Publications by authors named "Osama O Zaidat"

217 Publications

First off Label Endovascular Clinical Experience to Treat Diffuse Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Using the INARI FlowTriever System: Case Report.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:778842. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

St Vincent Mercy Hospital, Neuroscience Institute, Toledo, OH, United States.

Anticoagulation with heparin is the current mainstay treatment for Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST). Endovascular treatment is increasingly being used to treat patients with CVST who are non-responsive to anticoagulation. These more aggressive interventions include catheter-based local chemical thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy with uncertain safety and efficacy. Here we describe the first reported clinical experience using the INARI FlowTriever system to treat a patient presented with focal weakness and found to have diffuse CVST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.778842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8718648PMC
December 2021

First Pass Effect With Neurothrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Stroke Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke Registry.

Stroke 2021 Nov 17:STROKEAHA121035457. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Neurovascular Imaging Research Core and Stroke Center, Department of Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.L.).

Background And Purpose: Achieving complete revascularization after a single pass of a mechanical thrombectomy device (first pass effect [FPE]) is associated with good clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. We assessed patient characteristics, outcomes, and predictors of FPE among a large real-world cohort of patients (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated with Stroke Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke registry).

Methods: Demographics, clinical outcomes, and procedural characteristics were analyzed among patients in whom FPE (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2c/3 after first pass) was achieved versus those requiring multiple passes (MP). Modified FPE and modified MP included patients achieving modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2B-3. Primary outcomes included 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and mortality.

Results: Among 984 Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated with Stroke Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke patients, 930 had complete 90-day follow-up. FPE was achieved in 40.5% (377/930) of patients and MP in 20.0% (186/930). Baseline characteristics were similar across all groups. The FPE group had fewer internal carotid artery occlusions compared with MP (=0.029). The FPE group had faster puncture to recanalization time (≤0.001), higher rates of 90-day mRS score of 0 to 1 (52.6% versus 38.6%, =0.003), mRS score of 0 to 2 (65.4% versus 52.0%, =0.003), and lower 90-day mortality compared with the MP group (12.0% versus 18.7%, =0.038). Similarly, compared with modified MP patients, the modified FPE group had fewer internal carotid artery occlusions (=0.004), faster puncture to recanalization time (≤0.001), and higher rates of 90-day mRS score of 0 to 1 (=0.002) and mRS score of 0 to 2 (=0.003).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that FPE and modified FPE are associated with superior clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.035457DOI Listing
November 2021

Noncontrast Computed Tomography vs Computed Tomography Perfusion or Magnetic Resonance Imaging Selection in Late Presentation of Stroke With Large-Vessel Occlusion.

JAMA Neurol 2022 Jan;79(1):22-31

Neuroscience and Stroke Program, Bon Secours Mercy Health St Vincent Hospital, Toledo, Ohio.

Importance: Advanced imaging for patient selection in mechanical thrombectomy is not widely available.

Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of patients selected for mechanical thrombectomy by noncontrast computed tomography (CT) vs those selected by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the extended time window.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multinational cohort study included consecutive patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion stroke presenting within 6 to 24 hours of time last seen well from January 2014 to December 2020. This study was conducted at 15 sites across 5 countries in Europe and North America. The duration of follow-up was 90 days from stroke onset.

Exposures: Computed tomography with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, CTP, or MRI.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was the distribution of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 90 days (ordinal shift). Secondary outcomes included the rates of 90-day functional independence (mRS scores of 0-2), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality.

Results: Of 2304 patients screened for eligibility, 1604 patients were included, with a median (IQR) age of 70 (59-80) years; 848 (52.9%) were women. A total of 534 patients were selected to undergo mechanical thrombectomy by CT, 752 by CTP, and 318 by MRI. After adjustment of confounders, there was no difference in 90-day ordinal mRS shift between patients selected by CT vs CTP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.77-1.17]; P = .64) or CT vs MRI (aOR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.8-1.13]; P = .55). The rates of 90-day functional independence (mRS scores 0-2 vs 3-6) were similar between patients selected by CT vs CTP (aOR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.7-1.16]; P = .42) but lower in patients selected by MRI than CT (aOR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.64-0.98]; P = .03). Successful reperfusion was more common in the CT and CTP groups compared with the MRI group (474 [88.9%] and 670 [89.5%] vs 250 [78.9%]; P < .001). No significant differences in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (CT, 42 [8.1%]; CTP, 43 [5.8%]; MRI, 15 [4.7%]; P = .11) or 90-day mortality (CT, 125 [23.4%]; CTP, 159 [21.1%]; MRI, 62 [19.5%]; P = .38) were observed.

Conclusions And Relevance: In patients undergoing proximal anterior circulation mechanical thrombectomy in the extended time window, there were no significant differences in the clinical outcomes of patients selected with noncontrast CT compared with those selected with CTP or MRI. These findings have the potential to widen the indication for treating patients in the extended window using a simpler and more widespread noncontrast CT-only paradigm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.4082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576630PMC
January 2022

Predictors of unfavorable outcomes despite substantial reperfusion: Insights from Analysis of Revascularization in Ischemic Stroke With EmboTrap II Study.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Oct 30:15910199211051553. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Mercy St Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.

Background: A considerable proportion of stroke patients have unfavorable outcomes despite substantial reperfusion during mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion. This study aimed to determine predictors of unfavorable outcomes despite substantial reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of ≥2b).

Methods: We conducted a post hoc analysis of Analysis of Revascularization in Ischemic Stroke With EmboTrap, a prospective, multicenter study on the efficacy of the EmboTrap revascularization device. We included patients with anterior large vessel occlusion, substantial reperfusion within three passes, and 3-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of dependency or death (modified Rankin Score 3-6) at 90 days.

Results: Of the 176 patients included in the study, 124 (70.45%) achieved modified Rankin Score of 0-2 at 90 days and 52 (29.6%) had modified Rankin Score of 3-6. On univariate analysis, patient age and initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were significantly higher in the modified Rankin Score of 3-6 groups (71.4 ± 11.3 years vs. 66.0 ± 13.1 years, 0.01; 18.9 ± 4.13 vs. 14.6 ± 4.36,  < 0.01, respectively). Mean number of passes and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were also higher in patients with modified Rankin Score of 3-6 (2.46 ± 1.42 vs. 1.65 ± 0.9, p < 0.01; 13.5% vs. 2.4%,  = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and mean number of passes and were independent predictors of modified Rankin Score of 3-6 at 90 days.

Conclusion: More severe initial neurologic deficit and higher number of passes in patients with substantial reperfusion were independent predictors of dependency or death. These findings highlight a reduction in the number of passes required to achieve reperfusion as a therapeutic target to improve the outcome after thrombectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15910199211051553DOI Listing
October 2021

Embotrap Extraction & Clot Evaluation & Lesion Evaluation for NeuroThrombectomy (EXCELLENT) Registry design and methods.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Grady Memorial Hospital, Chickasha, Georgia, USA.

Background: Relationships between occlusive clot histopathology, baseline characteristics, imaging findings, revascularization rates, and clinical outcomes of stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) are not well understood. This study will assess the real-world experience on the efficacy and safety of using the EmboTrap device as the first approach in LVO patients and explore the associations between clot histological characteristics, imaging and clinical findings, revascularization rates, and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Prospective, global, multicenter, single-arm, imaging core laboratory, and clot analysis central laboratory observational registry. Adult patients (>18 years) with LVO, treated with EmboTrap as the first attempted device, will be eligible for study participation.

Results: Up to 1000 subjects at 50 international sites may be enrolled. Occlusive clots will be collected from at least 500 subjects. Independent central and imaging core laboratories will perform clot analysis and image adjudication. Statistical analysis will assess the association between imaging and clinical findings, clot characteristics, subject comorbidities, revascularization, and clinical outcomes. Study endpoints are functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days), expanded Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (eTICI) score ≥2b50 rate, first-pass effect, number of passes, embolization into new territory, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality.

Conclusions: The EXCELLENT registry will provide reproducible effectiveness and safety data of EmboTrap for its use for mechanical thrombectomy. Additionally, the study will characterize the blood clots retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy with respect to their composition and histopathological analysis and potential correlations with clinical and imaging findings.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03685578.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017671DOI Listing
October 2021

Safety of endovascular therapy for symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis: a national prospective registry.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Neurology, Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Lishui, China.

Introduction: The safety outcomes of endovascular therapy for intracranial artery stenosis in a real-world stetting are largely unknown. The Clinical Registration Trial of Intracranial Stenting for Patients with Symptomatic Intracranial Artery Stenosis (CRTICAS) was a prospective, multicentre, real-world registry designed to assess these outcomes and the impact of centre experience.

Methods: 1140 severe, symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) patients treated with endovascular therapy were included from 26 centres, further divided into three groups according to the annual centre volume of intracranial angioplasty and stent placement procedures over 2 years: (1) high volume for ≥25 cases/year; (2) moderate volume for 10-25 cases/year and (3) low volume for <10 cases/year.

Results: The rate of 30-day stroke, transient ischaemic attack or death was 9.7% (111), with 5.4%, 21.1% and 9.7% in high-volume, moderate-volume and low-volume centres, respectively (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression confirmed high-volume centres had a significantly lower primary endpoint compared with moderate-volume centres (OR=0.187, 95% CI: 0.056 to 0.627; p≤0.0001), while moderate-volume and low-volume centres showed no significant difference (p=0.8456).

Conclusion: Compared with the preceding randomised controlled trials, this real-world, prospective, multicentre registry shows a lower complication rate of endovascular treatment for symptomatic ICAS. Non-uniform utilisation in endovascular technology, institutional experience and patient selection in different volumes of centres may have an impact on overall safety of this treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2021-000979DOI Listing
October 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke With the Penumbra System in Routine Practice: COMPLETE Registry Results.

Stroke 2021 09 22:STROKEAHA121034268. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Mercy Health St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH (O.O.Z.).

Background And Purpose: The purpose of the COMPLETE (International Acute Ischemic Stroke Registry With the Penumbra System Aspiration Including the 3D Revascularization Device) registry was to evaluate the generalizability of the safety and efficacy of the Penumbra System (Penumbra, Inc, Alameda) in a real-world setting.

Methods: COMPLETE was a global, prospective, postmarket, multicenter registry. Patients with large vessel occlusion-acute ischemic stroke who underwent mechanical thrombectomy using the Penumbra System with or without the 3D Revascularization Device as frontline approach were enrolled at 42 centers (29 United States, 13 Europe) from July 2018 to October 2019. Primary efficacy end points were successful postprocedure angiographic revascularization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b) and 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2). The primary safety end point was 90-day all-cause mortality. An imaging core lab determined modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores, clot location, and occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage at 24 hours. Independent medical reviewers adjudicated safety end points.

Results: Six hundred fifty patients were enrolled (median age 70 years, 54.0% female, 49.2% given intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator before thrombectomy). Rate of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 postprocedure was 87.8% (95% CI, 85.3%-90.4%). First pass and postprocedure rates of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2c to 3 were 41.5% and 66.2%, respectively. At 90 days, 55.8% (95% CI, 51.9%-59.7%) had modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2, and all-cause mortality was 15.5% (95% CI, 12.8%-18.3%).

Conclusions: Using Penumbra System for frontline mechanical thrombectomy treatment of patients with large vessel occlusion-acute ischemic stroke in a real-world setting was associated with angiographic, clinical, and safety outcomes that were comparable to prior randomized clinical trials with stringent site and operator selection criteria.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03464565.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.034268DOI Listing
September 2021

Prestroke Disability and Outcome After Thrombectomy for Emergent Anterior Circulation Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke.

Neurology 2021 11 20;97(19):e1914-e1919. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

From the Department of Neurology (A.d.H.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Department of Neurology (A.C.), University of Toledo, OH; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (R.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (T.N.N.), Boston Medical Center, MA; California Pacific Medical Center (J.E.), San Francisco; Department of Neurointerventional Surgery (S.R.S.), Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE; Department of Neurosurgery (E.V.), Drexel Neurosciences Institute, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Neurology (J.L.S.), University of California, Los Angeles; Department of Neurosurgery (J.M.), Mt. Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Neurology (P.K.), University of Cincinnati, OH; Department of Neurology (E.M.), Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health-St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH.

Background And Objectives: To determine the impact of endovascular therapy for large vessel occlusion stroke in patients with vs those without premorbid disability.

Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of the TREVO Stent-Retriever Acute Stroke (TRACK) Registry, which collected data on 634 consecutive patients with stroke treated with the Trevo device as first-line endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) at 23 centers in the United States. We included patients with internal carotid or middle cerebral (M1/M2 segment) artery occlusions, and the study exposure was patient- or caregiver-reported premorbid modified Rank Scale (mRS) score ≥2 (premorbid disability [PD]) vs premorbid mRS score of 0 to 1 (no PD [NPD]). The primary outcome was no accumulated disability, defined as no increase in 90-day mRS score from the patient's premorbid mRS score.

Results: Of the 634 patients in TRACK, 407 patients were included in our cohort, of whom 53 (13.0%) had PD. The primary outcome of no accumulated disability was achieved in 37.7% (20 of 53) of patients with PD and 16.7% (59 of 354) of patients with NPD ( < 0.001), while death occurred in 39.6% (21 of 53) and 14.1% (50 of 354) ( < 0.001), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of no accumulated disability for patients with PD was 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-11.4, < 0.001) compared to patients with NPD. However, the adjusted odds ratio for death in patients with PD was 2.90 (95% CI 1.38-6.09, = 0.005).

Discussion: In this study of patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke treated with EVT, we found that PD was associated with a higher probability of not accumulating further disability compared to patients with NPD but also with higher probability of death.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke treated with EVT, patients with PD compared to those without disability were more likely not to accumulate more disability but were more likely to die.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8601211PMC
November 2021

Trends in interventional stroke device utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 10 2;209:106931. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The collateral effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on interventional stroke care is not well described. We studied this effect by utilizing stroke device sales data as markers of interventional stroke case volume in the United States.

Methods: Using a real-time healthcare device sales registry, this observational study examined trends in the sales of thrombectomy devices and cerebral aneurysm coiling from the same 945 reporting hospitals in the U.S. between January 22 and June 31, 2020, and for the same months in 2018 and 2019 to allow for comparison. We simultaneously reviewed daily reports of new COVID-19 cases. The strength of association between the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 and procedural device sales was measured using Spearman rank correlation coefficient (CC).

Results: Device sales decreased for thrombectomy (- 3.7%) and cerebral aneurysm coiling (- 8.5%) when comparing 2019-2020. In 2020, thrombectomy device sales were negatively associated with the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 (CC - 0.56, p < 0.0001), with stronger negative correlation during April (CC - 0.97, p < 0.0001). The same negative correlation was observed with aneurysm treatment devices (CC - 0.60, p < 0.001), with stronger correlation in April (CC - 0.97, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The decline in sales of stroke interventional equipment underscores a decline in associated case volumes. Future pandemic responses should consider strategies to mitigate such negative collateral effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411657PMC
October 2021

Stent Retriever Thrombectomy for Anterior vs. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the STRATIS Registry.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:706130. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

The benefits of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in vertebrobasilar artery occlusions have not been well-studied. We compared clinical, procedural, and safety outcomes of MT for posterior circulation (PC) vs. anterior circulation (AC) occlusions among patients in the STRATIS registry. Data from STRATIS including patient demographics, procedural characteristics, and outcomes including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) at 24 h, serious adverse events (SAE), substantial reperfusion [modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) 2b/3], 90-day functional independence [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2], and 90-day mortality were analyzed. Univariate logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of good clinical outcome. Of 984 STRATIS patients, 43 (4.4%) patients with PC occlusions [mean age 63.0 ± 13.6, 25.6% (11/43) female] and 932 (94.7%) with AC occlusions [mean age 68.5 ± 14.8, 46.9% (437/932) female] were included for analysis. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at baseline were 17.0 (13.0, 12.0) for the AC group and 12.0 (11.0, 24.0) for the PC group. Time from onset to procedure end was longer for the PC group [median (IQR): 322.0 min (255.0-421.0) vs. 271.0 min (207.0-360.0); = 0.007]. PC and AC groups had similar rates of substantial reperfusion [89.2% (33/37) vs. 87.7% (684/780)], procedure-related SAE [0.0% (0/43) vs. 1.7% (16/932)], sICH [0.0% (0/38) vs. 1.5% (12/795)], 90-day functional independence [66.7% (26/39) vs. 55.9% (480/858)] and mortality [12.8% (5/39) vs. 15.8% (136/861)]. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and patient sex were significant univariate predictors of good clinical outcome ( < 0.05). Despite longer reperfusion times, MT in PC stroke has similar rates of 90-day functional independence with no significant difference in procedure-related SAE, sICH, or mortality, supporting the use of MT in PC acute ischemic stroke (AIS). https://www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02239640.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.706130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421856PMC
August 2021

Middle Cerebral Artery M2 Thrombectomy in the STRATIS Registry.

Stroke 2021 11 27;52(11):3490-3496. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Iowa, Iowa City (K.L., M.F., S.O.-G.).

Background And Purpose: The safety and benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients with M2 segment middle cerebral artery occlusions remain uncertain. Here, we compare clinical and angiographic outcomes in M2 versus M1 occlusions in the STRATIS (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) Registry.

Methods: The STRATIS Registry was a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, observational study of acute ischemic stroke large vessel occlusion patients treated with the Solitaire stent-retriever as the first-choice therapy within 8 hours from symptoms onset. Primary outcome was defined as functional disability at 3 months measured by dichotomized modified Rankin Scale. Secondary outcomes included reperfusion rates and rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Results: A total of 984 patients were included, of which 538 (54.7%) had M1 and 170 (17.3%) had M2 occlusions. Baseline demographics were well balanced within the groups, with the exception of mean baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score which was significantly higher in the M1 population (17.3±5.5 versus 15.7±5.0, P≤0.001). No difference was seen in mean puncture to revascularization times between the cohorts (46.0±27.8 versus 45.1±29.5 minutes, P=0.75). Rates of successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction≥2b) were similar between the groups (91% versus 95%, P=0.09). M2 patients had significantly increased rates of symptomatic ICH at 24 hours (4% versus 1%, P=0.01). Rates of good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2; 58% versus 59%, P=0.83) and mortality (15% versus 14%, P=0.75) were similar between the 2 groups. There was no difference in the association of outcome and onset to groin puncture or onset to successful reperfusion in M1 and M2 occlusions.

Conclusions: In the STRATIS Registry, M2 occlusions achieved similar rates of successful reperfusion, good functional outcome, and mortality, although increased rates of symptomatic ICH were demonstrated when compared with M1 occlusions. The time dependence of benefit was also similar between the 2 groups. Further studies are needed to understand the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy for M2 occlusions.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239640.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033951DOI Listing
November 2021

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the STRATIS Registry, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:663058. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Neuroradiology, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The indications for mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke continue to broaden, leading neurointerventionalists to treat vessel occlusions at increasingly distal locations farther in time from stroke onset. Accessing these smaller vessels raises the concern of iatrogenic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) owing to increasing complexity in device navigation and retrieval. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SAH following mechanical thrombectomy, associated predictors, and resulting functional outcomes using a multicenter registry and compare this with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Data from STRATIS (The Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated with Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) registry were analyzed dichotomized by the presence or absence of SAH after thrombectomy. Only patients with 24-h post-procedural neuroimaging were included ( = 841). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant predictors of SAH. A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis was also conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) protocol. The prevalence of post-thrombectomy SAH was 5.23% in STRATIS with 15.9% (1.84% overall) experiencing neurological decline. Distal location of vessel occlusion (OR 3.41 [95% CI: 1.75-6.63], < 0.001) and more than 3 device passes (OR 1.34 [95% CI: 1.09-1.64], = 0.01) were associated with a higher probability of SAH in contrast to a reduction with administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (OR 0.48 [95% CI: 0.26-0.89], = 0.02). There was a trend toward a higher discharge NIHSS (8.3 ± 8.7 vs. 5.3 ± 6.6, = 0.07) with a significantly reduced proportion achieving functional independence at 90 days (modified Rankin Score 0-2: 32.5% vs. 57.8%, = 0.002) in SAH patients. Pooled analysis of 10,126 patients from 6 randomized controlled trials and 64 observational studies demonstrated a prevalence of 5.85% [95% CI: 4.51-7.34%, : 85.2%]. Only location of vessel occlusion was significant for increased odds of SAH at distal sites (OR 2.89 [95% CI: 1.14, 7.35]). Iatrogenic SAH related to mechanical thrombectomy is more common with treatment of distally-situated occlusions and multiple device passes. While low in overall prevalence, its effect is not benign with fewer patients reaching post-procedural functional independence, particularly if symptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.663058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185211PMC
May 2021

Impact of Age and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score 0 to 5 on Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes: Analysis From the STRATIS Registry.

Stroke 2021 07 3;52(7):2220-2228. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Advanced Neuroscience Network/Tenet South Florida, Boynton Beach (N.H.M.-K.).

Background And Purpose: This study investigates clinical outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy in adult patients with baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) of 0 to 5.

Methods: We included data from the STRATIS Registry (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) from patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours of symptom onset and had available ASPECTS data adjudicated by an independent core laboratory. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were collected, including successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b), functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), 90-day mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 24 hours. Outcomes were stratified by ASPECTS scores and age.

Results: Of the 984 patients enrolled, 763 had available ASPECTS data. Of these patients, 57 had ASPECTS of 0 to 5 with a median age of 63 years (interquartile range, 28-100), whereas 706 patients had ASPECTS of 6 to 10 with a median age of 70 years of age (interquartile range, 19-100). Ten patients had ASPECTS of 0 to 3 and 47 patients had ASPECTS of 4 to 5 at baseline. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 85.5% (47/55) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 group. Functional independence was achieved in 28.8% (15/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 versus 59.7% (388/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). Mortality rates were 30.8% (16/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 13.4% (87/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). sICH rates were 7.0% (4/57) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 0.9% (6/682) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). No patients aged >75 years with ASPECTS of 0 to 5 (0/12) achieved functional independence versus 44.8% (13/29) of those age ≤65 (=0.005).

Conclusions: Patients <65 years of age with large core infarction (ASPECTS 0-5) have better rates of functional independence and lower rates of mortality compared with patients >75 years of age. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239640.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240495PMC
July 2021

Benchmarking the Extent and Speed of Reperfusion: First Pass TICI 2c-3 Is a Preferred Endovascular Reperfusion Endpoint.

Front Neurol 2021 11;12:669934. Epub 2021 May 11.

Mercy St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH, United States.

End-of-procedure substantial reperfusion [modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) 2b-3], the leading endpoint for thrombectomy studies, has several limitations including a ceiling effect, with recent achieved rates of ~90%. We aimed to identify a more optimal definition of angiographic success along two dimensions: (1) the extent of tissue reperfusion, and (2) the speed of revascularization. Core-lab adjudicated TICI scores for the first three passes of EmboTrap and the final all-procedures result were analyzed in the ARISE II multicenter study. The clinical impact of extent of reperfusion and speed of reperfusion (first-pass vs. later-pass) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes included 90-day functional independence [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2], 90-day freedom-from-disability (mRS 0-1), and dramatic early improvement [24-h National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement ≥ 8 points]. Among 161 ARISE II subjects with ICA or MCA M1 occlusions, reperfusion results at procedure end showed substantial reperfusion in 149 (92.5%), excellent reperfusion in 121 (75.2%), and complete reperfusion in 79 (49.1%). Reperfusion rates on first pass were substantial in 81 (50.3%), excellent reperfusion in 62 (38.5%), and complete reperfusion in 44 (27.3%). First-pass excellent reperfusion (first-pass TICI 2c-3) had the greatest nominal predictive value for 90-day mRS 0-2 (sensitivity 58.5%, specificity 68.6%). There was a progressive worsening of outcomes with each additional pass required to achieve TICI 2c-3. First-pass excellent reperfusion (TICI 2c-3), reflecting rapid achievement of extensive reperfusion, is the technical revascularization endpoint that best predicted functional independence in this international multicenter trial and is an attractive candidate for a lead angiographic endpoint for future trials. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02488915.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.669934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144635PMC
May 2021

The SMART Registry: Long-Term Results on the Utility of the Penumbra SMART COIL System for Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms and Other Malformations.

Front Neurol 2021 13;12:637551. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Hospital, Miami, FL, United States.

Penumbra SMART COIL® (SMART) System is a novel generation embolic coil with varying stiffness. The study purpose was to report real-world usage of the SMART System in patients with intracranial aneurysms (ICA) and non-aneurysm vascular lesions. The SMART Registry is a post-market, prospective, multicenter registry requiring ≥75% Penumbra Coils, including SMART, PC400, and/or POD coils. The primary efficacy endpoint was retreatment rate at 1-year and the primary safety endpoint was the procedural device-related serious adverse event rate. Between June 2016 and August 2018, 995 patients (mean age 59.6 years, 72.1% female) were enrolled at 68 sites in the U.S. and Canada. Target lesions were intracranial aneurysms in 91.0% of patients; 63.5% were wide-neck and 31.8% were ruptured. Adjunctive devices were used in 55.2% of patients. Mean packing density was 32.3%. Procedural device-related serious adverse events occurred in 2.6% of patients. The rate of immediate post-procedure adequate occlusion was 97.1% in aneurysms and the rate of complete occlusion was 85.2% in non-aneurysms. At 1-year, the retreatment rate was 6.8%, Raymond Roy Occlusion Classification (RROC) I or II was 90.0% for aneurysms, and Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 was achieved in 83.1% of all patients. Predictors of 1-year for RROC III or retreatment (incomplete occlusion) were rupture status ( < 0.0001), balloon-assisted coiling ( = 0.0354), aneurysm size ( = 0.0071), and RROC III immediate post-procedure ( = 0.0086) in a model that also included bifurcation aneurysm ( = 0.7788). Predictors of aneurysm retreatment at 1-year was rupture status ( < 0.0001). Lesions treated with SMART System coils achieved low long-term retreatment rates. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT02729740.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.637551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076606PMC
April 2021

Neuroform Atlas Stent for Treatment of Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: 1-Year Outcomes From Neuroform Atlas Stent Pivotal Trial.

Neurosurgery 2021 06;89(1):102-108

Neuroscience Department, Bon Secours Mercy Health St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USA.

Background: Heterogeneous effect of endovascular aneurysm therapy has been observed across different anatomic locations. There is a paucity of data for stent-assisted coiling of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.

Objective: To present the results of the MCA aneurysm group from the Neuroform Atlas (Stryker Neurovascular) investigational device exemption (IDE) trial.

Methods: The Atlas IDE trial is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of wide-neck aneurysms (neck ≥ 4 mm or dome-to-neck ratio < 2) in the anterior circulation treated with the Neuroform Atlas Stent and approved coils. Follow-up was obtained immediately postprocedure and 2, 6, and 12 mo postoperatively. We herein describe safety and efficacy outcomes, and functional independence of the subjects with aneurysms from all segments of MCA.

Results: A total of 35 patients were included (27 MCA bifurcation, 5 M1, 3 M2). The mean aneurysm size was 6.0 ± 1.8 mm, and the mean neck was 4.4 ± 1.2 mm. Technical procedural success was achieved in all patients. A total of 26 patients had follow-up digital subtraction angiography available at 12 mo, with 80.8% (21/26) having complete aneurysm occlusion. Twelve-month safety data were collected for 91.4% (32/35), 8.5% (3/35) had primary safety endpoint, all 3 major ischemic strokes. Mortality occurred in 2 patients beyond 30 d unrelated to procedure (1 gallbladder cancer and 1 fentanyl intoxication). At 1 yr, modified Rankin Score was 0 to 2 in 84.4% (27/32), 3 in 9.4%, and 3 patients were missing. Approximately 5.7% (2/35) of patients were retreated at 12 mo.

Conclusion: Stent-assisted coiling with the Neuroform Atlas Stent is a viable alternative to clipping for selected MCA aneurysms. Complete aneurysm occlusion rates have improved compared to historical data. Proper case selection can lead to acceptable endovascular results.
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June 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 12 26;6(4):542-552. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
December 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Pivotal trial of the Neuroform Atlas stent for treatment of posterior circulation aneurysms: one-year outcomes.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Feb 15;14(2):143-148. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (IAs) using the Neuroform Atlas Stent System (Atlas) has shown promising results.

Objective: To present the primary efficacy and safety results of the ATLAS Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) trial in a cohort of patients with posterior circulation IAs.

Methods: The ATLAS trial is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of unruptured, wide-necked, IAs treated with the Atlas stent and adjunctive coiling. This study reports the results of patients with posterior circulation IAs. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete aneurysm occlusion (Raymond-Roy (RR) class I) on 12-month angiography, in the absence of re-treatment or parent artery stenosis >50%. The primary safety endpoint was any major ipsilateral stroke or neurological death within 12 months. Adjudication of the primary endpoints was performed by an imaging core laboratory and a Clinical Events Committee.

Results: The ATLAS trial enrolled and treated 116 patients at 25 medical centers with unruptured, wide-necked, posterior circulation IAs (mean age 60.2±10.5 years, 81.0% (94/116) female). Stents were placed in all patients with 100% technical success rate. A total of 95/116 (81.9%) patients had complete angiographic follow-up at 12 months, of whom 81 (85.3%) had complete aneurysm occlusion (RR class I). The primary effectiveness outcome was achieved in 76.7% (95% CI 67.0% to 86.5%) of patients. Overall, major ipsilateral stroke and secondary persistent neurological deficit occurred in 4.3% (5/116) and 1.7% (2/116) of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: In the ATLAS IDE posterior circulation cohort, the Neuroform Atlas Stent System with adjunctive coiling demonstrated high rates of technical and safety performance. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02340585.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017115DOI Listing
February 2022

Health Economic Impact of First Pass Success: An Asia-Pacific Cost Analysis of the ARISE II Study.

J Stroke 2021 Jan 31;23(1):139-143. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Departments of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2020.05043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900400PMC
January 2021

Education Research: Challenges Faced by Neurology Trainees in a Neuro-Intervention Career Track.

Neurology 2021 04 12;96(15):e2028-e2032. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

From Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (C.W.L.); UC Riverside School of Medicine (C.W.L.), CA; Washington University School of Medicine (S.D.), St Louis, MO; University of Iowa (S.O.-G.), Iowa City; University of California, Los Angeles (D.S.L.); Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center (J.C.G.), Houston; Cooper University Hospital (T.G.J.), Cooper Medical School of Rowan University Camden, NJ; Boston Medical Center (T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Marcus Stroke & Neuroscience Center (R.G.N.), Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; State University of New York Upstate Medical University (H.M.), Syracuse; Semmes-Murphey Clinic (L.E.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; BSMH St Vincent Medical Center (O.O.Z.), Toledo, OH; University of Texas Rio Grande Valley (A.E.H.), Harlingen; Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute (I.L.), FL; Mount Sinai Hospital (J.T.F.), New York; and University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (S.A.S.).

Objective: The widespread adoption of endovascular therapy (EVT) for emergent large vessel occlusion has led to increased nationwide demand for neurointerventionalists, heightened interest among neurology residents to pursue neurointervention as a career, and increased importance of neurointervention exposure for all neurologists who care for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Exposure to neurointervention and its career path are not well-defined for neurology trainees.

Methods: The Society for Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Education Committee conducted a multicenter electronic survey directed towards neurology residents and vascular neurology (VN), neurocritical care (NCC), and neurointervention fellows in June 2018. A total of 250 programs were invited to participate; 76 trainees completed the survey.

Results: Respondents self-identified as 22% postgraduate year (PGY)2, 40% PGY3/4, 30% VN fellows, and 8% neurointervention or NCC fellows. Eighty-seven percent of trainees had more than 2 months exposure to VN during residency, 41% to NCC, and only 3% to neurointervention. Sixty-eight percent of respondents had no exposure to neurointervention during residency. Whereas 72% believed that a background in neurology was good preparation for neurointervention, only 41% agreed that fellowship training pathway in neurointervention is well-structured for neurology residents when compared to other subspecialties.

Conclusion: In this survey, respondents identified lack of exposure to neurointervention and a well-defined training pathway as obstacles towards pursuing neurointervention as a career. These obstacles must be addressed for the continued development of neurointervention as a subspecialty of neurology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011629DOI Listing
April 2021

Endovascular thrombectomy time metrics in the era of COVID-19: observations from the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology Multicenter Collaboration.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Jan 8;14(1). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Health Care, Camden, New Jersey, USA

Background: Unprecedented workflow shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to delays in acute care delivery, but whether it adversely affected endovascular thrombectomy metrics in acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of observational data from 14 comprehensive stroke centers in nine US states with acute LVO. EVT metrics were compared between March to July 2019 against March to July 2020 (primary analysis), and between state-specific pre-peak and peak COVID-19 months (secondary analysis), with multivariable adjustment.

Results: Of the 1364 patients included in the primary analysis (51% female, median NIHSS 14 [IQR 7-21], and 74% of whom underwent EVT), there was no difference in the primary outcome of door-to-puncture (DTP) time between the 2019 control period and the COVID-19 period (median 71 vs 67 min, P=0.10). After adjustment for variables associated with faster DTP, and clustering by site, there remained a trend toward shorter DTP during the pandemic (β=-73.2, 95% CI -153.8-7.4, Pp=0.07). There was no difference in DTP times according to local COVID-19 peaks vs pre-peak months in unadjusted or adjusted multivariable regression (β=-3.85, 95% CI -36.9-29.2, P=0.80). In this final multivariable model (secondary analysis), faster DTP times were significantly associated with transfer from an outside institution (β=-46.44, 95% CI -62.8 to - -30.0, P<0.01) and higher NIHSS (β=-2.15, 95% CI -4.2to - -0.1, P=0.05).

Conclusions: In this multi-center study, there was no delay in EVT among patients treated for intracranial occlusion during the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871225PMC
January 2022

Duration of symptomatic stroke and successful reperfusion with endovascular thrombectomy for anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Dec 1;13(12):1128-1131. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Neuroscience, Mercy Health Saint Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USA

Background: It has been reported that longer time intervals from stroke onset to endovascular therapy are associated with lower rates of successful reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion. However, procedural variables and potential mechanisms of this association have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of individual patient data from the North American Solitaire Stent Retriever Acute Stroke (NASA) and Trevo Stent-Retriever Acute Stroke (TRACK) registries. We included patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery (M1 and M2 segments) who were treated by mechanical thrombectomy within 24 hours of last known normal. The primary outcome was reperfusion, defined as a Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score ≥2b. The secondary outcome was reperfusion on the first pass. The primary predictor was duration of symptomatic stroke, defined as time from last known normal to time of final pass. Adjusted logistic regression models were utilized to determine associations between variables and outcome.

Results: We included 506 patients, of which 401 (79.3%) achieved successful reperfusion (TICI 2b/3). The mean (SD) duration of symptomatic stroke was 6.8 (3.5) hours and in the adjusted logistic regression model the duration of symptomatic stroke was associated with reperfusion (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.96) and reperfusion on the first pass (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95). In that model, the predicted probability of reperfusion was 88% (95% CI 0.83 to 0.92) at 1 hour, 81% (95% CI 0.78 to 0.84) at 6 hours, 70% (95% CI 0.63 to 0.77) at 12 hours, and 42% (95% CI 0.17 to 0.67) at 24 hours (p=0.001). Reperfused patients were significantly younger, more likely to be male, and to have had a balloon guide catheter used during the procedure.

Conclusion: In a real-world cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation occlusion treated with endovascular therapy, longer duration of symptomatic stroke is associated with lower rates of successful reperfusion and reperfusion on the first pass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325713PMC
December 2021

Safety and efficacy of intra-arterial fibrinolytics as adjunct to mechanical thrombectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational data.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Dec 29;13(12):1073-1080. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Achieving the best possible reperfusion is a key determinant of clinical outcome after mechanical thrombectomy (MT). However, data on the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) fibrinolytics as an adjunct to MT with the intention to improve reperfusion are sparse.

Methods: We performed a PROSPERO-registered (CRD42020149124) systematic review and meta-analysis accessing MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2020. A random-effect estimate (Mantel-Haenszel) was computed and summary OR with 95% CI were used as a measure of added IA fibrinolytics versus control on the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and secondary endpoints (modified Rankin Scale ≤2, mortality at 90 days).

Results: The search identified six observational cohort studies and three observational datasets of MT randomized-controlled trial data reporting on IA fibrinolytics with MT as compared with MT alone, including 2797 patients (405 with additional IA fibrinolytics (100 urokinase (uPA), 305 tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)) and 2392 patients without IA fibrinolytics). Of 405 MT patients treated with additional IA fibrinolytics, 209 (51.6%) received prior intravenous tPA. We did not observe an increased risk of sICH after administration of IA fibrinolytics as adjunct to MT (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.76), nor excess mortality (0.81, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.08). Although the mode of reporting was heterogeneous, some studies observed improved reperfusion after IA fibrinolytics.

Conclusion: The quality of evidence regarding peri-interventional administration of IA fibrinolytics in MT is low and limited to observational data. In highly selected patients, no increase in sICH was observed, but there is large uncertainty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8606438PMC
December 2021

Health economic impact of first-pass success among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy: a United States and European perspective.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Dec 21;13(12):1117-1123. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Departments of Radiology and Neurology, AZ Groeninge, Kortrijk, Belgium.

Background: First-pass effect (FPE), restoring complete or near complete reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 2c-3) in a single pass, is an independent predictor for good functional outcomes in the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The economic implications of achieving FPE have not been assessed.

Objective: To assess the economic impact of achieving complete or near complete reperfusion after the first pass.

Methods: Post hoc analyses were conducted using ARISE II study data. The target population consisted of patients in whom mTICI 2c-3 was achieved, stratified into two groups: (1) mTICI 2c-3 achieved after the first pass (FPE group) or (2) after multiple passes (non-FPE group). Baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and healthcare resource use were compared between groups. Costs from peer-reviewed literature were applied to assess cost consequences from the perspectives of the United States (USA), France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom (UK).

Results: Among patients who achieved mTICI 2c-3 (n=172), FPE was achieved in 53% (n=91). A higher proportion of patients in the FPE group reached good functional outcomes (90-day modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 80.46% vs 61.04%, p<0.01). The patients in the FPE group had a shorter mean length of stay (6.10 vs 9.48 days, p<0.01) and required only a single stent retriever, whereas 35% of patients in the non-FPE group required at least one additional device. Driven by improvement in clinical outcomes, the FPE group had lower procedural/hospitalization-related (24-33% reduction) and annual care (11-27% reduction) costs across all countries.

Conclusions: FPE resulted in improved clinical outcomes, translating into lower healthcare resource use and lower estimated costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8606461PMC
December 2021

Proximal Internal Carotid artery Acute Stroke Secondary to tandem Occlusions (PICASSO) international survey.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Dec 15;13(12):1106-1110. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Division of Neurointerventional Surgery-Interventional Neuroradiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Background: While mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is the standard of care for large vessel occlusion strokes, the optimal management of tandem occlusions (TO) remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the current practice patterns among stroke physicians involved in the treatment of TO during MT.

Methods: We distributed an online survey to neurovascular practitioners (stroke neurologists, neurointerventionalists, neurosurgeons, and radiologists), members of professional societies. After 2 months the site was closed and data were extracted and analyzed. We divided respondents into acute stenting and delayed treatment groups and responses were compared between the two groups.

Results: We received 220 responses from North America (48%), Latin America (28%), Asia (15%), Europe (5%), and Africa (4%). Preferred timing for cervical revascularization varied among respondents; 51% preferred treatment in a subsequent procedure during the same hospitalization whereas 39% preferred to treat during MT. Angioplasty and stenting (41%) was the preferred technique, followed by balloon angioplasty and local aspiration (38%). The risk of intracerebral hemorrhage was the most compelling reason for not stenting acutely (68%). There were no significant differences among practice characteristics and timing groups. Most practitioners (70%) agreed that there is equipoise regarding the optimal endovascular treatment of cervical lesions in TO; hence, 77% would participate in a randomized controlled trial.

Conclusions: The PICASSO survey demonstrates multiple areas of uncertainty regarding the medical and endovascular management of TOs. Experts acknowledged the need for further evidence and their willingness to participate in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the best treatment for the cervical TO lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017025DOI Listing
December 2021

Benefit of endovascular thrombectomy for M2 middle cerebral artery occlusion in the ARISE II study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Sep 20;13(9):779-783. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Mercy Health St Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USA

Background: The benefit of endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke with M2 segment middle cerebral artery occlusion remains controversial, with uncertainty and paucity of data specific to this population.

Objective: To compare outcomes between M1 and M2 occlusions in the Analysis of Revascularization in Ischemic Stroke with EmboTrap (ARISE II) trial.

Methods: We performed a prespecified analysis of the ARISE II trial with the primary outcome of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2, which we termed good outcome. Secondary outcomes included reperfusion rates and major adverse events. The primary predictor was M2 occlusion, which we compared with M1 occlusion.

Results: We included 183 patients, of whom 126 (69%) had M1 occlusion and 57 (31%) had M2 occlusion. There was no difference in the reperfusion rates or adverse events between M2 and M1 occlusions. The rate of good outcome was not different in M2 versus M1 occlusions (70.2% vs 69.7%, p=0.946). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, M2 occlusions did not have a significantly different odds of good outcome compared with M1 occlusions (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.88, p=0.87).

Conclusion: In ARISE II, M2 occlusions achieved a 70.2% rate of good outcome at 90 days, which is above published rates for untreated M2 occlusions and superior to prior reports of M2 occlusions treated with endovascular thrombectomy. We also report similar rates of good outcome, successful reperfusion, death, and other adverse events when comparing the M1 and M2 occlusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134506PMC
September 2021

Subarachnoid hemorrhage guidance in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic - An opinion to mitigate exposure and conserve personal protective equipment.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 5;29(9):105010. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Neurology, Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Neurology, Neurosurgery, Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Electronic address:

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients require frequent neurological examinations, neuroradiographic diagnostic testing and lengthy intensive care unit stay. Previously established SAH treatment protocols are impractical to impossible to adhere to in the current COVID-19 crisis due to the need for infection containment and shortage of critical care resources, including personal protective equipment (PPE). Centers need to adopt modified protocols to optimize SAH care and outcomes during this crisis. In this opinion piece, we assembled a multidisciplinary, multicenter team to develop and propose a modified guidance algorithm that optimizes SAH care and workflow in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance is to be adapted to the available resources of a local institution and does not replace clinical judgment when faced with an individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274572PMC
September 2020
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