Publications by authors named "Oskar Laaksonen"

46 Publications

Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) protein isolate produced using the pH-shift process and its application in food models.

Food Res Int 2022 Aug 27;158:111578. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Food Sciences, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Finland.

In this study, protein isolate was prepared from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) using alkaline pH-shift process. The aim of this research was to characterize the protein isolate and to study its potential in food models. A special focus was placed on characterization of odour profile and volatile compounds contributing to the odour profile of the protein isolate using gas chromatography - olfactometry. 2,3-Pentanedione, hexanal, 4(Z)-heptenal, 2,4(E,E)-nonadienal, and three compounds tentatively identified as 1,5(E)-octadien-3-ol, 1,5(Z)-octadien-3-ol, and 1,5(Z)-octadien-3-one were the most important odour-contributing compounds in the protein isolate (Nasal Impact Factor 83-100%, intensity 2.6-3.3 on a scale 0-4). 2-Methylpropanal, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, and three unknown compounds were less intense in the protein isolate than in the raw material, which might have contributed to the lower intensity of fishiness observed for the protein isolate (2.2 vs 3.3 on a scale 0-4). Surimi-type gels prepared from the Baltic herring protein isolate had texture properties (hardness and cohesiveness) similar to those of commercial products. Due to the abundancy of dark muscle tissue in Baltic herring, the protein isolate had a significantly lower whiteness (W = 63) compared to the commercial surimi products (W = 80-83). Increasing the solubilisation or precipitation pH did not improve the whiteness, but resulted in significantly softer, less cohesive, and less chewy gels. The findings of this study indicate that alkaline-based pH-shift processing is a potential way to increase the food application of Baltic herring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111578DOI Listing
August 2022

Food Fortification Using Spray-Dried Emulsions of Fish Oil Produced with Maltodextrin, Plant and Whey Proteins-Effect on Sensory Perception, Volatiles and Storage Stability.

Molecules 2022 May 31;27(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

Food Sciences, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

Fortification of foods with fish oil rich in -3 fatty acids improves the nutritional value, but creates challenges with flavor and oxidative stability, especially during storage. Pea, soy, and sunflower proteins were used in combination with whey protein or maltodextrin to encapsulate fish oil by spray-drying. The use of whey protein compared with maltodextrin as wall material improved oxidative stability of spray-dried emulsions, although the use of whey protein increased the number of observed cracks in outer shell of the particles. Non- and encapsulated oil were used in cookies and chocolates to examine flavor characteristics by generic descriptive analysis and volatile products by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A long-term storage test at room temperature was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stability of the food models. Fortification changed the texture, odor, and flavor of the food models with fishy flavor being the most impactful attribute. For both food models, use of pea protein with maltodextrin resembled attributes of control the best. Fortification and encapsulation material also affected volatile profiles of food models. Both non-encapsulated oil and whey protein formulations performed well in regard to oxidative stability for both food models. Generally, the cookie model showed more potential for fortification than the chocolate one.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9182505PMC
May 2022

Impact of enzymatic pre-treatment on composition of nutrients and phytochemicals of canola (Brassica napus) oil press residues.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 6;387:132911. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Food Chemistry and Food Development Unit, Department of Life Technologies, Faculty of Technology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

The study aimed to develop a biorefining process to recover proteins and dietary fibres from a food industry side-stream, canola (Brassica napus) oil pressing residues. The materials were treated with commercial protease, carbohydrase, and phytase to obtain protein-rich supernatants and fibre-rich precipitates. The compositions of these fractions were analyzed using LC-MS (glucosinolates and phenolics) and GC-MS (sugars, acids, and amino acids). Compared to raw material, the supernatants were richer in proteins, sugars, acids, amino acids, phenolic acids, and flavonols; the precipitates had higher levels of minerals and dietary fibres. The enzymatic treatment decreased the contents of phytic acid, glucosinolates, and phenolic alkaloids in all fractions. The applied enzymes effectively enhanced solubility of proteins, despite the lower yield of crude proteins compared to the alkaline extraction (40-82 vs 91 g/100 g dry matters). The impact of enzymes on other chemical components was also revealed by using principal component analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132911DOI Listing
September 2022

Chemical Composition of Juices Made from Cultivars and Breeding Selections of European Pear ( L.).

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Apr 15;70(16):5137-5150. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

The phenolic profiles and other major metabolites in juices made from fruits of 17 cultivars and selections of European pears were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS and GC-FID, respectively. A total of 39 phenolic compounds were detected, including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins, flavonols, and arbutin. Among these compounds, 5--caffeoylquinic acid was the most predominant, accounting for 14-39% of total quantified phenolic contents (TPA) determined in this study. The variations were mainly cultivar dependent. The genetic background effect on the chemical compositions is complex, and breeding selections from the same parental cultivars varied dramatically in chemical compositions. Putative perry pears contained more 4--caffeoylquinic acid, 5--caffeoylquinic acid, caffeoyl -trytophan, caffeoylshikimic acid, coumaroylquinic acid isomer, syringic acid hexoside, procyanidin dimer B2, (+)-catechin, and malic acid, whereas putative dessert pears had higher esters, alcohols, and aldehydes. The results will be helpful in providing industry with phytochemical compositional information, assisting pear selections in commercial utilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9052750PMC
April 2022

Effect of oat or rice flour on pulse-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and breath hydrogen in subjects sensitive to pulses and controls - a randomised cross-over trial with two parallel groups.

Br J Nutr 2022 Jan 28:1-12. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Finland.

Pulses are healthy and sustainable but induce gut symptoms in people with a sensitive gut. Oats, on the contrary, have no fermentable oligo- di-, monosaccharides and polyols compounds and are known for the health effects of their fibres. This 4-day cross-over trial investigated the effects of oat and rice flour ingested with pulses on gut symptoms and exhaled gases (4th day only) in subjects with a sensitive gut or IBS (n 21) and controls (n 21). The sensitive group perceived more symptoms after both meals than controls (P = 0·001, P = 0·001). Frequency, intensity or quality of the symptoms did not differ between meals during the first 3 d in either group. More breath hydrogen was produced after an oat than rice containing meal in both groups (AUC, P = 0·001, P = 0·001). No between-group difference was seen in breath gases. During day 4, both sensitive and control groups perceived more symptoms after the oat flour meal (P = 0·001, P = 0·0104, respectively) as mainly mild flatulence. No difference in moderate or severe symptoms was detected. Increased hydrogen production correlated to a higher amount of perceived flatulence after the oat flour meal in both the sensitive and the control groups (P = 0·042, P = 0·003, respectively). In summary, ingestion of oat flour with pulses increases breath hydrogen levels compared with rice flour, but gastrointestinal symptoms of subjects sensitive to pulses were not explained by breath hydrogen levels. Additionally, consumer mindsets towards pulse consumption and pulse-related gut symptoms were assessed by an online survey, which implied that perceived gut symptoms hinder the use of pulses in sensitive subjects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522000332DOI Listing
January 2022

Use of Non- Yeasts in Berry Wine Production: Inspiration from Their Applications in Winemaking.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 12;70(3):736-750. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014, Turku, Finland.

Although berries (nongrape) are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds, and their consumption is associated with a lower risk of diverse chronic diseases, only a fraction of the annual yield of berries is exploited and consumed. Development of berry wines presents an approach to increase the utilization of berries. Alcoholic fermentation is a complex process driven by yeasts, which influence key properties of wine diversification and quality. In winemaking, non- yeasts were traditionally considered as undesired microorganisms because of their high production of metabolites with negative connotations. However, there has been a recent and growing interest in the application of non- yeast in many innovative wineries. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of these yeasts to improve properties of wine as an alternative or complement to . The broad use of non- yeasts in winemaking provides a promising picture of these unconventional yeasts in berry wine production, which can be considered as a novel biotechnological approach for creating value-added berry products for the global market. This review provides an overview of the current use of non- yeasts in winemaking and their applicative perspective in berry wine production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c07302DOI Listing
January 2022

Sensory and chemical characterization of Chinese bog bilberry wines using Check-all-that-apply method and GC-Quadrupole-MS and GC-Orbitrap-MS analyses.

Food Res Int 2022 01 14;151:110809. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland. Electronic address:

The sensory and chemical profiles of commercial bog bilberry (BB) wines were investigated using a multi-analytical approach. Sensory test included scaling and check-all-that-apply (CATA) method with questions on liking of BB wine. The sensory data was correlated with their volatile compound profiles determined using gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole and orbitrap mass spectrometry (GC-Quadrupole/Orbitrap-MS). In general, all BB wines were characterized with "fruity", "blueberry" and "floral" odors and "sour", "mouth puckering" and "sweet" flavors. Samples more frequently characterized as "fruity" and "floral" in CATA were preferred by the panelists (n = 93). High relative proportions of o-cymene, p-cymenene, 1-octen-3-one and 3-ethylphenol in a sample (described as "ginger" and "chili") resulted in a lower liking rating. Similarly, generally disliked sample described with "Chinese herbs" and "licorice" was characterized by compounds 3-methylpentan-1-ol, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 4-vinylphenol. The data will give novel information for berry wine and beverage industry on the quality factors of BB wines linked to higher acceptance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110809DOI Listing
January 2022

Phenolic compound profiles in Finnish apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) juices and ciders fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains.

Food Chem 2022 Mar 20;373(Pt B):131437. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Shanxi Center for Testing of Functional Agro-Products, Shanxi Agricultural University, No. 79, Longcheng Street, Taiyuan 030031, China. Electronic address:

The phenolic compounds in juices and ciders made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Schizosaccharomyces pombe from eleven Finnish apple cultivars were analyzed using liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods combined with multivariate data analysis. In general, the ciders contained less phenolic compounds than corresponding apple juices. In the studied apple juices and ciders, hydroxycinnamic acids were the most predominant, accounting for around 80% of total phenolic compounds. Apple juices contained more flavonol glycosides and dihydrochalcones whereas cider processing resulted in increased amount of free hydroxycinnamic acids. The contents of individual phenolic compounds were more dependent on the apple cultivars than the yeast species. Certain cultivars contained remarkably higher contents of dihydrochalcones and hydroxycinnamic acids when comparing with other cultivars. Ciders made using S. pombe remained higher contents of procyanidins and (+)-catechin while S. cerevisiae ciders contained higher individual hydroxycinnamic acids, such as 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and 4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131437DOI Listing
March 2022

Comparison of volatile compounds and sensory profiles of alcoholic black currant (Ribes nigrum) beverages produced with Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Metschnikowia yeasts.

Food Chem 2022 Feb 3;370:131049. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.

Black currants (Ribes nigrum) were fermented with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts without added sugar to yield low-ethanol-content beverages. The effects of yeasts on the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS, GC-O, and generic descriptive analysis. Ninety-eight volatile compounds were identified from the black currant juice and fermented beverages. Significant increases in the contents of esters (131 %), higher alcohols (391 %), and fatty acids (not present in juice sample) compared to initial juice were observed depending on the yeasts used. GC-O analysis revealed the higher impact of esters on the sensory properties of Saccharomyces bayanus-fermented beverage compared to the Torulaspora delbrueckii-fermented beverage. In the sensory evaluation, non-Saccharomyces yeasts resulted in a higher 'black currant odour'. However, all beverages were intensely sour, which can be a significant challenge in the development of alcoholic berry beverages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131049DOI Listing
February 2022

Red beet (Beta vulgaris) betalains and grape (Vitis vinifera) anthocyanins as colorants in white currant juice - Effect of storage on degradation kinetics, color stability and sensory properties.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 7;348:128995. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Food Chemistry and Food Development Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.

Red beet betalains, grape anthocyanins, and their mixtures were used as colorants in white currant juice. Storage stability of the compounds was evaluated using liquid chromatography and the degradation kinetic order and parameters were calculated. Degradation of betalains followed first-order kinetics, while the degradation of anthocyanins did not have any trend toward any order kinetics. The coexisting anthocyanins and their concentration affected the rate constant of betalains. Betalains degraded faster than anthocyanins, their mixtures promoted respective degradation. Pyruvate derivatives of anthocyanins showed better stability. During storage, all samples became more yellowish with CIELab method and lighter in color. In the projective mapping sensory test, samples were distinguished by the colorant type as the main criteria and the storage time as the second criteria. Anthocyanin (described as 'dark' and 'natural') was preferred by sensory panelists over betalain (described as 'pink' and 'unnatural'), as were the fresh samples over stored samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128995DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of lactic acid fermentation on sensory and chemical quality of dairy analogues prepared from lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seeds.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 10;346:128852. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014, Finland. Electronic address:

Lupine (Lupinus sp.) is a valuable source of plant proteins. There is little knowledge on the impact of food processing on composition and sensory properties of lupine products. In this research, we investigated the impact of fermentation with five starters of lactic acid bacteria on the sensory quality and flavor-active compounds in dairy analogues prepared from sweet lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensory qualities of unfermented and fermented products were studied with generic descriptive analysis and affective tests. Acids and sugars were analyzed with GC-FID and volatiles with HS-SPME-GC-MS and GC-O. Fermentation increased sourness and 'vinegar' odor and reduced the 'beany' odor and flavor as well as the unpleasantness of flavor. Formation of volatiles during the fermentation was dependent on the starters. However, all fermentations increased the contents of lactic, acetic, and hexanoic acids, while reducing the contents of hexanal, described as 'grassy' in the unfermented lupine sample.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128852DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains on chemical composition and sensory quality of ciders made from Finnish apple cultivars.

Food Chem 2021 May 8;345:128833. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Composition of volatile compounds and concentrations of sugars and organic acids were studied in apple ciders produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeasts using eleven different Finnish apple cultivars. Moreover, sensory quality of selected ciders was studied using check-all-that-apply test with untrained panelists. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected in the samples using HS-SPME-GC-MS. In general, the ciders had higher concentrations of higher alcohols, aldehydes, and acetals whereas the juices contained higher contents of C6-alcohols. Simultaneously, fermentation using S. pombe resulted in lower concentrations of malic acid, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and volatile acids and higher concentrations of residual sugars compared to S. cerevisiae. Ciders made using S. cerevisiae were characterized as 'alcoholic' and 'yeasty' while S. pombe ciders were more frequently described as 'sweet', 'honey-like', and less rated as sour. Besides the strong effect by the yeasts, apple cultivars had significant effects on the compositional and sensorial properties of apple ciders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128833DOI Listing
May 2021

Influence of enzymatic treatment on the chemical composition of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) juice.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 10;339:128052. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland. Electronic address:

The effects of different enzymes, their dosages, and incubation times on juice yield and chemical composition of lingonberry juice were assessed. Nonvolatile composition including sugars, acids and phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) was analyzed using GC-FID, LC-DAD and LC-MS methods, whereas the volatile compound profile was examined using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Selection of the enzyme had a significant effect on the juice yield by increasing it from 70% without enzyme treatment up to 81%. Enzymes significantly increased the contents of most of the phenolic compounds in the juices but had little impact on the contents of sugars and acids. Heat treatment without enzyme addition also significantly affected the composition. Generally, increasing incubation time increased the contents of various phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the effects of dosage were mostly negligible. Enzyme treatment increased the contents of volatile compounds, regardless of dosage or incubation time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128052DOI Listing
March 2021

Sensory Characteristics Contributing to Pleasantness of Oat Product Concepts by Finnish and Chinese Consumers.

Foods 2020 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Oats are increasingly popular among consumers and the food industry. While data exist on sensory characteristics of oats as such, previous studies focusing on the pleasantness of oats, and especially investigations of a wide range of oat products by European and Asian consumers, are scarce. An online questionnaire was organized in Finland ( = 381; 83.7% Finnish) focusing on the liking and familiarity of oat products, followed by sensory tests in Finland ( = 65 and = 73) and China ( = 103) using the Check-All-That-Apply method and hedonic ratings. A questionnaire revealed that the Finnish consumers rated the pleasantness and familiarity of several oat product categories, such as breads and porridges, higher compared to participants of other ethnicities. Sensory tests showed both similarities, e.g., porridges were described as "natural", "healthy" and "oat-like", and differences between countries, e.g., sweet biscuits, were described as "crispy" and "hard" by Finnish consumers and "strange" and "musty" by Chinese consumers. Sweet products were unanimously preferred. The ethnicity had an important role affecting the rating of pleasantness and familiarity of oat product categories, whereas food neophobia and health interest status also had an influence. The proved healthiness of oats was a crucial factor affecting the choices of consumers and their acceptance in both countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9091234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556016PMC
September 2020

Phenolic Compound Profiles in Alcoholic Black Currant Beverages Produced by Fermentation with and Non- Yeasts.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Sep 1;68(37):10128-10141. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Alcoholic beverages with low ethanol contents were produced by fermenting black currant juice with and non- yeasts without added sugar. The effects of different yeasts on the phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols) and other selected constituents (the ethanol content, residual sugars, organic acids, and color) of the black currants were assessed. Single yeast-fermented beverages had higher ethanol contents (3.84-4.47%, v/v) than those produced by sequential fermentation. In general, the fermentation of black currant juice increased the contents of organic acids and flavonols, whereas anthocyanin contents decreased. All of the fermentations decreased the contents of glycosylated nitrile-containing hydroxycinnamic acids, resulting in higher contents of the corresponding aglycons. Fermentation with resulted in lower anthocyanin and organic acid contents compared to the other yeasts. Sequential fermentations with and led to the highest total hydroxycinnamic acids and anthocyanins among all of the fermentations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660742PMC
September 2020

Characterization and Quantification of Nonanthocyanin Phenolic Compounds in White and Blue Bilberry () Juices and Wines Using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS and UHPLC-DAD.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jul 14;68(29):7734-7744. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

The nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds in juice and wine produced from fruits of white bilberry, a nonpigmented mutant of , and blue bilberry (pigmented variety) were analyzed using liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (LC-DAD) and LC-DAD-electrospray ionization-quadrapole/time of flight hybrid mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS). On the basis of elution order, UV-vis spectra, accurate mass data, and fragmentation pattern and standards, 42 compounds including 22 phenolic acids, 15 flavonols, and 5 flavan-3-ols, were identified in juices and wines prepared from the two bilberry varieties. The levels of most individual nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds in white bilberry products were significantly lower than those in pigmented ones. In bilberry juices, phenolic acids were the most predominant, accounting for approximately 80% of total phenolic content, with -coumaroyl monotropeins and caffeic acid hexoside being the major phenolic acids. After fermentation, the total contents of phenolic acids, flavonols, and nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds significantly increased, while the content of total flavan-3-ols decreased significantly. -Coumaroyl monotropeins still dominated in the wine products, while caffeic acid content showed dramatic elevation with the significant drop of caffeic acid hexoside.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c02842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497633PMC
July 2020

Comparison of Volatile Composition between Alcoholic Bilberry Beverages Fermented with Non- Yeasts and Dynamic Changes in Volatile Compounds during Fermentation.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Mar 10;68(11):3626-3637. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

The profile of volatile compounds was investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) during bilberry juice fermentation with nine non- yeasts, including , , , , , , , , and . Dynamic changes in volatile compounds were determined simultaneously with the development of ethanol concentration during fermentation. or produced more ethyl acetate than other yeast strains throughout fermentation, while fermentation with resulted in high accumulation of higher alcohols. was associated with high productions of pentane-2,3-dione, 3-hydroxybutan-2-one, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. Among the 59 volatile compounds detected, generally, higher alcohols and monoterpenes accumulated constantly and reached the maximum concentration at the middle or later fermentation stage, whereas aldehydes, ketones, and acetals accumulated first followed by a significant drop. The production and accumulation dynamics of metabolites were highly dependent on the yeast species and the developing ethanol content.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590984PMC
March 2020

Hops compounds modulatory effects and 6-prenylnaringenin dual mode of action on GABA receptors.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Apr 27;873:172962. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a major component of beer, contain potentially neuroactive compounds that made it useful in traditional medicine as a sleeping aid. The present study aims to investigate the individual components in hops acting as allosteric modulators in GABA receptors and bring further insight into the mode of action behind the sedative properties of hops. GABA-potentiating effects were measured using [H]ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB) radioligand binding assay in native GABA receptors. Flumazenil sensitivity of GABA-potentiating effects, [H]Ro 15-4513, and [H]flunitrazepam binding assays were used to examine the binding to the classical benzodiazepines site. Humulone (alpha acid) and 6-prenylnaringenin (prenylflavonoid) were the most potent compounds displaying a modulatory activity at low micromolar concentrations. Humulone and 6-prenylnaringenin potentiated GABA-induced displacement of [H]EBOB binding in a concentration-dependent manner where the IC values for this potentiation in native GABA receptors were 3.2 μM and 3.7 μM, respectively. Flumazenil had no significant effects on humulone- or 6-prenylnaringenin-induced displacement of [H]EBOB binding. [H]Ro 15-4513 and [H]flunitrazepam displacements were only minor with humulone but surprisingly prominent with 6-prenylnaringenin despite its flumazenil-insensitive modulatory activity. Thus, we applied molecular docking methods to investigate putative binding sites and poses of 6-prenylnaringenin at the GABA receptor α1β2γ2 isoform. Radioligand binding and docking results suggest a dual mode of action by 6-prenylnaringenin on GABA receptors where it may act as a positive allosteric modulator at α+β- binding interface as well as a null modulator at the flumazenil-sensitive α+γ2- binding interface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.172962DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of Latitude and Weather Conditions on Proanthocyanidins in Blackcurrant () of Finnish Commercial Cultivars.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Dec 11;67(51):14038-14047. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry , University of Turku , FI-20014 Turku , Finland.

Blackcurrants of three Finnish commercial cultivars 'Mortti', 'Ola', and 'Melalahti' cultivated in southern and northern Finland were compared on the basis of the content and composition of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seventeen B-type PA oligomers (degree of polymerization 2-5 and 7) were detected by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total PAs, dimers, trimers, and tetramers were quantified. Among the three cultivars, 'Ola' had the highest contents of both total PAs and PA oligomers. 'Melalahti' was separated from both 'Mortti' and 'Ola' by PA profiles in the partial least-squares discriminant analysis model. All three cultivars revealed distinct responses to latitude and weather conditions. The content of total PAs showed a positive correlation to latitude in 'Ola' and 'Melalahti'. Among the meteorological variables, high temperature and radiation correlated negatively with total PAs, while only specific variables showed a correlation with PA oligomers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06031DOI Listing
December 2019

Effect of , , and on Composition of Bog Bilberry Juice.

Foods 2019 Sep 21;8(10). Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Forestry Food Processing and Safety, Department of Food Science, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

This study investigated the impact of NCFM, Viniflora Oenos and CICC 6239 on bog bilberry juice with a considerably low pH and rich in anthocyanins content. Moreover, the effects of the strains on the composition of phenolic compounds, amino acids, ammonium ion, biogenic amines, reduced sugars, organic acids, and color parameters of the juice were studied. All three bacteria consumed sugars and amino acids but exhibited different growth patterns. Lactic acid was detected only in inoculated juice. The content of the phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, decreased in juice after inoculation. The CIELa*b* analysis indicated that the juice inoculated with and showed a decrease on a* and b* (less red and yellow) but an increase on L (more lightness), whereas the color attributes of inoculated juice did not significantly change. Based on this study, showed the most optimal performance in the juice due to its better adaptability and fewer effects on the appearance of juice. This study provided a useful reference on the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in low pH juice and the evolution of primary and secondary nutrients in juice after inoculated with lactic acid bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8100430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835820PMC
September 2019

Pyranoanthocyanins in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) wines fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and their evolution during aging.

Food Chem 2020 Feb 31;305:125438. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Fifteen vitisin A-type pyranoanthocyanins (vAPs) were determined in bilberry wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The fermentation involving S. pombe enhanced the production of vAPs compared to the fermentation with pure S. cerevisiae. The formation of vAPs correlated significantly with the decrease in the content of monomeric anthocyanins and pyruvic acid during 12 months of aging. vAPs were more stable than their corresponding monomeric anthocyanins. Methylation in the B-ring and glycosylation with galactose and arabinose further improved the stability of vAPs. Aging for 12 months led to depletion of pyruvic acid and reduction of over 50% of monomeric anthocyanins. The content of vAPs increased by 26-54% during the first six months of aging, followed by a 2.2-10.2% reduction over the following six months. More residual pyruvic acid in S. pombe wines after fermentation consequently enhanced the generation of vAPs during aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125438DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of processing and storage conditions on volatile composition and odor characteristics of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) juices.

Food Chem 2019 Sep 22;293:151-160. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland; Institute of Food Quality and Safety, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Longcheng Street No. 81, 030031 Taiyuan, China. Electronic address:

Blackcurrant juices were prepared without enzyme (NEB-juice) and with conventional enzyme-aided berry pressing (EB-juice). Juices were pasteurized and stored at ambient temperature (in light and dark conditions) and at +4 °C for a 1-year period of time. Volatile composition and odor attributes were followed by HS-SPME-GC-MS and a sensory panel, respectively. Volatiles were decreased in the EB-juice, showing 100-fold lower contents of the main terpenoids, e.g., α-pinene, δ-3-carene, limonene, terpinolene, bornyl acetate and β-caryophyllene; whereas esters, such as methyl butanoate and ethyl butanoate, showed 2- and 4-fold lower contents for the EB-juice. Pasteurization produced minor changes in both juices. Volatiles decreased during storage at room temperature while at +4 °C esters and eucalyptol were kept at 100%. The descriptive sensory analysis reported a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of the berry-like odor after 12-month storage at RT. Storage at +4 °C for 12 months did not affect the odor quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.076DOI Listing
September 2019

Compositional Diversity among Blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum) Cultivars Originating from European Countries.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 May 3;67(19):5621-5633. Epub 2019 May 3.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry , University of Turku , FI-20014 Turku , Finland.

Berries representing 21 cultivars of blackcurrant were analyzed using liquid chromatographic, gas chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods coupled with multivariate models. This study pinpointed compositional variation among cultivars of different origins cultivated in the same location during two seasons. The chemical profiles of blackcurrants varied significantly among cultivars and growing years. The key differences among cultivars of Scottish, Lithuanian, and Finnish origins were in the contents of phenolic acids (23 vs 16 vs 19 mg/100 g on average, respectively), mainly as 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4- O-coumaroylglucose, ( E)-coumaroyloxymethylene-glucopyranosyloxy-( Z)-butenenitrile, and 1- O-feruloylglucose. The Scottish cultivars were grouped on the basis of the 3- O-glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, as were the Lithuanian cultivars. Among the Finnish samples, the content of myricetin 3- O-glycosides, 4- O-caffeoylglucose, 1- O-coumaroylglucose, and 4- O-coumaroylglucose were significantly different between the two green-fruited cultivars and the black-fruited cultivars. The samples from the studied years differed in the content of phenolic acid derivatives, quercetin glycosides, monosaccharides, and citric acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750745PMC
May 2019

Volatile composition of bilberry wines fermented with non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts in pure, sequential and simultaneous inoculations.

Food Microbiol 2019 Jun 28;80:25-39. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juice was fermented with Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD291 and TD70526) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SP3796 and SP70572) in pure fermentation as well as in sequential and simultaneous inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1116 (SC1116). Altogether, 56 volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified with HS-SPME-GC/MS in bilberry products. Yeast fermentation prominently enhanced the aroma complexity of bilberry with a sharp increase in alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and acetals. Compared to S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii produced less ethanol but more fusel alcohols that potentially enhance "alcohol" and "nail polish" odors in TD70526 and less "fruity" esters in TD291. SP70572 resulted in high productions of undesirable compounds of acetoin and acetaldehyde but a low content of higher alcohols and esters, SP3796 produced a high content of fatty acid ethyl esters and acetoin. In comparison with monoculture of non-Saccharomyces yeast, sequential and simultaneous cultures of S. pombe and S. cerevisiae significantly decreased the content of acetoin while increased the relative level of esters; sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae remarkably increased the concentration of acetaldehyde; simultaneous inoculations of S. cerevisiae with TD70526 and TD291 significantly decreased the content of fusel alcohols and increased the content of esters, respectively. The findings suggested that non-Saccharomyces yeasts possess the potential to affect and modulate the aromatic profile of fermented bilberry products. Sequential and simultaneous inoculations with S. pombe strains and S. cerevisiae as well as simultaneous fermentation using T. delbrueckii strains and S. cerevisiae are optimal strategies to positively influence the aroma profile of bilberry wines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2018.12.015DOI Listing
June 2019

Chemical composition of bilberry wine fermented with non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in pure, sequential and mixed fermentations.

Food Chem 2018 Nov 4;266:262-274. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

This study evaluated the effects of fermentation with pure cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD291 and TD70526) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SP3796 and SP70572), as well as in sequential and mixed inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the chemical composition of bilberry wine. In comparison to the bilberry wines produced by pure and sequential fermentations, mixed cultures produced bilberry wines with more ethanol, higher pH values, higher percentages of red and yellow shade, but less glycerol and acetaldehyde. Higher values of color intensity and bluish parameter were found in products of pure fermentations with non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Compared to S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii contributed to the reduction of ethanol and acetic acid while increasing the content of succinic acid, lactic acid and higher alcohols; S. pombe consumed malic acid almost completely and produced more glycerol, acetaldehyde and/or pyruvic acid. Fermentation with SP70572 had the highest amounts of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.003DOI Listing
November 2018

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of tea-type infusions processed from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) leaves.

Food Chem 2019 Jan 4;272:1-11. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides, SB) leaves contain wide-ranging bioactive compounds. Processing of the leaves into beverages/food presents great potential for supporting human health. The research aimed to investigate the impact of different processing methods on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of tea-type infusions prepared from SB leaves. Leaves of two SB cultivars, 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', were processed with different methods commonly used for tea processing. Phenolic compounds in the infusions were analyzed with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array Detection and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-hexoside-7-O-rhamnoside were the three major flavonol glycosides, stachyurin and casuarinin were the most abundant ellagitannins. The infusions of 'Tytti' contained more total phenolics than those of 'Terhi' (p < 0.05). High temperature processing resulted in higher content of total phenolics and ellagitannins in the infusions compared with low temperatures (p < 0.05). Thermal processing decreased the antioxidant activities of the infusions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.006DOI Listing
January 2019

Individual Differences in the Perception of Color Solutions.

Foods 2018 Sep 18;7(9). Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants ( = 205) ranked six different colored solutions just by looking according to four attributes: from most to least pleasant, healthy, sweet and sour. The color sample rated most frequently as the most pleasant was red (37%), the most healthy white (57%), the most sweet red and orange (34% both) and the most sour yellow (54%). Ratings of certain colors differed between gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and education groups. Females regarded the red color as the sweetest more often than males ( = 0.013) while overweight subjects rated the orange as the sweetest more often than normal weight subjects ( = 0.029). Personal characteristics may be associated with some differences in color associations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7090154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163954PMC
September 2018

Sensory properties of Nordic edible mushrooms.

Food Res Int 2018 07 27;109:526-536. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

University of Turku, Functional Foods Forum, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Edible mushrooms are a global food with a history of consumption spanning several millennia. However, studies utilizing modern sensory methods on mushrooms are still scarce. In this study, the sensory properties of Nordic edible mushrooms were analyzed by two methods. In the sensory profile, sous vide processed wild mushroom species Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis, Boletus edulis, and Lactarius camphoratus were studied with cultivated Agaricus bisporus as a control species. The sensory profile consisted of 18 descriptors, and the 5 mushrooms differed from each other in all of them. Only B. edulis and A. bisporus were linked to typical mushroom-like odor. In projective mapping, consumers evaluated blanched wild C. cibarius, C. tubaeformis and Suillus variegatus as well as cultivated Lentinula edodes and both blanched and fresh A. bisporus based on odor and on flavor. The consumers intuitively grouped the samples into three groups: wild, fresh cultivated and processed cultivated mushrooms. Wild mushrooms had a high odor intensity and various odor descriptions but a low flavor intensity. Cultivated mushrooms had opposite descriptions. Both tests showed differences in the sensory descriptors between the cultivated and wild mushrooms with the former linked to typical 'mushroom', indicating the importance and need for descriptive profiles for different mushroom types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.04.059DOI Listing
July 2018

Sensory and chemical profiles of Finnish honeys of different botanical origins and consumer preferences.

Food Chem 2018 Apr 12;246:351-359. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.

The sensory-chemical profiles of Finnish honeys (labeled as buckwheat, cloudberry-bog, lingonberry, sweet clover, willowherb and multifloral honeys) were investigated using a multi-analytical approach. The sensory test (untrained panel, n = 62) was based on scaling and check-all-that-apply (CATA) methods accompanied with questions on preference and usage of honey. The results were correlated with corresponding profiles of odor-active compounds, determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Botanical origins and chemical compositions including sugars were evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. A total of 73 odor-active compounds were listed based on GC-O. Sweet and mild honeys with familiar sensory properties were preferred by the panelists (PCA, RX(1) = 0.7) while buckwheat and cloudberry-bog honeys with strong odor, flavor and color were regarded as unfamiliar and unpleasant. The data will give the honey industry novel information on honey properties in relation to the botanical origin, and consumer preference.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.069DOI Listing
April 2018

Role of Flavonols and Proanthocyanidins in the Sensory Quality of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) Berries.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Nov 1;65(45):9871-9879. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku , FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Sensory profile, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, sugars, and organic acids were investigated in purees of six sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) cultivars. The sensory profiles of the purees were dominated by intense sourness followed by astringency and bitterness due to the high content of malic acid. Malic acid and isorhamnetin glycosides, especially isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside, had close association with the astringent attributes in the different purees, whereas some of the known astringent compounds such as proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers or quercetin glycosides, had less impact. Moreover, the ratios between contents of acids and phenolic compounds were more important predictors of bitterness than the individual variables alone. Astringency and bitterness are important sensory factors for the consumer acceptance of sea buckthorn products. The current study provides new knowledge on the correlations between sensory properties and composition and supports industrial utilization of the sea buckthorn berries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04156DOI Listing
November 2017
-->