Publications by authors named "Osama Elalamy"

11 Publications

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Emerging Super-specialty of Neurology: Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (IONM) and Experience in Various Neurosurgeries at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Doha, Qatar.

Cureus 2021 Dec 15;13(12):e20432. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Introduction Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) helps in better patient outcomes by minimizing risks related to the functional status of the nervous system during surgical procedures. An IONM alert to the surgical team during the surgery can help them identify the cause and take immediate corrective action. IONM confers possible benefits, including improved surgical morbidity and mortality, better patient care, minimal neurological deficits, reduced hospital stay, medical costs, and litigation risk. In addition, a highly skilled IONM team will make a better patient outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive patients who underwent intracranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures. Multimodality IONM was utilized, including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial electrical motor evoked potential, spontaneous and triggered electromyography, electroencephalography, electrocorticography, cortical sensory mapping, and direct electrical cortical stimulation. Of a total of 62 patients, two patients revealed neurotonic EMG discharges during IONM, and most patients woke up without any new neurological deficit. Results Sixty-two patients were included, ranging from age 5 to 77 years (mean 43.5 years), with 54.8% men and 45.2% female. Multimodality IONM was used in all patients. Two EMG alerts were recorded during IONM, during a brain tumor resection, and right acetabular hip surgery with postoperative right foot drop. Conclusion Multimodality IONM is the gold standard of care for any surgical services and is used as real-time monitoring of functional integrity of neural structures at risk. If utilized by trained and expert teams, numerous surgeries may benefit from multimodality intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.20432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8759984PMC
December 2021

Acute Myocardial Injury and Rhabdomyolysis in COVID-19 Patients: Incidence and Mortality.

Cureus 2021 Oct 19;13(10):e18899. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Neurology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Background Myocardial injury has been defined as an elevated troponin level. The frequency of acute myocardial injury of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients ranges from 7% to 36%. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a four-fold higher risk of mortality (odds ratio, 4.33; CI 95%, 3.16-5.94). In COVID-19 hospitalized patients' study showed mortality rate was 18.5%. Rhabdomyolysis is considered as muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscles elements and enzymes into blood. In one of retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, incidence of rhabdomyolysis was 16.7%. Materials and methods This retrospective observational study consisted of 413 COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Patients with rhabdomyolysis was defined as creatine kinase level greater than 1,000 U/L and acute myocardial injury was defined as serum high-sensitivity troponin-T for males greater than 30 ng/l and for female greater than 20 ng/l. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients with acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis.  Results The incidence of acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 23.9% (99) and 15.7% (65), respectively. The mortality rate of in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who developed acute myocardial injury (28.3%) was significantly higher in comparison to patients who developed rhabdomyolysis (13.8%). Discussion The binding of SARS-CoV-2 virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a critical step in the pathophysiology in patients with COVID-19. There may be diverse direct and indirect mechanisms of acute myocardial injury in COVID-19 including ischemic injury, hypoxic injury (MI type 2), direct viral myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy and systemic cytokine storm. Musculoskeletal injury may be caused by direct viral myositis or indirectly by host immune hyperinflammatory cytokine storm response that leads to skeletal muscle fiber proteolysis and fibrosis. Conclusions Acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis were underreported in COVID-19 patients. The incidence and mortality of acute myocardial injury are higher than that of rhabdomyolysis in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The outcome was worse in COVID-19 patients with severe acute myocardial injury. Patients with acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis may get benefits from rehabilitation programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599434PMC
October 2021

Acute Thromboembolic Ischemic Stroke From Complex Aortic Arch Plaque.

Cureus 2021 Aug 7;13(8):e16977. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

Atherosclerosis is a systemic pathologic process, may involve aorta and is important cause of systemic embolization. The risk of embolism is increased for mobile and complex aortic plaques that are >4 mm thick. The most common manifestations are stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and peripheral embolization. Imaging modalities used include transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), CT angiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The mainstays of medical treatment are antiplatelets and statin. The role of anticoagulation is reserved for plaques with thrombotic component. There were two patients who presented with large acute ischemic stroke with high grade, floating aortic arch thrombus and complex aortic arch plaques. In one of cases, after 10-day follow-up CT aortic angiography showed completely resolved thrombus after being treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) followed by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). The risk of embolism depends on size of aortic plaques and mobility. TEE is modality of choice for thoracic aortic plaques. Aortic plaques >4 mm are independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke. There are limited data available for off-label use of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in presence of aortic arch thrombus in acute ischemic strokes. These two case reports help in recognition of aortic arch complex plaques as independent risk factor for recurrent stroke. The right patients may consider about the use of intravenous alteplase and MT performed via trans-brachial access after excluding aortic dissection and aneurysm. In future, multicenter, randomized controlled trials will be required for safety of IV TPA and MT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423320PMC
August 2021

Stroke in the adult Qatari population (Q-stroke) a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(9):e0238865. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Background: Studies assessing the burden of stroke in Qataris are limited. We aim to study stroke in the Qatari population.

Methods: A retrospective review was undertaken of all Qatari adults presenting with stroke to Hamad Medical Corporation over a 5-year period. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic and all other clinical characteristics of the patients. The primary outcome was the incidence of stroke in the Qatari patients. Comparison was made between the sexes.

Results: 862 patients were included, with 58.9% being male. The average incidence of stroke over the 5-year period was 92.04 per 100,000 adult Qatari population. The mean age of the cohort was 64.3±14.4 years, (range 19-105 years). The mean age of first ever cerebrovascular event was 63.2±14.5 years. The diagnosis was ischemic stroke in (73.7%), transient ischemic attack in (13.8%), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in (11.6%), subarachnoid hemorrhage in (0.7%) and (0.2%) cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Small vessel disease was the most common cause of ischemic stroke accounting for (46.5%), followed by large artery atherosclerosis (24.5%). Hypertension (82.7%) and diabetes (71.6%) were particularly prevalent in this cohort. Females were older (65.8±14.1 vs 63.4±14.5 years), had more hypertension and diabetes and more disability or death at 90 days (p<0.05) compared to Qatari males.

Conclusion: Stroke occurs at a significantly lower age in Qataris compared to the western population. This study has uncovered sex differences that need to be studied further.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238865PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505434PMC
November 2020

Clinical and genomic characteristics of LAMA2 related congenital muscular dystrophy in a patients' cohort from Qatar. A population specific founder variant.

Neuromuscul Disord 2020 06 17;30(6):457-471. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Adult Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Congenital LAMA2 related muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-RD), the most commonly recognized type of congenital muscular dystrophies, has been described in patients' cohorts from Europe and the UK but not from Middle-Eastern. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence, clinical and genomic characteristics of congenital LAMA2-RD in a patient's cohort of 17 families (21 patients) from the Gulf and Middle East. Affected subjects exhibited the classic phenotype of generalized hypotonia, developmental delay, and progressive muscular weakness. Despite the homogeneous background of most of our patients, clinical variability was evident; however, none of our patients was able to achieve independent ambulation. The associated features of nephrocalcinosis, infantile-onset osteopenia, and cardiac arrest were first described in this study. LAMA2 mutations constituted 48% of the genetic causes underlying congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) in our patients. We estimated a point prevalence of 0.8 in 100.000 for LAMA2-RD in Qatar, relatively higher compared to that described in Europe's studies. The founder mutation and high rate of consanguinity are potential contributors. This study identified five LAMA2 truncating variants, two novel and three recurrent, of which the c.6488delA-frameshift that was found in 12 unrelated Qatari families, highlighting a founder mutation in Qatari patients. The two novel variants involved an acceptor splice site and N-terminus deletion that removes the LAMA2 promoter, exon1, and part of intron1. The "residual" expression of LAMA2 transcript and protein associated with this large N-terminus deletion suggested an alternative promoter that, while seems to be activated, acts less efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2020.03.009DOI Listing
June 2020

CT pattern of Infarct location and not infarct volume determines outcome after decompressive hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke.

Sci Rep 2019 11 19;9(1):17090. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Neuroscience Institute (Stroke Center of Excellence), Weil Cornell School of Medicine, Doha, Qatar.

Malignant middle cerebral artery [MMCA] infarction has a different topographic distribution that might confound the relationship between lesion volume and outcome. Retrospective study to determine the multivariable relationship between computerized tomographic [CT] infarct location, volume and outcomes in decompressive hemicraniectomy [DHC] for MMCA infarction. The MCA infarctions were classified into four subgroups by CT, subtotal, complete MCA [co-MCA], Subtotal MCA with additional infarction [Subtotal MCAAI] and co-MCA with additional infarction [Co-MCAAI]. Maximum infarct volume [MIV] was measured on the pre-operative CT. Functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale [mRS] dichotomized as favourable 0-3 and unfavourable ≥4, at three months. In 137 patients, from least favourable to favourable outcome were co-MCAAI, subtotal MCAAI, co-MCA and subtotal MCA infarction. Co-MCAAI had the worst outcome, 56/57 patients with additional infarction had mRS ≥ 4. Multiple comparisons Scheffe test showed no significant difference in MIV of subtotal infarction, co-MCA, Subtotal MCAAI but the outcome was significantly different. Multivariate analysis confirmed MCAAI [7.027 (2.56-19.28), p = 0.000] as the most significant predictor of poor outcomes whereas MIV was not significant [OR, 0.99 (0.99-01.00), p = 0.594]. Other significant independent predictors were age ≥ 55 years 12.14 (2.60-56.02), p = 0.001 and uncal herniation 4.98(1.53-16.19), p = 0.007]. Our data shows the contribution of CT infarction location in determining the functional outcome after DHC. Subgroups of patients undergoing DHC had different outcomes despite comparable infarction volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53556-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863897PMC
November 2019

Management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Qatar: an expert consensus.

Curr Med Res Opin 2020 02 7;36(2):251-260. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Merck Serono Middle East FZ LTD, Dubai, UAE.

Healthcare systems vary greatly between countries. International, evidence-based guidelines for the management of multiple sclerosis (MS) may need to be adapted for use in particular countries. Two years ago, the authors published a comprehensive consensus guideline for the management of MS in Qatar. Since that time, the availability of disease-modifying treatments for relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and our understanding of how to apply those treatments, has increased. The authors present an update to our guidance, focussing on the management of relapsing-remitting RRMS. In particular, the authors consider the optimal use of different DMTs in patients presenting with mild, medium or high disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2019.1669378DOI Listing
February 2020

An Overview of High-Efficacy Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis: Gulf Region Expert Opinion.

Neurol Ther 2019 Jun 15;8(1):13-23. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Merck Serono Middle East FZ LTD, Dubai, UAE.

This article discusses the opinions of the multiple sclerosis (MS) experts in the Gulf region on the use of high-efficacy disease-modifying drugs (DMDs; natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab, cladribine tablets, and ocrelizumab) in clinical practice. The experts reviewed the current literature including pivotal clinical trials and meta-analyses for high-efficacy DMDs, supplemented by the expert opinions on the usage of these DMDs in clinical practice. Several criteria were discussed by the panel based on different efficacy, safety, and convenience attributes. The panel concluded that all the DMDs available for the treatment of MS have benefits and risks, which should be considered while discussing the treatment plan with the patient. It is important to have a personalized approach based on the risk-benefit assessment for each case. Common considerations while choosing treatments include effectiveness, side effects/safety, and convenience/route of administration.Funding: Merck Serono Middle East FZ LTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-019-0129-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6534637PMC
June 2019

Neurological manifestation of recreational fatal and near-fatal diethylene glycol poisonings: case series and review of literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2014 Aug;93(10):e62

Neurology Section (YZI, SK, OE, TES, YO, DD); Department of Medicine (HK), Hamad Medical Corporation; and Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (SK, OE, TES, DD), Doha, Qatar.

Diethylene glycol is a common industrial solvent which is responsible for accidental and epidemic poisoning as early as the 1930s. Due to the unavailability and unaffordability of ethanol, people in Qatar among the low income group are consuming household chemicals, some of which contain diethylene glycol, for recreational purposes.The history of ingestion is usually not volunteered and the initial clinical presentation is usually nonspecific, making it difficult to diagnose from the clinical presentation. Moreover, the biochemical profile varies with time, making the diagnosis more difficult. The neurological course and toxicity is less well characterized than its renal counterpart. Moreover, reports in the literature of such recreational poisoning is lacking particularly in the region.Three cases of recreational diethylene glycol poisoning seen in Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar from 2009 to 2012 are detailed here.These illustrate the clinical course with emphasis on the neurological sequelae that include encephalopathy and multiple cranial and peripheral neuropathies with fatal and near-fatal outcomes. Neuroimaging in 2 were initially normal, but follow-up imaging showed brain atrophy. The third patient's neuroimaging showed diffuse brain edema with evidence of transtentorial herniation. Nerve conduction studies were performed in 2 of the 3 cases and showed evidence of mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. The outcomes were death in 1 and severe neurological morbidity and disability in 2 cases.Diethylene glycol is a dangerous substance when ingested and can result in mortality and severe morbidity, particularly from the renal and neurological manifestations. Whereas the mechanism of damage is less well known, the damage is likely dose related. The typical clinical pattern of evolution of the poisoning in the absence of cost-effective ways to detect it in the serum can help clinicians in making the diagnosis.Neurological manifestations may include encephalopathy and multiple cranial and peripheral neuropathies with subsequent brain atrophy. Public awareness of the danger of such recreational use should be raised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616334PMC
August 2014

Prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in Qatar.

Mult Scler 2013 May 11;19(6):816-9. Epub 2012 Sep 11.

Department of Neurology (Medicine), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

No published epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Qatar exist. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of MS in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. We analyzed data for Qatari MS patients fulfilling the McDonald diagnostic criteria. A total of 154 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On 31 April 2010, the crude prevalence of MS in Qatar was 64.57 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 58.31-70.37). The female-to-male ratio was 1.33:1. A positive family history was found in 10.4% of included MS patients. We conclude that Qatar is now a medium-to-high risk area for MS, with some important differences in clinical characteristics as compared to other countries in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458512459291DOI Listing
May 2013

Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis.

Libyan J Med 2010 Feb 8;5. Epub 2010 Feb 8.

Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v5i0.4862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3066778PMC
February 2010
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