Publications by authors named "Orbelín Soberanis-Ramos"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genomic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance shows cattle and poultry are a moderate source of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella in Mexico.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0243681. Epub 2021 May 5.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health concern globally. This study reports the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of NTS isolates from bovine lymph nodes (n = 48) and ground beef (n = 29). Furthermore, we compared genotypic AMR data of our isolates with those of publicly available NTS genomes from Mexico (n = 2400). The probability of finding MDR isolates was higher in ground beef than in lymph nodes:χ2 = 12.0, P = 0.0005. The most common resistant phenotypes involved tetracycline (40.3%), carbenicillin (26.0%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20.8%), chloramphenicol (19.5%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (16.9%), while more than 55% of the isolates showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and 26% were MDR. Conversely, resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems was infrequent (0-9%). MDR phenotypes were strongly associated with NTS serovar (χ2 = 24.5, P<0.0001), with Typhimurium accounting for 40% of MDR strains. Most of these (9/10), carried Salmonella genomic island 1, which harbors a class-1 integron with multiple AMR genes (aadA2, blaCARB-2, floR, sul1, tetG) that confer a penta-resistant phenotype. MDR phenotypes were also associated with mutations in the ramR gene (χ2 = 17.7, P<0.0001). Among public NTS isolates from Mexico, those from cattle and poultry had the highest proportion of MDR genotypes. Our results suggest that attaining significant improvements in AMR meat safety requires the identification and removal (or treatment) of product harboring MDR NTS, instead of screening for Salmonella spp. or for isolates showing resistance to individual antibiotics. In that sense, massive integration of whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies in AMR surveillance provides the shortest path to accomplish these goals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243681PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099073PMC
May 2021

Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium bovis evaluated by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR in an intensive dairy cattle breeding area in Mexico.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In Mexico, dairy cattle play an important role in the persistence and spread of the bacillus. In order to describe M. bovis genetic diversity, we genotyped a total of 132 strains isolated from slaughtered cattle with bTB suggestive lesions between 2009 and 2010 in Hidalgo, Mexico, using a panel of 9-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping. We found 21 spoligotypes, and 124 isolates were grouped in 13 clusters. The most frequent spoligotypes were SB0121 (49, 37.1%) and SB0673 (27, 20.5%); three new spoligotypes were reported SB02703, SB02704 and SB02705. We observed 37 MIRU-VNTR patterns, 107 isolates were grouped in 12 clusters and 25 isolates were unique. Spoligotypes SB0121, SB0673, SB0140, SB0145 and SB0120 showed marked subdivision applying MIRU-VNTR method; meanwhile, spoligotypes SB0971 and SB0327 showed single MIRU-VNTR profiles. The Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) was 0.88, 0.78 and 0.90 for 9-loci MIRU-VNTR, spoligotyping and both methods, respectively. Additionally, allelic diversity (h) analysis showed high diversity for QUB3232, QUB26 and QUB11b with h = 0.79, 0.66 and 0.63, respectively. Overall, high genetic variability was observed among M. bovis isolates. Thus, the use of 9-loci MIRU-VNTR panel is enough to describe genetic diversity, evolution and distribution of M. bovis. This study supports the use of these tools for subsequent epidemiological studies in high incidence areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14074DOI Listing
March 2021

High exposure to pathogenic leptospires by the population residing in dairy farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jun 13;52(2):1013-1019. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Departamento de Salud Pública y Medicina Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacan, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.

Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of unknown magnitude that has been overlooked and underreported, influenced by complex interactions established among humans, animals, and the environment; certain occupations, such as working with livestock, have an increased risk of exposure. We conducted a cross trans-sectional study in 374 serum samples obtained from workers and residents of dairy farms in the Tizayuca Basin, Hidalgo, Mexico, to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibody and the risk factors associated to this type of environment. The determination of anti-Leptospira antibodies was obtained by microscopic agglutination test. Seropositivity was defined from titles > 1:100. Seropositivity of anti-Leptospira antibodies among the population was 46.8% (176/374) (95% Cl 41.9-52.1). Thirty-nine percent (146/74) of the analyzed serum reacted to the Hardjo serovar (Sejröe serogroup). Eighty-eight percent (8/9) slaughterhouse workers tested were seropositive. Those who belonged to an ethnic group had OR 1.78 (IC 1.02-3.11, P = 0.041). Seropositivity was associated with having a secondary school level or lower, with OR 1.79 (IC 0.97-3.29, P = 0.058). Exposure to Leptospira in a dairy production farm is a risk factor for humans. Our findings can contribute to strengthening the intervention of the Public Health System to prevent this zoonosis that prevails in dairy farm environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00453-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105494PMC
June 2021

[Responsible dog tenure in Mexico City].

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Mar-Apr;60(2):128-129

Departamento de Producción Agrícola y Animal, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco. México.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/8941DOI Listing
June 2019

Seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy farm workers in Mexico.

Salud Publica Mex 2016 Jun;58(3):366-70

Objective: To describe the seroprevalence and associated factors for brucellosis among dairy farm workers.

Materials And Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a data set and sera from a previous cross-sectional study in a dairy farm. Sera were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies by the slide agglutination test. Seropositivity was defined as a titer ≥1:40; recent infection was titers ≥1:160.

Results: We tested 331 human sera. Seroprevalence of brucellosis was 18.1% (60/331; 95% CI 14.1-22.7); 13.3% of them (8/60; 95% CI 5.9 24.5) corresponded to recent infection. Highexposure occupation (calf caretaker; OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.1 - 9.7), daily hours in contact with cows (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.03 - 1.2), and living on-site (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.4) remained independently associated with seropositivity.

Conclusions: We found a high seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy farm workers, as well as a significant association among those with prolonged and close contact with cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i3.7896DOI Listing
June 2016

Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 25;7(4):e2177. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW) exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis.

Methodology/principal Findings: Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9%) by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0%) by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64) and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30) adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines.

Conclusions: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636137PMC
November 2013