Publications by authors named "Onoja Akpa"

49 Publications

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
July 2021

Secondhand smoke exposure and dyslipidemia among non-smoking adults in the United States.

Indoor Air 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Dyslipidemia is a major public health challenge worldwide and whether secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) is associated with dyslipidemia is yet to be understood. This study evaluated the relationship between SHSE and odds of dyslipidemia among adults in the United States. We identified 3064 adults who had never smoked in the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and estimated the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the relationship between SHSE and odds of dyslipidemia using a multivariable adjusted-logistic regression at a two-sided p < 0.05. Overall, the mean age of respondents was 46.4 ± 18.0 years, 59.6% had dyslipidemia and 36.2% had SHSE. The odds of dyslipidemia among individuals with SHSE were 1.148 (1.147, 1.149) in the overall sample, 1.214 (1.214, 1.215) among women and 1.165 (1.163, 1.167) among men. The odds trended similarly independent of age groups: 1.130 (1.129, 1.131) for young adults (<60 years) and 1.304 (1.300, 1.308) for old adults (≥60 years). SHSE was associated with higher odds of dyslipidemia with higher odds among women and old adults. Primary intervention(s) targeted at reducing SHSE may show benefits in reducing the odds of dyslipidemia, and longitudinal studies would be necessary to clarify the association between SHSE and dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12914DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Sep 9;428:117573. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Background The burden of stroke in Africa is high. Understanding how age associates with major modifiable stroke risk factors could inform tailored demographic stroke prevention strategies. Purpose To quantify the magnitude and direction of the effect sizes of key modifiable stroke risk factors according to three age groups: <50 years (young), 50-65 years (middle age) and > 65 years (elderly) in West Africa. Methods This was a case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with CT/MRI scan-typed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using conditional logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) with 95% Confidence Interval of vascular risk factors by age groups. Results Among 3553 stroke cases, 813 (22.9%) were young, 1441 (40.6%) were middle-aged and 1299 (36.6%) were elderly. Among the 5 co-shared risk factors, dyslipidemia with PAR and aOR (95%CI) of 62.20% (52.82-71.58) and 4.13 (2.64-6.46) was highest among the young age group; hypertension with PAR of 94.31% (91.82-96.80) and aOR of 28.93 (15.10-55.44) was highest among the middle-age group. Diabetes with PAR of 32.29%(27.52-37.05) and aOR of 3.49 (2.56-4.75); meat consumption with PAR of 42.34%(32.33-52.35) and aOR of 2.40 (1.76, 3.26); and non-consumption of green vegetables, PAR of 16.81%(12.02-21.60) and aOR of 2.23 (1.60-3.12) were highest among the elderly age group. However confidence intervals of risk estimates overlapped across age groups. Additionally, among the young age group cigarette smoking, psychosocial stress and cardiac disease were independently associated with stroke. Furthermore, education, stress, physical inactivity and salt intake were associated with stroke in the middle-age group while cardiac disease was associated with stroke in the elderly age group. Conclusion There is a differential influence of age on the associations of major risk factors with stroke in this West African cohort. Targeting modifiable factors predominant within an age group may be more effective as a stroke prevention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117573DOI Listing
September 2021

Eyes of Africa: The Genetics of Blindness: Study Design and Methodology.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 9;21(1):272. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: This report describes the design and methodology of the "Eyes of Africa: The Genetics of Blindness," a collaborative study funded through the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) program of the National Institute of Health.

Methods: This is a case control study that is collecting a large well phenotyped data set among glaucoma patients and controls for a genome wide association study. (GWAS). Multiplex families segregating Mendelian forms of early-onset glaucoma will also be collected for exome sequencing.

Discussion: A total of 4500 cases/controls have been recruited into the study at the end of the 3rd funded year of the study. All these participants have been appropriately phenotyped and blood samples have been received from these participants. Recent GWAS of POAG in African individuals demonstrated genome-wide significant association with the APBB2 locus which is an association that is unique to individuals of African ancestry. This study will add to the existing knowledge and understanding of POAG in the African population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-02029-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267233PMC
July 2021

Dietary intakes of green leafy vegetables and incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jul-Aug 23;32(4):215-223. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan; University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan; University College Hospital; Blossom Specialist Medical Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria. Email:

Aim: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are currently experiencing increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. Green leafy vegetables (GLV), which are abundant in these countries, are known to be particularly rich in cardioprotective nutrients. This study sought to determine the specific effect of GLV intake on the incidence of CVD.

Methods: Previously published cohort studies on GLV intake and incidence of CVD were retrieved through a systematic search of Google Scholar, EMBASE, MEDLINE, HINARI and Cochrane Library. A methodological evaluation of studies was carried out using the network of Ottawa scale, and a fixed-effect meta-analysis was applied to estimate pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was determined using the I statistic. Sensitivity analysis was done using the leave-one-study-out technique. All statistical analysis was carried out at < 0.05 using RevMan 5.4.

Results: The pooled RR (95% CI) of incident CVD events from 17 studies was 0.93 (0.92-0.95). Specifically, GLV intake was inversely related with incident cerebral infarction (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88-0.96), heart disease (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) and other CVD events (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98).

Conclusions: GLV intake was associated with a lower incidence of CVD, and may be a promising primary-prevention strategy against CVD events. The findings are especially important in LMICs where the burden of CVD remains high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2021-017DOI Listing
June 2021

The copy number variation and stroke (CaNVAS) risk and outcome study.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0248791. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background And Purpose: The role of copy number variation (CNV) variation in stroke susceptibility and outcome has yet to be explored. The Copy Number Variation and Stroke (CaNVAS) Risk and Outcome study addresses this knowledge gap.

Methods: Over 24,500 well-phenotyped IS cases, including IS subtypes, and over 43,500 controls have been identified, all with readily available genotyping on GWAS and exome arrays, with case measures of stroke outcome. To evaluate CNV-associated stroke risk and stroke outcome it is planned to: 1) perform Risk Discovery using several analytic approaches to identify CNVs that are associated with the risk of IS and its subtypes, across the age-, sex- and ethnicity-spectrums; 2) perform Risk Replication and Extension to determine whether the identified stroke-associated CNVs replicate in other ethnically diverse datasets and use biomarker data (e.g. methylation, proteomic, RNA, miRNA, etc.) to evaluate how the identified CNVs exert their effects on stroke risk, and lastly; 3) perform outcome-based Replication and Extension analyses of recent findings demonstrating an inverse relationship between CNV burden and stroke outcome at 3 months (mRS), and then determine the key CNV drivers responsible for these associations using existing biomarker data.

Results: The results of an initial CNV evaluation of 50 samples from each participating dataset are presented demonstrating that the existing GWAS and exome chip data are excellent for the planned CNV analyses. Further, some samples will require additional considerations for analysis, however such samples can readily be identified, as demonstrated by a sample demonstrating clonal mosaicism.

Conclusion: The CaNVAS study will cost-effectively leverage the numerous advantages of using existing case-control data sets, exploring the relationships between CNV and IS and its subtypes, and outcome at 3 months, in both men and women, in those of African and European-Caucasian descent, this, across the entire adult-age spectrum.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248791PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055008PMC
April 2021

Green leafy vegetable intakes are inversely related to the incidence of stroke.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan 200284 Ibadan, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa040DOI Listing
October 2020

Factors associated with hypertension among stroke-free indigenous Africans: Findings from the SIREN study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 04 23;23(4):773-784. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) globally. Understanding risk factors for hypertension among individuals with matching characteristics with stroke patients may inform primordial/primary prevention of hypertension and stroke among them. This study identified the risk factors for hypertension among community-dwelling stroke-free population in Ghana and Nigeria. Data for 4267 community-dwelling stroke-free controls subjects in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study in Nigeria and Ghana were used. Participants were comprehensively assessed for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors using standard methods. Hypertension was defined as a previous diagnosis by a health professional or use of an anti-hypertensive drug or mean systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of hypertension and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) at p < .05. Overall, 56.7% of the participants were hypertensive with a higher proportion among respondents aged ≥60 years (53.0%). Factors including physical inactivity (aOR: 9.09; 95% CI: 4.03 to 20.53, p < .0001), diabetes (aOR: 2.70; CI: 1.91 to 3.82, p < .0001), being ≥60 years (aOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.77, p < .0001), and family history of CVD (aOR 2.02; CI: 1.59 to 2.56, p < .0001) were associated with increased aOR of hypertension. Lifestyle factors were associated with hypertension in the current population of community-dwelling stroke-free controls in west Africa. Community-oriented interventions to address sedentary lifestyles may benefit this population and reduce/prevent hypertension and stroke among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263562PMC
April 2021

Passive smoking exposure and the risk of hypertension among non-smoking adults: the 2015-2016 NHANES data.

Clin Hypertens 2021 Jan 1;27(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics and Global Health, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Background: Hypertension is a major public health problem and a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, whether passive smoking exposure (PSE) is associated with the risk of hypertension is scarcely understood. This study assessed the association between PSE and the risk of hypertension among adults (≥18 years) in the United States of America.

Methods: Three thousand and sixty-seven adults were identified from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the association between PSE and hypertension (adjusting for relevant confounders) was examined using multivariable adjusted-logistic regression analysis at P < 0.05.

Results: Mean age of respondents was 46.5 ± 17.9 years. Overall, 23.7% of respondents reported PSE and 32.6% were hypertensives (of which only 14.3% were aware of their hypertensive state) Also, adjusted odds of hypertension for participants with PSE was 1.038 (1.037, 1.040), P < 0.0001, in the overall population. Also, PSE aggravated odds of hypertension among young adults - < 60 years (aOR: 1.095, 95CI%: 1.094 to 1.097), P < 0.0001, and old adults - ≥60 years (aOR: 1.110, 95% CI: 1.108 to 1.113), P < 0.0001. Similarly, PSE was associated with increased odds of hypertension among women (aOR: 1.240, 95% CI: 1.238 to 1.242), P < 0.0001 but not among men (aOR: 0.755, 95% CI: 0.754 to 0.757), P < 0.0001.

Conclusions: PSE was independently associated with the risk of hypertension particularly among women, young and old adults. A multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort may help ascertain causality and provide more evidence for appropriate interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40885-020-00159-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775627PMC
January 2021

Pre-Stroke Depression in Ghana and Nigeria: Prevalence, Predictors and Association With Poststroke Depression.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 Oct 19:891988720968274. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objectives: Depression is a risk factor for stroke. There is a knowledge gap on the predictors of prestroke depression in stroke survivors living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We estimated prevalence and predictors of prestroke depression, as well as its association with poststroke depression (PSD) in the largest study of stroke in Africa.

Methods: We evaluated information collected as part of the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study, a multicentre, case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Prestroke depression status was ascertained in stroke survivors using a validated self-report tool, while PSD was assessed using a stroke specific screening tool for depression ("HRQOLISP-E"). Independent associations were investigated using complementary log-log regression and binary logit models.

Results: Among 1,977 participants, prestroke depression was found in 141 (7.1%). In multivariate analyses, prestroke depression was significantly associated with tachycardia (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.37-3.56) and low consumption of green leafy vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12-3.24). Forty-one (29.1%) of the prestroke depression sub-sample developed PSD. However, prestroke depression was not significantly associated with PSD.

Conclusion: The findings should energize before-the-stroke identification and prioritization of limited treatment resources in LMICs to persons with depression who have multiple, additional, risks of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988720968274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241399PMC
October 2020

Predictors and prognoses of new onset post-stroke anxiety at one year in black Africans.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 3;29(9):105082. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

University of California San Francisco, United States.

Background: There is relatively limited information on the risk factors and outcome of new onset Poststroke Anxiety (PSA) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. We estimated incidence, cumulative incidence, risk factors and outcome of new onset anxiety in the first year of stroke among African stroke survivors.

Methods: We analyzed the dataset of a completed clinical trial comprising patients enrolled to test an intervention designed to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤ one month) stroke survivors in Nigeria. Anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Community screening instrument for dementia (CSID) and Health Related Quality of Life in Stroke Patients (HRQOLISP-26).

Results: Among 322 stroke survivors who were free of anxiety at baseline, we found a one-year cumulative incidence of 34% (95% CI = 28.6-39.3). Rates were 36.2% (95% CI =29.6-42.7) for men and 29.2% (95% CI =19.9-38.3) for women. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, haemorrhagic stroke type was associated with higher risk of new onset PSA (Hazard Ratio=1.52, 95% CI =1.01-2.29). New onset PSA was independently associated with cognitive [(mean difference (MD) in CSID scores=1.1, 95% C.I=0.2, 1.9)] and motor decline (MD in mRS scores= -0.2, 95% C.I= -0.4, -0.02), as well as poorer quality of life overtime (MD in total HRQOLISP-26 scores=3.6, 95% C.I=1.0, 6.2).

Conclusion: One in 3 stroke survivors in Nigeria had PSA at one year. Clinicians in SSA should pay special attention to survivors of haemorrhagic stroke as they are at higher risk of incident anxiety and therefore its consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673258PMC
September 2020

Regional Patterns and Association Between Obesity and Hypertension in Africa: Evidence From the H3Africa CHAIR Study.

Hypertension 2020 05 16;75(5):1167-1178. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine and Epidemiology, Hospital for Sick Children, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Canada (R.S.P.).

Hypertension and obesity are the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, but their association is not well characterized in Africa. We investigated regional patterns and association of obesity with hypertension among 30 044 continental Africans. We harmonized data on hypertension (defined as previous diagnosis/use of antihypertensive drugs or blood pressure [BP]≥140/90 mmHg/BP≥130/80 mmHg) and obesity from 30 044 individuals in the Cardiovascular H3Africa Innovation Resource across 13 African countries. We analyzed data from population-based controls and the Entire Harmonized Dataset. Age-adjusted and crude proportions of hypertension were compared regionally, across sex, and between hypertension definitions. Logit generalized estimating equation was used to determine the independent association of obesity with hypertension ( value <5%). Participants were 56% women; with mean age 48.5±12.0 years. Crude proportions of hypertension (at BP≥140/90 mmHg) were 47.9% (95% CI, 47.4-48.5) for Entire Harmonized Dataset and 42.0% (41.1-42.7) for population-based controls and were significantly higher for the 130/80 mm Hg threshold at 59.3% (58.7-59.9) in population-based controls. The age-adjusted proportion of hypertension at BP≥140/90 mmHg was the highest among men (33.8% [32.1-35.6]), in western Africa (34.7% [33.3-36.2]), and in obese individuals (43.6%; 40.3-47.2). Obesity was independently associated with hypertension in population-based controls (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5 [2.3-2.7]) and odds of hypertension in obesity increased with increasing age from 2.0 (1.7-2.3) in younger age to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) in older age. Hypertension is common across multiple countries in Africa with 11.9% to 51.7% having BP≥140/90 mmHg and 39.5% to 69.4% with BP≥130/80 mmHg. Obese Africans were more than twice as likely to be hypertensive and the odds increased with increasing age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176339PMC
May 2020

Lipid profile and risk of ovarian tumours: a meta-analysis.

BMC Cancer 2020 Mar 12;20(1):200. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Street, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081, People's Republic of China.

Background: Existing data from several reports on the association between lipid profile and ovarian tumour (OT) suggests divergent conclusions. Our aim was to examine whether circulating lipid profile: total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) differed between cases and non-cases of OT.

Methods: Electronic repositories; PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane library were explored through December 2019 to retrieve published articles for inclusion in the meta-analysis after quality assessment. Heterogeneity was assessed using I statistics, the effect of individual studies on the overall effect size was tested using sensitivity analysis and funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias.

Results: Twelve studies, involving 1767 OT cases and 229,167 non-cases of OT were included in this meta-analysis and I statistics ranged between 97 and 99%. Mean circulating TC (- 16.60 [- 32.43, - 0.77]mg/dL; P = 0.04) and HDL (- 0.25[- 0.43, - 0.08]mmol/L; P = 0.005) were significantly lower among OT cases compared to non-OT cases.

Conclusion: Decreased TC and HDL profiles were observed among subjects with OT in this collection of reports. The implications of TC and HDL in tumour manifestations and growth need to be validated in a large multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort adjusting for relevant confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6679-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068873PMC
March 2020

Unraveling the risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among West Africans.

Neurology 2020 03 19;94(10):e998-e1012. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

From Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S., L.A., A. Singh, D.O.), Kumasi, Ghana; University of California (B.O.), San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina (M.G., D.L., C.J., F.M.), Charleston; College of Medicine (O. Akpa, G. Ogbole, M.O., J.A., A.O., A. Adeoye, L. Ogunjimi, O. Arulogun, F.A., O. Ogah, A. Makanjuola, O. Adebayo, A. Agunloye, S.L., S.D., M.F., C.E.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; University of Ghana Medical School (A. Akpalu, R.L., B.C.-T.), Accra; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (K.W., L. Oyinloye, P.K., E.S.); Federal Medical Centre (R.A., O. Adeleye), Abeokuta; Ahmadu Bello University (R.O., O.B., V.S., H.I.), Zaria; Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (M.K., B.F., O. Ajose, S.O.), Ile-Ife; Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (L. Owolabi, A. Mande), Kano, Nigeria; University of Kentucky (D.A.), Lexington; University of Alabama at Birmingham (H.T.); University of Cambridge (H.S.M.), UK; Delta State University Teaching Hospital (O. Olugbo); Jos Teaching Hospital (G. Osaigbovo, A. Salaam, G.A., C.I.), Plateau State; Federal Medical Centre (I.C.), Umuahia, Abia State; Federal Medical Centre (T.S.), Owo, Ondo State; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (A. Akintunde), Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Objective: To characterize risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) occurrence and severity among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicenter case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Patients were adults ≥18 years old with CT-confirmed sICH with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched stroke-free community controls. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. Factors associated with sICH and its severity were assessed using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors.

Results: Of 2,944 adjudicated stroke cases, 854 were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Mean age of patients with ICH was 54.7 ± 13.9 years, with a male preponderance (63.1%), and 77.3% were nonlobar. Etiologic subtypes of sICH included hypertension (80.9%), structural vascular anomalies (4.0%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (0.7%), systemic illnesses (0.5%), medication-related (0.4%), and undetermined (13.7%). Eight factors independently associated with sICH occurrence by decreasing order of PAR with their adjusted OR (95% CI) were hypertension, 66.63 (20.78-213.72); dyslipidemia, 2.95 (1.84-4.74); meat consumption, 1.55 (1.01-2.38); family history of CVD, 2.22 (1.41-3.50); nonconsumption of green vegetables, 3.61 (2.07-6.31); diabetes mellitus, 2.11 (1.29-3.46); stress, 1.68 (1.03-2.77); and current tobacco use, 14.27 (2.09-97.47). Factors associated with severe sICH using an NIH Stroke Scale score >15 with adjusted OR (95% CI) were nonconsumption of leafy green vegetables, 2.03 (1.43-2.88); systolic blood pressure for each mm Hg rise, 1.01 (1.00-1.01); presence of midline shift, 1.54 (1.11-2.13); lobar ICH, 1.72 (1.16-2.55); and supratentorial bleeds, 2.17 (1.06-4.46).

Conclusions: Population-level control of the dominant factors will substantially mitigate the burden of sICH in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238923PMC
March 2020

Randomized Trial of an Intervention to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Stroke Survivors.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2019 12 6;12(12):e005904. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco (B.O.).

Background: We conducted the first-of-its kind randomized stroke trial in Africa to test whether a THRIVES (Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke) intervention improved blood pressure (BP) control among patients with stroke.

Methods And Results: Intervention comprised a patient global risk factor control report card, personalized phone text-messaging, and educational video. Four hundred patients recruited from 4 distinct medical facilities in Nigeria, aged ≥18 years with stroke-onset within one-year, were randomized to THRIVES intervention and control group. The control group also received text messages, and both groups received modest financial incentives. The primary outcome was mean change in systolic BP (SBP) at 12 months. There were 36.5% females, 72.3% with ischemic stroke; mean age was 57.2±11.7 years; 93.5% had hypertension and mean SBP was 138.33 (23.64) mm Hg. At 12 months, there was no significant difference in SBP reduction from baseline in the THRIVES versus control group (2.32 versus 2.01 mm Hg, =0.82). In an exploratory analysis of subjects with baseline BP >140/90 mm Hg (n=168), THRIVES showed a significant mean SBP (diastolic BP) decrease of 11.7 (7.0) mm Hg while control group showed a significant mean SBP (diastolic BP) decrease of 11.2 (7.9) mm Hg at 12 months.

Conclusions: THRIVES intervention did not significantly reduce SBP compared with controls. However, there was similar significant decrease in mean BP in both treatment arms in the subgroup with baseline hypertension. As text-messaging and a modest financial incentive were the common elements between both treatment arms, further research is required to establish whether these measures alone can improve BP control among stroke survivors.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01900756.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.119.005904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139215PMC
December 2019

Substance use and Psychosocial Functioning of Adolescents in Benue State, Nigeria: Assessing the role of age.

Afr J Psychol Study Soc Issues 2019 ;22(2):36-50

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan 200284 Ibadan Nigeria.

Aim: To assess whether Substance Use (SU) is associated with Psychosocial Function (PF) among adolescent.

Methods: Using a self-administered validated instrument, we obtained information on demographic, SU (defined as self-reported affirmative use of one or more of any form of alcoholic drinks, cigarettes, hemps etc) and PF [using the adolescent psychosocial functioning inventory comprising of three subscales; optimism and coping strategies (OCS), behaviour and relationship problems (BRP) and general psychosocial dysfunction designed (GPD)] among 2272 apparently healthy adolescents. PF was categorized as 'elevated' if the psychosocial functioning index (PFI) score were >75th percentile, otherwise, 'not elevated' and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of SU for elevated PF risk. In addition, we applied Johnson Neyman (JN) technique to identifying the JN significance regions at which age moderated the SU-PF relationship at a statistical significance of two-sided .

Results: Prevalence of SU and elevated PF was 50.7% and 79.8% respectively. Prevalence of elevated PF differed insignificantly by sex, but the proportion of adolescent with elevated PFI on SU (82.6%) was significantly higher (<0.001) compared to those with elevated PFI but not on SU (76.9%). Multivariable-adjusted odds of decreased OCS risk given SU exposure was; OR (95%CI): 1.3791 (1.1458-1.6698), . Similarly, multivariable-adjusted odds of elevated PF risk in the light of SU exposure was; OR (95%CI): 1.4286 (1.1617-1.7567), . Furthermore, the JN significance regions for moderated regression analyses of odds of decreased OCS risk was between 10.4years [OR (95%CI): 0.5820 (0.1411-1.0228), ] and 16.7years [OR (95%CI): 0.3025 (0.0001-0.6050), ].

Conclusion: Adolescents on SU are about one and half times at risk of psychosocial dysfunction and age significantly attenuated the SU-decreased OCS risk link particularly in early adolescence.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734188PMC
January 2019

Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Determinants of 1-Month Outcome of Stroke Among West Africans in the SIREN Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 06 30;8(11):e010814. Epub 2019 May 30.

1 Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria.

Background Little is known about the relationship between echocardiographic abnormalities and outcome among patients with acute stroke. We investigated the pattern and association of baseline echocardiographic variables with 1-month disability and mortality among patients with stroke in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study. Methods and Results We enrolled and followed up consecutive 1020 adult patients with acute stroke with baseline transthoracic echocardiography from west Africa. To explore the relationship between echocardiographic variables and 1-month disability (using modified Rankin scale >3) and fatality, regression models were fitted. Relative risks were computed with 95% CIs. The participants comprised 60% men with a mean age of 59.2±14.6 years. Ischemic stroke was associated with smaller aortic root diameter (30.2 versus 32.5, P=0.018) and septal (16.8 versus 19.1, P<0.001) and posterior wall thickness at systole (18.9 versus 21.5, P=0.004). Over 90% of patients with stroke had abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry with eccentric hypertrophy predominating (56.1%). Of 13 candidate variables investigated, only baseline abnormal LV geometry (concentric hypertrophy) was weakly associated with 1-month disability (unadjusted relative risk, 1.80; 95% CI , 0.97-5.73). Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with increased 1-month mortality (unadjusted relative risk, 3.05; 95% CI , 1.36-6.83). Conclusions Nine of 10 patients with acute stroke had abnormal LV geometry and a third had systolic dysfunction. Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with 1 month mortality. Larger studies are required to establish the independent effect and unravel predictive accuracy of this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585359PMC
June 2019

Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence, before and during pregnancy among attendees of maternal and child health services, Enugu, Nigeria: mixed method approach, January 2015.

Pan Afr Med J 2019 25;32(Suppl 1):14. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.

Introduction: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is an under-reported public health problem. This study determined the prevalence of IPV and types of IPV, complications and factors associated with IPV among women accessing health services.

Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 702 women accessing maternal and child health services in Enugu State, Nigeria using multi-stage sampling technique. Quantitative data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire, qualitative data by key informant interview (KII). We analysed data using descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic content analysis.

Results: mean age of respondents was 27.71 ± 5.14 years and 654 (93.2%) were married. Prevalence of IPV, a year before last pregnancy, was 307 (43.7%) and during last pregnancy was 261 (37.2%). Frequent involvement in physical fights with other men, controlling behaviour and younger aged partners (< 40 years) were independent predictors of IPV experience both before and during pregnancy. Independent predictors of IPV experience before and during pregnancy were younger aged partners (< 40 years). [Adjusted Odds Ratio AOR 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17, 2.53], partner having controlling behaviour AOR 2.24; 95% C.I=1.51-3.32) and Partner's frequent involvement in physical fights (AOR 2.29; 95% C.I = 1.43-3.66). Having a male child and married/cohabiting were protective against violence. KII revealed poverty, lack of education and infidelity as common triggers of IPV.

Conclusion: the prevalence of IPV and types of IPV was high and the predisposing factors of IPV in Enugu were multifactorial. Couple counselling sessions that focus on non-violence conflict resolution techniques is crucial to end IPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2019.32.1.13287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441469PMC
April 2019

Differential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa.

Stroke 2019 04;50(4):820-827

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (R.A., A.A., M.O.).

Background and Purpose- The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods- SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results- Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49-71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19-28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42-3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29-2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11-4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53-3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48-3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07-2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89-4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33-3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%-99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%-98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions- Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433514PMC
April 2019

The Factor Structure of the Adapted WHO Quality of Life BREF questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Nigeria.

Arch Basic Appl Med 2018 Feb 2;6(1):35-44. Epub 2018 May 2.

Deparment of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan.

Introduction: The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) is widely validated and popularly used in assessing perceived quality of life (QOL) of adolescents and the general population. Though the WHOQOL-BREF has been used in some studies in Nigeria, its theoretical structure has not been comprehensively investigated. This study examined the factor structure of the Adopted WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and it theoretical structure in a large sample of adolescents in Nigeria.

Methods: Data on demographic characteristics and QOL were extracted from 1,963 adolescents who participated in a state-wide study on psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescents in Benue State, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics were used to present the distribution of the data while Cronbach's alpha and Polychoric ordinal alpha were used to describe the internal consistency (reliability) of the adapted WHOQOL-BREF and alpha value of 0.700 was considered reliable. Structural analysis was performed to extract the underlying factors while confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess some hypothesized structure of the adapted WHO-QOL BREF. Relative Chi-square test (/) value ≤3.0 was regarded a good fit while multiple fit indexes with values ≥0.90 (for acceptable fit) were used for assessing diverse aspects of the models. All analyses were performed at 5% significance level using IBM SPSS statistics version 20, R package and AMOS version 21.

Results: Participants were mostly male (54.8%) and 14.7±1.4 years old with 51.0% residing in rural areas. The overall internal consistency of the 4-factor model was 0.862 (for Cronbach's Alpha) and 0.989 (for Polychoric Alpha) while the 2-factor model had 0.870 (for Cronbach's Alpha) and 0.990 (for Polychoric Alpha). The Cattelle's Scree plot, Horn's parallel analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 2-factor model as the best model for the WHO-QOL BREF. The 23-item 2-factor structure had a relative Chi-square test value / < 3 = 2.98, p < 0.001 with all fit indices within the acceptable range.

Conclusion: The adapted WHO QOL BREF can be safely used to assess quality of life among Adolescents in Nigeria and related settings. Using the two factors extracted in the present study may yield better results in settings similar to the present study location.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115198PMC
February 2018

Similar changes in neuropsychological functioning in english and spanish speaking HIV patients.

Brain Behav 2018 09 25;8(9):e01083. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Departments of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Objective: Primary language has been reported to influence the results of neuropsychological (NP) testing. We sought to determine whether being a primary Spanish versus English speaker affects changes in neuropsychological evaluations in persons living with HIV.

Method: Data from 209 (188 English speakers and 21 Spanish speakers) ART-naïve HIV-infected adults were extracted from ACTG A5303, a 48-week randomized clinical trial of two HIV treatment regimens. Participants' mean (standard deviation) age and years of education were 35.1 (10.7) and 14.3 (2.7) years respectively. Changes from baseline to week 48 of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in individual, total, and domain z-scores for NP tests and Global Deficit Scores (GDS) were compared between the primary languages using linear regression models, adjusted for baseline scores and years of education.

Results: Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable except Spanish speakers had less years of education than the English speakers (p < 0.001). Although differences in some NP measures and domains were detected at baseline, the adjusted changes in individual, total and domain NPz-scores from baseline to 48 weeks of ART were not significantly different between the two primary language groups. The 48-week changes in GDS were also similar.

Conclusion: Changes in NP during ART were similar between English and Spanish speaking HIV-infected individuals for all NP measures. This suggests that studies of longitudinal changes in NP can pool participants across these languages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160655PMC
September 2018

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

Biobanking in a Challenging African Environment: Unique Experience from the SIREN Project.

Biopreserv Biobank 2018 Jun 7;16(3):217-232. Epub 2018 May 7.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria.

Africa was previously insufficiently represented in the emerging discipline of biobanking despite commendable early efforts. However, with the Human, Heredity, and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, biorepository science has been bolstered, regional biobanks are springing up, and awareness about biobanks is growing on the continent. The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) project is a transnational, multicenter, hospital and community-based study involving over 3000 cases and 3000 controls recruited from 16 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. SIREN aims to explore and unravel the genetic and environmental factors that interact to produce the peculiar phenotypic and clinical characteristics of stroke as seen in people of African ancestry and facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventative strategies. The aim of this article is to describe our experience with the development of the procedure for collection, processing, storage, and shipment of biological samples (blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, red cell concentrates, and DNA) and brain imaging across coordinating and participating sites within the SIREN Project. The SIREN network was initiated in 2014 with support and funding from the H3Africa Initiative. The SIREN Biobank currently has 3015 brain images, 92,950 blood fractions (serum, plasma, red cell concentrates, and buffy coat) accrued from 8450 recruited subjects, and quantified and aliquoted good-quality DNA extracts from 6150 study subjects. This represents an invaluable resource for future research with expanding genomic and trans-omic technologies. This will facilitate the involvement of indigenous African samples in cutting-edge stroke genomics and trans-omics research. It is, however, critical to effectively engage African stroke patients and community members who have contributed precious biological materials to the SIREN Biobank to generate appropriate evidence base for dealing with ethical, legal, and social issues of privacy, autonomy, identifiability, biorights, governance issues, and public understanding of stroke biobanking in the context of unique African culture, language, and belief systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2017.0113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995267PMC
June 2018

Stroke Among Young West Africans: Evidence From the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) Large Multisite Case-Control Study.

Stroke 2018 05 4;49(5):1116-1122. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (B.O., M.G., C.J.).

Background And Purpose: Stroke in lower and middle-income countries affects a young and productive age group. Data on factors associated with stroke in the young are sorely lacking from lower and middle-income countries. Our objective is to characterize the nature of stroke and its risk factors among young West Africans aged <50 years old.

Methods: The SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and population attributable risks with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Five hundred fifteen (24.3%) out of 2118 cases enrolled were <50 years old. Among subjects <50 years old, hemorrhagic stroke proportion was 270 (52.5%) versus 245 (47.5%) for ischemic strokes. Etiologic subtypes of ischemic strokes included large artery atherosclerosis (40.0%), small vessel disease (28.6%), cardioembolism (11.0%), and undetermined (20.4%). Hypertension (91.7%), structural lesions (3.4%), and others (4.9%) were causally associated with hemorrhagic stroke. Six topmost modifiable factors associated with stroke in descending order of population attributable risk (95% confidence interval) were hypertension: 88.7% (82.5%-94.8%), dyslipidemia: 48.2% (30.6%-65.9%), diabetes mellitus: 22.6% (18.7%-26.5%), low green vegetable consumption: 18.2% (-6.8%-43.2%), stress: 14.5% (4.9%-24.1%), and cardiac disease: 8.4% (5.8%-11.1%).

Conclusions: The high and rising burden of stroke among young Africans should be curtailed via aggressive, population-wide vascular risk factor control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.020783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916042PMC
May 2018

Modelling the factor structure of the Child Depression Inventory in a population of apparently healthy adolescents in Nigeria.

PLoS One 2018 9;13(3):e0193699. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Childhood and adolescent depression is common and often persists into adulthood with negative implications for school performances, peer relationship and behavioural functioning. The Child Depression Inventory (CDI) has been used to assess depression among adolescents in many countries including Nigeria but it is uncertain if the theoretical structure of CDI appropriately fits the experiences of adolescents in Nigeria. This study assessed varying theoretical modelling structure of the CDI in a population of apparently healthy adolescents in Benue state, Nigeria.

Methods: Data was extracted on CDI scale and demographic information from a total of 1, 963 adolescents (aged 10-19 years), who participated in a state wide study assessing adolescent psychosocial functioning. In addition to descriptive statistics and reliability tests, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor analysis (CFA) were used to model the underlying factor structure and its adequacy. The suggested new model was compared with existing CDI models as well as the CDI's original theoretical model. A model is considered better, if it has minimum Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA<0.05), Minimum value of Discrepancy (CMIN/DF<3.0) and Akaike information criteria. All analyses were performed at 95% confidence level, using the version 21 of AMOS and the R software.

Results: Participants were 14.7±2.1 years and mostly male (54.3%), from Monogamous homes (67.9%) and lived in urban areas (52.2%). The measure of the overall internal consistency of the 2-factor CDI was α = 0.84. The 2-factor model had the minimum RMSEA (0.044), CMIN/DF (2.87) and least AIC (1037.996) compared to the other five CDI models.

Conclusion: The child depression inventory has a 2-factor structure in a non-clinical general population of adolescents in Nigeria. Future use of the CDI in related setting may consider the 2-factor model.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193699PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844540PMC
June 2018

Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN): a case-control study.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 04 26;6(4):e436-e446. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years) with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years) recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% CIs.

Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men) with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8) for cases and 57·8 years (13·7) for controls. 1430 (68%) had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32%) had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1%) had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2-99·0) of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11-30·93) and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9-93·7) for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44-2·38) and 35·8% (25·3-46·2) for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19-2·13) and 31·1% (13·3-48·9) for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13-1·94) and 26·5% (12·9-40·2) for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98-3·37) and 22·1% (17·8-26·4) for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81-3·26) and 18·2% (14·1-22·3) for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40-2·54) and 11·6% (6·6-16·7) for stress, 2·14 (1·34-3·43) and 5·3% (3·3-7·3) for added salt at the table, 1·65 (1·09-2·49) and 4·3% (0·6-7·9) for cardiac disease, 2·13 (1·12-4·05) and 2·4% (0·7-4·1) for physical inactivity, and 4·42 (1·75-11·16) and 2·3% (1·5-3·1) for current cigarette smoking. Ten of these factors were associated with ischaemic stroke and six with haemorrhagic stroke occurrence.

Interpretation: Implementation of interventions targeting these leading risk factors at the population level should substantially curtail the burden of stroke among Africans.

Funding: National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30002-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906101PMC
April 2018

The epidemiology of stroke in Africa: A systematic review of existing methods and new approaches.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2018 01 11;20(1):47-55. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Accurate epidemiological surveillance of the burden of stroke is direly needed to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions in Africa. The authors therefore conducted a systematic review of the methodology of stroke epidemiological studies conducted in Africa from 1970 to 2017 using gold standard criteria obtained from landmark epidemiological publications. Of 1330 articles extracted, only 50 articles were eligible for review grouped under incidence, prevalence, case-fatality, health-related quality of life, and disability-adjusted life-years studies. Because of various challenges, no study fulfilled the criteria for an excellent stroke incidence study. The relatively few stroke epidemiology studies in Africa have significant methodological flaws. Innovative approaches leveraging available information and communication technology infrastructure are recommended to facilitate rigorous epidemiological studies for accurate stroke surveillance in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777902PMC
January 2018

Depression after Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Behav Neurol 2017 27;2017:4160259. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Objective: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method).

Results: Seventeen studies, comprising 1483 stroke survivors, met the criteria for syntheses. The pooled frequency of clinically diagnosed PSD was 31% (95% CI = 26%-36%), versus 13.9% in healthy control pairs. Prevalence did not vary much across healthcare settings but was affected by methods of depression ascertainment. PSD was significantly associated with low education, cognitive impairment, physical disability, poor quality of life, and divorced marital status.

Conclusion: Almost 1 in 3 individuals with stroke in SSA has clinical depression. Despite limitations around quality of identified studies, results of the present systematic review overlap with findings in the global literature and highlight useful targets for the design and trial of tailored intervention for PSD in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4160259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5551463PMC
January 2018

Development and Reliability of a User-Friendly Multicenter Phenotyping Application for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Nov 29;26(11):2662-2670. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies.

Methods: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12.0) software for stroke phenotyping. To determine intra-rater reliability, 6 raters reviewed the same cases previously reported by them after a month of interval. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac source, Other cause (ASCO) protocols, while hemorrhagic stroke was classified using the Structural lesion, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertensive angiopathy and Undetermined (SMASH-U) protocol in ACCESS. Agreement among raters was measured with Cohen's kappa statistics.

Results: For primary stroke type, inter-rater agreement was .98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.00), while intra-rater agreement was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00). For OCSP subtypes, inter-rater agreement was .97 (95% CI, .92-1.00) for the partial anterior circulation infarcts, .92 (95% CI, .76-1.00) for the total anterior circulation infarcts, and excellent for both lacunar infarcts and posterior circulation infarcts. Intra-rater agreement was .97 (.90-1.00), while inter-rater agreement was .93 (95% CI, .84-1.00) for TOAST subtypes. Inter-rater agreement ranged between .78 (cardioembolic) and .91 (large artery atherosclerotic) for ASCO subtypes and was .80 (95% CI, .56-1.00) for SMASH-U subtypes.

Conclusion: The ACCESS application facilitates a concordant and reproducible classification of stroke subtypes by multiple investigators, making it suitable for clinical use and multicenter research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624839PMC
November 2017
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