ELISA, in the diagnosis of chronic human Schistosoma mansoni infection.

Parasitol Res 2014 Sep 16;113(9):3467-76. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt,

Total IgG ELISA was assessed comparing soluble adult worm (SWA), cercarial (SCA), and egg antigens (SEA) using sera of chronic schistosomiasis patients in two different concentrations (1/50 and 1/100). This response showed reactivity against all antigens. Concerning 1/100 serum concentration the SWA gave the best sensitivity (100%) followed by SCA (86.6%) and SEA (80%). The best specificity was obtained from SCA (94.11%) with an equivalent result from the SWA and SEA (76.47%). Concerning the 1/50 serum concentration, the SWA gave the best sensitivity (100%) with an equivalent result from the SCA and SEA (80%). The best specificity was obtained from SEA (82.35%) followed by SCA (76.47%) then SWA (64.7%). The best AUC value (0.992) was that for SWA indicating its high ability to predict the disease in comparison to (0.914) for SCA and 0.871 for SEA in serum dilution 1/100. The highest AUC value (0.955) was that for SWA in comparison to (0.914) for SEA and (0.88) for SCA in serum dilution 1/50. Comparison between the AUCs from the three mentioned antigens revealed highly significant differences when the data were analyzed by ROC. Each antigen showed a highly statistically significant correlation within its optical density values at both concentrations; 1/100 and 1/50. Comparing the two concentrations in each antigen revealed a non significant correlation obtained from the SWA which signifies a near outcome from both concentrations while the SCA and SEA showed a highly significant difference between the two concentrations. In conclusion, for the diagnosis of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni, total IgG reactivity revealed the best sensitivity by SWA. There was a difference in the type of antigen showing best specificity results between SCA and SEA according to serum concentration used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4017-3DOI Listing
September 2014
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