Publications by authors named "Onkar Singh"

121 Publications

Satisfaction and genital perception after orchiectomy for prostate cancer: does the technique matter? A randomized trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632004, India.

Objectives: Bilateral extracapsular or total orchiectomy (BEO) for prostate cancer is presumed to have psychological consequences after the surgery due to perception of an empty scrotum. Bilateral subcapsular orchiectomy (BSO) was designed to preserve perception of palpable testes. We compared the patients' satisfaction and genital perception following BEO and BSO.

Materials And Methods: Prostate cancer patients eligible for androgen deprivation therapy who opted for orchiectomy were enrolled in prospective randomized study. Patients with bleeding disorder or uncorrected coagulopathy, poor performance score, and psychiatric problems were excluded. Outlook to life and own health in-general, overall satisfaction to the procedure and genital perception was evaluated using modified Fugl-Meyer questionnaire (FMQ) which was administered before and after 3 months of the surgery. Patients were randomized to BEO and BSO groups at the time of surgery using block randomization. Primary outcome was to compare the genital perception of testicular loss and patients' satisfaction to BSO and BEO. Secondary outcomes included testosterone and PSA control, operative time, and complications.

Results: Total 35 patients were enrolled in each group which was comparable. There was no difference in PSA control at 3 months. Mean operative time and blood loss were significantly lesser in BEO group. FMQ score at 3 months did not show significant difference. Majority of the patients in both groups were satisfied with procedure and the aesthetic value of scrotum after surgery. However, 84% in BSO group did not feel that testes were removed on self-examination, as compared to 28% in BEO group. Majority patients in both groups did not report physical or psychological discomfort from change in scrotal content.

Conclusions: Results showed that patients' satisfaction and genital perception following BSO and BEO were similar. Feeling of remaining intrascrotal contents after BSO did not had added psychological advantage in terms of perception of genitalia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02849-zDOI Listing
April 2021

A Rare Case of Recurrent Postpartum Pemphigoid Gestationis with Fetal Complications and Skip Pregnancy.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2020 Nov-Dec;11(6):995-996. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology, Leprology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_93_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734992PMC
November 2020

Comparison of Multivariable Logistic Regression and Other Machine Learning Algorithms for Prognostic Prediction Studies in Pregnancy Care: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JMIR Med Inform 2020 Nov 17;8(11):e16503. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Predictions in pregnancy care are complex because of interactions among multiple factors. Hence, pregnancy outcomes are not easily predicted by a single predictor using only one algorithm or modeling method.

Objective: This study aims to review and compare the predictive performances between logistic regression (LR) and other machine learning algorithms for developing or validating a multivariable prognostic prediction model for pregnancy care to inform clinicians' decision making.

Methods: Research articles from MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were reviewed following several guidelines for a prognostic prediction study, including a risk of bias (ROB) assessment. We report the results based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Studies were primarily framed as PICOTS (population, index, comparator, outcomes, timing, and setting): Population: men or women in procreative management, pregnant women, and fetuses or newborns; Index: multivariable prognostic prediction models using non-LR algorithms for risk classification to inform clinicians' decision making; Comparator: the models applying an LR; Outcomes: pregnancy-related outcomes of procreation or pregnancy outcomes for pregnant women and fetuses or newborns; Timing: pre-, inter-, and peripregnancy periods (predictors), at the pregnancy, delivery, and either puerperal or neonatal period (outcome), and either short- or long-term prognoses (time interval); and Setting: primary care or hospital. The results were synthesized by reporting study characteristics and ROBs and by random effects modeling of the difference of the logit area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of each non-LR model compared with the LR model for the same pregnancy outcomes. We also reported between-study heterogeneity by using τ and I.

Results: Of the 2093 records, we included 142 studies for the systematic review and 62 studies for a meta-analysis. Most prediction models used LR (92/142, 64.8%) and artificial neural networks (20/142, 14.1%) among non-LR algorithms. Only 16.9% (24/142) of studies had a low ROB. A total of 2 non-LR algorithms from low ROB studies significantly outperformed LR. The first algorithm was a random forest for preterm delivery (logit AUROC 2.51, 95% CI 1.49-3.53; I=86%; τ=0.77) and pre-eclampsia (logit AUROC 1.2, 95% CI 0.72-1.67; I=75%; τ=0.09). The second algorithm was gradient boosting for cesarean section (logit AUROC 2.26, 95% CI 1.39-3.13; I=75%; τ=0.43) and gestational diabetes (logit AUROC 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.37; I=83%; τ=0.07).

Conclusions: Prediction models with the best performances across studies were not necessarily those that used LR but also used random forest and gradient boosting that also performed well. We recommend a reanalysis of existing LR models for several pregnancy outcomes by comparing them with those algorithms that apply standard guidelines.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) CRD42019136106; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=136106.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/16503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708089PMC
November 2020

Dual mechanism of ionic liquid-induced protein unfolding.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Sep;22(35):19779-19786

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Ionic liquids (ILs) are gaining attention as protein stabilizers and refolding additives. However, varying degrees of success with this approach motivates the need to better understand fundamental IL-protein interactions. A combination of experiment and simulation is used to investigate the thermal unfolding of lysozyme in the presence of two imidazolium-based ILs (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [EMIM][EtSO4] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate, [EMIM][Et2PO4]). Both ILs reduce lysozyme melting temperature Tm, but more gradually than strong denaturants. [EMIM][Et2PO4] lowers lysozyme Tm more readily than [EMIM][EtSO4], as well as requiring less energy to unfold the protein, as determined by the calorimetric enthalpy ΔH. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements indicate that both ILs bind to tryptophan residues in a dynamic mode, and furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show a high density of [EMIM]+ near lysozyme's Trp62 residue. For both ILs approximately half of the [EMIM]+ cations near Trp62 show perfect alignment of their respective rings. The [EMIM]+ cations, having a "local" effect in binding to tryptophan, likely perturb a critically important Arg-Trp-Arg bridge through favorable π-π and cation-π interactions. Simulations show that the anions, [EtSO4]- and [Et2PO4]-, interact in a "global" manner with lysozyme, due to this protein's strong net positive charge. The anions also determine the local distribution of ions surrounding the protein. [Et2PO4]- is found to have a closer first coordination shell around the protein and stronger Coulomb interactions with lysozyme than [EtSO4]-, which could explain why the former anion is more destabilizing. Patching of ILs to the protein surface is also observed, suggesting there is no universal IL solvent for proteins, and highlighting the complexity of the IL-protein environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp03138kDOI Listing
September 2020

Identification of QTLs for high grain yield and component traits in new plant types of rice.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(7):e0227785. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

ICAR-National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Cuttack, Odisha, India.

A panel of 60 genotypes comprising New Plant Types (NPTs) along with indica, tropical and temperate japonica genotypes was phenotypically evaluated for four seasons in irrigated situation for grain yield per se and component traits. Twenty NPT genotypes were found promising with an average grain yield varying from 5.45 to 8.8 t/ha. A total of 85 SSR markers were used in the study to identify QTLs associated with grain yield per se and related traits. Sixty-six (77.65%) markers were found to be polymorphic. The PIC values varied from 0.516 to 0.92 with an average of 0.704. A moderate level of genetic diversity (0.39) was detected among genotypes. Variation to the tune of 8% within genotypes, 68% among the genotypes within the population and 24% among the populations were observed (AMOVA). This information may help in identification of potential parents for development of transgressive segregants with very high yield. The association analysis using GLM and MLM models led to the identification of 30 and 10 SSR markers associated with 70 and 16 QTLs, respectively. Thirty novel QTLs linked with 16 SSRs were identified to be associated with eleven traits, namely tiller number (qTL-6.1, qTL-11.1, qTL-4.1), panicle length (qPL-1.1, qPL-5.1, qPL-7.1, qPL-8.1), flag leaf length (qFLL-8.1, qFLL-9.1), flag leaf width (qFLW-6.2, qFLW-5.1, qFLW-8.1, qFLW-7.1), total no. of grains (qTG-2.2, qTG-a7.1), thousand-grain weight (qTGW-a1.1, qTGW-a9.2, qTGW-5.1, qTGW-8.1), fertile grains (qFG-7.1), seed length-breadth ratio (qSlb-3.1), plant height (qPHT-6.1, qPHT-9.1), days to 50% flowering (qFD-1.1) and grain yield per se (qYLD-5.1, qYLD-6.1a, qYLD-11.1).Some of the SSRs were co-localized with more than two traits. The highest co-localization was identified with RM5709 linked to nine traits, followed by RM297 with five traits. Similarly, RM5575, RM204, RM168, RM112, RM26499 and RM22899 were also recorded to be co-localized with more than one trait and could be rated as important for marker-assisted backcross breeding programs, for pyramiding of these QTLs for important yield traits, to produce new-generation rice for prospective increment in yield potentiality and breaking yield ceiling.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227785PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365460PMC
September 2020

Pharmacokinetics of a weekly transdermal delivery system of tenofovir alafenamide in hairless rats.

Int J Pharm 2020 May 18;582:119342. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Center for Drug Delivery Research, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States. Electronic address:

Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a potent prodrug of tenofovir (TFV) for HIV prophylaxis, and HIV and HBV treatment. Compared to oral daily doses, transdermal administration of TAF may be more advantageous for long-term adherence by offering sustained drug delivery and reduced dosing frequency. Here, we described the plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of an optimized once-weekly suspension transdermal delivery system (TDS) for TAF (96 mg/25 cm of TDS) in female hairless rats. Over the study period, the TAF TDS delivered an overall low level of TAF (median: 1.43 [0.02-3.28] ng/mL) and a sustained level of the stable metabolite and parent drug, TFV. Relative to the projected exposure corresponding to six-day oral daily doses, a comparable TAF exposure but a substantially lower TFV exposure was resulted from the TAF TDS, suggesting a lower risk of TFV-associated adverse effects. TAF, TFV, and phosphorylated TFVs (TFV-monophosphate and diphosphate) were found distributed in vaginal tissue, the portal of entry for HIV during male-to-female sexual transmission. Skin adhesion and tolerance were acceptable given the animal model used. PK evaluation of the TAF TDS in hairless rats demonstrates the proof of concept that transdermal delivery can be an alternative route for a sustained, once-weekly systemic delivery of TAF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119342DOI Listing
May 2020

Disseminating Strengths-Oriented Best Practices in Diabetes Care Utilizing a Standardized Language within a Global Community.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2019 4;2019:448-456. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Saint Catherine University, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Diabetes is a manageable chronic condition that contributes significantly to the global health burden of diseases and mandates a global collective effort to create an effective solution. This paper describes a community diabetes care pathway built upon a Strengths-Oriented Global Health Informatics Framework and an interdisciplinary standardized terminology, the Omaha System, along with a related translational process to disseminate best practices in diabetes care in China. This project demonstrates a novel strengths-oriented collaborative approach to disseminate best practices of diabetes management in global health communities and offers a potential to bring person-centered coordinated care to multi-levels of engagement that generate actionable and measurable results. Such collaboration opens a continued dialogue in the discourse for constructing global health informatics principles and practice to reduce the burden of diseases around the world.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153156PMC
August 2020

Differential Expression of Genes at Panicle Initiation and Grain Filling Stages Implied in Heterosis of Rice Hybrids.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 6;21(3). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Crop Improvement Division, ICAR-National Rice Research Institute (Formerly CRRI), Cuttack-753006, Odisha, India.

RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of two rice hybrids, Ajay (based on wild-abortive (WA)-cytoplasm) and Rajalaxmi (based on Kalinga-cytoplasm), and their respective parents at the panicle initiation (PI) and grain filling (GF) stages. Around 293 and 302 million high quality paired-end reads of Ajay and Rajalaxmi, respectively, were generated and aligned against the Nipponbare reference genome. Transcriptome profiling of Ajay revealed 2814 and 4819 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the PI and GF stages, respectively, as compared to its parents. In the case of Rajalaxmi, 660 and 5264 DEGs were identified at PI and GF stages, respectively. Functionally relevant DEGs were selected for validation through qRT-PCR, which were found to be co-related with the expression patterns to RNA-seq. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated significant DEGs enriched for energy metabolism pathways, such as photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and carbon fixation, at the PI stage, while carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways, such as glycolysis and starch and sucrose metabolism, were significantly involved at the GF stage. Many genes involved in energy metabolism exhibited upregulation at the PI stage, whereas the genes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis had higher expression at the GF stage. The majority of the DEGs were successfully mapped to know yield related rice quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A set of important transcription factors (TFs) was found to be encoded by the identified DEGs. Our results indicated that a complex interplay of several genes in different pathways contributes to higher yield and vigor in rice hybrids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7038112PMC
February 2020

Impact of Aromatic Counter-Ions Charge Delocalization on the Micellization Behavior of Surface-Active Ionic Liquids.

Langmuir 2019 Nov 31;35(45):14586-14595. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Chemistry, UGC-Centre for Advanced Studies-I , Guru Nanak Dev University , Amritsar 143005 , India.

The nature of counter-ions governs the micellar and structural characteristics of surface-active ionic liquids (SAILs). Especially, the introduction of aromatic counter-ions significantly increases their surface adsorption and induces the formation of various types of aggregates like prolate ellipsoidal micelles, rodlike micelles, vesicles, lamellars, etc. The present study reports the role of charge delocalization of two different aromatic counter-ions in the micellization behavior of their respective SAILs in aqueous medium. For this purpose, we have synthesized two SAILs, namely, 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidzolium phenolate [Cmim][PO] and 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidzolium benzoate [Cmim][BZ]. The O-atom of phenolate (PO) possesses negative charge, which is delocalized on its phenyl ring. Conversely, the negative charge of benzoate (BZ) is not delocalized on its phenyl ring. The more hydrophobic BZ counter-ion increases the hydrophobic interactions and reduces the electrostatic repulsions more efficiently as compared to PO, which results in a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) of [Cmim][BZ] than that of [Cmim][PO]. Interfacial properties obtained by tensiometry reveal better surface activity and absorption efficiency of [Cmim][BZ] as compared to [Cmim][PO]. The increase of cmc and degree of counter-ion binding (β) with the rise of temperature for both SAILs has been observed by conductometry. The decrease in the polarity of pyrene microenvironment explains the higher compactness of [Cmim][BZ] aggregates than that of [Cmim][PO], observed by fluorimetry. The position of PO and BZ is in the stern and palisade layers of Cmim aggregates, respectively, located by H NMR. The existence of prolate ellipsoidal micelles for both SAILs has been established by small-angle neutron scattering measurements. Thus, the interfacial and bulk properties of [Cmim][PO] lie somewhere in between those of the SAILs having perfect aromatic counter-ions, [Cmim][BZ], and the SAILs having regular inorganic counter-ions like Cl, Br, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02695DOI Listing
November 2019

Temperature-Dependent Solubilization of the Hydrophobic Antiepileptic Drug Lamotrigine in Different Pluronic Micelles-A Spectroscopic, Heat Transfer Method, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, Dynamic Light Scattering, and in Vitro Release Study.

ACS Omega 2019 Jun 28;4(6):11251-11262. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Department of Chemistry, UGC-Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India.

Pluronics (tri-block copolymers) have a significant role in the pharmaceutical industry and are being used to enhance the solubility and delivery of hydrophobic drugs in different marketed formulations. However, instability and unsatisfactory drug-loading capacity are the major weak spots of these pluronic micelles. The present research work is designed to solve the existing issues by the solubilization study of hydrophobic drugs in different pluronic micelles at variable temperatures. The solubilization of the hydrophobic antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LAM) in five different pluronic micelles viz. P84, P85, F127, F108, and F68 was studied at different temperatures, 37, 47, and 57 °C, using UV-visible spectroscopy. The solubilization of LAM in pluronic micelles increased with the increase in temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were used to observe the morphological and structural changes taking place in pluronics by increasing the temperature. The SANS results showed the morphological changes of spherical P84 micelles to prolate ellipsoidal micelles at 57 °C due to remarkable increase in the aggregation number. This morphological conversion was further confirmed by the heat transfer method (HTM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. DLS measurements confirmed that LAM-loaded micelles showed a greater hydrodynamic diameter () compared to unloaded micelles, assuring LAM solubilization in the pluronic micelles. The rate of controlled release of LAM from five different pluronic micelles was accessed by using different kinetic models to evaluate the in vitro release profile. This is the first report in which HTM measurements are established for the analysis of morphological changes in the thermoresponsive pluronic micelles in real time. The present work corroborates how we can control the drug-loading capacity, morphological structure of the drug carrier, as well as drug release by simply changing the temperature of pluronic micellar media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b00939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6648490PMC
June 2019

Topical Inserts: A Versatile Delivery Form for HIV Prevention.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Aug 1;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 1.

CONRAD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Arlington, VA 22209, USA.

The development of topical inserts for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), represents a promising alternative to oral and parenteral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) dosage forms. They may be used for vaginal and/or rectal administration of a variety of agents with antiviral activity. Topical inserts deliver drugs to the portal of viral entry, i.e., the genital or rectal mucosa, with low systemic exposure, and therefore are safer and have fewer side effects than systemic PrEP agents. They may dissolve fast, releasing the active drugs within minutes of insertion, or slowly for long-acting drug delivery. Furthermore, they are user-friendly being easy to administer, discreet and highly portable. They are also economical and easy to manufacture at scale and to distribute, with excellent stability and shelf-life. Altogether, topical inserts represent a particularly promising form of drug delivery for HIV and STI prevention. Highlighted within this review are end-user acceptability research dedicated to understanding preferred attributes for this form of drug delivery, advantages and disadvantages of the formulation platform options, considerations for their development, clinical assessment of select placebo prototypes, future directions, and the potential impact of this dosage form on the HIV prevention landscape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723036PMC
August 2019

Development of a Transdermal Delivery System for Tenofovir Alafenamide, a Prodrug of Tenofovir with Potent Antiviral Activity Against HIV and HBV.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Center for Drug Delivery Research, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.

Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is an effective nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of HIV-1 and HBV. Currently, it is being investigated for HIV prophylaxis. Oral TAF regimens require daily intake, which hampers adherence and increases the possibility of viral resistance. Long-acting formulations would significantly reduce this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a transdermal patch containing TAF and investigate its performance in vitro through human epidermis. Two types of TAF patches were manufactured. Transparent patches were prepared using acrylate adhesive (DURO-TAK 87-2516), and suspension patches were prepared using silicone (BIO-PSA 7-4301) and polyisobutylene (DURO-TAK 87-6908) adhesives. In vitro permeation studies were performed while using vertical Franz diffusion cells for seven days. An optimized silicone-based patch was characterized for its adhesive properties and tested for skin irritation. The acrylate-based patches, comprising 2% w/w TAF and a combination of chemical enhancers, showed a maximum flux of 0.60 ± 0.09 µg/cm²/h. However, the silicone-based patch comprising of 15% w/w TAF showed the highest permeation (7.24 ± 0.47 μg/cm²/h). This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing silicone-based transdermal patches that can deliver a therapeutically relevant dose of TAF for the control of HIV and HBV infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11040173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523937PMC
April 2019

Positive ureteric margins at radical cystectomy: Can it be predicted at initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour?

Arab J Urol 2018 Dec 14;16(4):386-390. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India.

Objective: To identify primary tumour-related factors at transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) that may predict positive distal ureteric margins (PUM) at the time of radical cystectomy (RC).

Patients And Methods: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using our institution's data from June 2007 to June 2016. Patients who underwent TURBT followed by RC for non-metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder were identified. In all, 211 patients underwent RC for UC during the study period. The patients were divided into two groups: Group-I ( = 17) with PUM and Group-II ( = 194) with negative ureteric margins. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of PUM.

Results: On univariate analysis, multifocality, tumours involving the ureteric orifice, trigonal tumours, presence of carcinoma (CIS), and lymphovascular invasion at TURBT, were significantly more common in Group-I. On multivariate analysis, tumour involvement in the ureteric orifice(s) and presence of associated CIS significantly predicted PUM.

Conclusions: Primary tumour-related factors on initial TURBT that predicted PUM (at RC) were involvement of the ureteric orifice(s) and presence of associated CIS. These results may help to select patients who can be selectively offered intraoperative frozen section analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aju.2018.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277264PMC
December 2018

The effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, tadalafil, on potassium chloride-induced contractions of isolated human ureteral tissue.

Indian J Urol 2018 Oct-Dec;34(4):287-291

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Drugs causing ureteral relaxation are used for medical expulsive therapy (MET) for stones. We investigated the ability of tadalafil to cause relaxation of potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions of isolated human ureteral tissue.

Materials And Methods: Eight grossly normal proximal ureteral tissues were collected from the radical and donor nephrectomy specimen. The standard organ bath protocol was followed. Ureteral contractions were induced with 80 mM KCl before and after exposure to tadalafil.

Results: The median amplitude and frequency of KCl-induced contractions and the median area under the contractility curve (AUCC) after exposure to 20 μM tadalafil showed significant reductions compared to that of before exposure to tadalafil (7.87 cm, 3.79/min, and 2.98 cm, respectively, versus 9.37 cm, 4.48/min, and 4.50 cm, respectively; = 0,026, 0.008, and 0.008, respectively). After exposure to 40 μM tadalafil, the median amplitude and frequency of KCl-induced contractions and AUCC (4.50 cm, 2.56/min, and 0.92 cm, respectively) showed significant reductions compared to that of before exposure to tadalafil (7.62 cm, 3.88/min, and 3.32 cm, respectively; = 0.008, 0.016, and 0.008, respectively). However, reductions in the parameters after exposure to 20 μM and 40 μM tadalafil were similar ( = 0.065, 0.195, and 0.130, respectively, for median amplitude, frequency, and AUCC).

Conclusion: Tadalafil reduces KCl-induced contractions of isolated human ureteral tissue . No incremental relaxations in contractions occurred by increasing the dose of tadalafil from 20 μM to 40 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_107_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174708PMC
October 2018

Novel insight into the reaction of nitro, nitroso and hydroxylamino benzothiazinones and of benzoxacinones with Mycobacterium tuberculosis DprE1.

Sci Rep 2018 09 7;8(1):13473. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Platform Technology & Science, GlaxoSmithKline, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.

Nitro-substituted 1,3-benzothiazinones (nitro-BTZs) are mechanism-based covalent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose-2'-oxidase (DprE1) with strong antimycobacterial properties. We prepared a number of oxidized and reduced forms of nitro-BTZs to probe the mechanism of inactivation of the enzyme and to identify opportunities for further chemistry. The kinetics of inactivation of DprE1 was examined using an enzymatic assay that monitored reaction progress up to 100 min, permitting compound ranking according to k/K values. The side-chain at the 2-position and heteroatom identity at the 1-position of the BTZs were found to be important for inhibitory activity. We obtained crystal structures with several compounds covalently bound. The data suggest that steps upstream from the covalent end-points are likely the key determinants of potency and reactivity. The results of protein mass spectrometry using a 7-chloro-nitro-BTZ suggest that nucleophilic reactions at the 7-position do not operate and support a previously proposed mechanism in which BTZ activation by a reduced flavin intermediate is required. Unexpectedly, a hydroxylamino-BTZ showed time-dependent inhibition and mass spectrometry corroborated that this hydroxylamino-BTZ is a mechanism-based suicide inhibitor of DprE1. With this BTZ derivative, we propose a new covalent mechanism of inhibition of DprE1 that takes advantage of the oxidation cycle of the enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31316-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128881PMC
September 2018

Contemporary use of ultrasonic versus standard electrosurgical dissection in laparoscopic nephrectomy: Safety, efficacy and cost.

Arab J Urol 2018 Sep 2;16(3):335-341. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, India.

Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ultrasonic dissection (USD) compared with standard monopolar electrosurgery (ES) in laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN).

Patients And Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients' records who underwent elective LN was performed. Patients were divided in to two groups: USD and ES groups depending on the energy source used during LN. The preoperative (demographics, indication for surgery), intraoperative (conversion to open surgery, operative time, estimated blood loss [EBL], complications), and postoperative (morbidity/mortality, volume of drainage, hospital stay, cost) data were collected and analysed.

Results: Between February 2004 and February 2008, 136 patients were included. The indications for nephrectomy were: inflammatory (51 patients), non-inflammatory (64), and tumours (21). The two groups were similar for preoperative data. The conversion rate to open surgery (12.5%) and mean operative time did not differ significantly between the groups. However, intraoperative mean EBL was significantly less with USD, at 140.8 mL vs 182.6 mL for ES. There were no differences in postoperative parameters and morbidity. USD was significantly more expensive than ES (59 000 vs 26 000 Indian Rupees).

Conclusions: ES is a safe and feasible tool like USD in LN when used with caution. USD facilitates completion of difficult cases and reduces intraoperative blood loss. However, the majority of LNs can be completed safely with ES. ES is sturdy and cheap; therefore, selective use of USD appears to be the most cost-effective policy in the developing world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aju.2018.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6105343PMC
September 2018

Comparative evaluation of the effect of different disinfecting agents on bond strength of composite resin to dentin using two-step self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems: An study.

J Conserv Dent 2018 Jul-Aug;21(4):424-427

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Kothiwal Dental College Research Centre and Hospital, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objective: This study was carried out to examine the effect of the application of different disinfecting agents on the shear bond strength (SBS) of an etch-and-rinse system.

Materials And Methods: A total of 120 dentin surfaces of human molars were taken. Sixty samples were taken for immediate (testing was done after 24 h) and delayed (testing was done after 6 months) each. Further, they were divided into three subgroups ( = 20) according to the disinfectant used: Group I: control (no disinfectant); Group II: chlorhexidine based; and Group III: (Aloe vera) based. Dentine bonding agent was applied, and resin composite build-ups were done for SBS testing. Samples were examined under scanning electron microscope for observing the gap formation for dentin-restoration interface. SBS results were statistically analyzed.

Results: The results of the study showed that both chlorhexidine and aloe vera had improved bond strength as compared to the control group both for immediate and delayed SBSs.

Conclusion: Thus, aloe vera can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine for cavity disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_66_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080184PMC
August 2018

SPRENO: a BioC module for identifying organism terms in figure captions.

Database (Oxford) 2018 01;2018

Bioinformatics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Recent advances in biological research reveal that the majority of the experiments strive for comprehensive exploration of the biological system rather than targeting specific biological entities. The qualitative and quantitative findings of the investigations are often exclusively available in the form of figures in published papers. There is no denying that such findings have been instrumental in intensive understanding of biological processes and pathways. However, data as such is unacknowledged by machines as the descriptions in the figure captions comprise of sumptuous information in an ambiguous manner. The abbreviated term 'SIN' exemplifies such issue as it may stand for Sindbis virus or the sex-lethal interactor gene (Drosophila melanogaster). To overcome this ambiguity, entities should be identified by linking them to the respective entries in notable biological databases. Among all entity types, the task of identifying species plays a pivotal role in disambiguating related entities in the text. In this study, we present our species identification tool SPRENO (Species Recognition and Normalization), which is established for recognizing organism terms mentioned in figure captions and linking them to the NCBI taxonomy database by exploiting the contextual information from both the figure caption and the corresponding full text. To determine the ID of ambiguous organism mentions, two disambiguation methods have been developed. One is based on the majority rule to select the ID that has been successfully linked to previously mentioned organism terms. The other is a convolutional neural network (CNN) model trained by learning both the context and the distance information of the target organism mention. As a system based on the majority rule, SPRENO was one of the top-ranked systems in the BioCreative VI BioID track and achieved micro F-scores of 0.776 (entity recognition) and 0.755 (entity normalization) on the official test set, respectively. Additionally, the SPRENO-CNN exhibited better precisions with lower recalls and F-scores (0.720/0.711 for entity recognition/normalization). SPRENO is freely available at https://bigodatamining.github.io/software/201801/.Database URL: https://bigodatamining.github.io/software/201801/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/bay048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6007219PMC
January 2018

Sodium deoxycholate mediated enhanced solubilization and stability of hydrophobic drug Clozapine in pluronic micelles.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Feb 7;191:143-154. Epub 2017 Oct 7.

Department of Chemistry, UGC-Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India. Electronic address:

In this report, the solubilization behaviour of a hydrophobic drug Clozapine (CLZ) in micellar suspensions of pluronics having different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) ratios viz. P84, F127 and F108 in the absence and presence of bile salt sodium deoxycholate (SDC) has been studied. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been exploited to determine the solubilization capacity of the investigated micellar systems in terms of drug loading efficiency, average number of drug molecules solubilized per micelle (n), partition coefficient (P) and standard free energy of solubilization (∆G). The morphological and structural changes taking place in pluronics in different concentration regimes of SDC and with the addition of drug CLZ has been explored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The SANS results revealed that aggregation behaviour of pluronic-SDC mixed micelles gets improved in the presence of drug. The micropolarity measurements have been performed to shed light on the locus of solubilization of the drug in pure and mixed micellar systems. The compatibility between CLZ and drug carriers (pluronics and SDC) was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Among the investigated systems, P84-SDC mixed system was found to be highly efficient for CLZ loading. The long term stability data indicated that CLZ loaded P84-SDC mixed micellar formulation remained stable for 3months at room temperature. Further, it was revealed that the CLZ loaded P84-SDC mixed micelles are converted into CLZ loaded pure P84 micelles at 30-fold dilutions which remain stable up to 48-fold dilutions. The results from the present studies suggest that P84-SDC mixed micelles can serve as suitable delivery vehicles for hydrophobic drug CLZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2017.10.015DOI Listing
February 2018

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis with venous tumor thrombus.

Rev Urol 2017 ;19(2):145-148

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and HospitalVellore, Tamilnadu, India.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy that results in venous tumor thrombosis. Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis with renal or vena cava thrombus is extremely rare. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported. We report a similar case of a patient who underwent radical nephrectomy with a preoperative diagnosis of RCC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5610370PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3909/riu0743DOI Listing
January 2017

Mirror Hand: An Uncommon Neglected Case Managed with Pollicisation.

World J Plast Surg 2017 May;6(2):263-265

Department of Plastic Surgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506370PMC
May 2017

Aggregation and Morphological Aptitude of Drug-Based Ionic Liquids in Aqueous Solution.

ACS Omega 2017 Jul 7;2(7):3296-3307. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry, UGC-Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India.

Here, we present how replacing the usual inorganic counter ion with a pharmaceutically active aromatic one can greatly affect the interfacial as well as bulk properties of ionic liquids (ILs). We have synthesized a series of novel drug-based ILs, namely, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium diclofenate ([C mim][DF]; = 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14) abbreviated as DF-ILs, wherein DF is a well-recognized analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We show strong synergistic interactions between C mim and aromatic DF attributed to reduced electrostatic repulsions and increased hydrophobicity from their incorporation, reflecting a 300-fold smaller critical aggregation concentration than that of their Cl analogue [C mim][Cl]. Interfacial properties for such strongly associating systems are discussed and clearly established to have remarkably improved properties than those of their Cl analogues. The decreasing polarity of the cybotactic region of pyrene with increase in the chain length "" indicates an increased extent of packing of cationic head groups in the Stern layer. DF ion seems to play a vital role in the formation of the resulting aggregates, as probed by small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The thermodynamical insights of the aggregation process have been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry and temperature-dependent conductivity experiments. Unilamellar vesicles are formed at extremely low concentration, and also it is the first report that puts into picture the formation of vesicles for [Cmim][DF] with such a short chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.7b00578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6641264PMC
July 2017

"Flying-saucer in the pelvis" sign: An equivalent of "pelvic Mickey mouse" sign.

Indian J Urol 2017 Apr-Jun;33(2):173-174

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Isolated bilateral inguinal vesical hernia with urinary bladder as the only content is very rare. "Pelvic Mickey mouse" sign is a radiological sign described classically for bilateral inguinal vesical hernia on transverse axial imaging. Another imaging finding of a "Flying-saucer in the pelvis" sign seen on conventional intravenous urography is being presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-1591.203423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396411PMC
May 2017

The negative pyelogram in urinary obstruction.

Indian J Urol 2017 Apr-Jun;33(2):169-170

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

A case of chronic ureteral obstruction secondary to radiation-related ureteral stricture producing a classic "negative pyelogram" on intravenous urography is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_395_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396409PMC
May 2017

Limited incision carpal tunnel release.

Indian J Orthop 2017 Mar-Apr;51(2):192-198

Department of Plastic Surgery, Command Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Limited incision techniques for carpal tunnel release are gaining popularity. The main advantages of these techniques are less scar load, less pillar pain, shorter recovery, and return-to-work time. However, the completeness of release, and risk of neurovascular injury are always a concern. We devised a method of limited incision release with two mini-incisions and use of nasal speculum and a probe. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and neurological outcome of this technique.

Materials And Methods: Twenty seven cases (9 male and 18 female, age 28-56 years) of isolated CTS cases were enrolled in the study. A total of 33 hands (six bilateral) underwent limited incision carpal tunnel release. In this study, two mini-incisions were used and release was done with the help of nasal speculum. Evaluation preoperatively and in 6 months and at 1-year postoperatively was done, namely, (a) clinical status examination, (b) motor testing using grip and pinch dynamometer, and (c) neurological outcome measure using nerve conduction study.

Results: All the patients had good clinical and neurological outcome with no recurrence during followup. The first symptom to get relieved was night pains, with a mean of 4.5 days (range 2-14 days). Compared to pain, improvement of sensory symptoms was delayed; the mean duration was 42.8 days (range 30-90 days). Scar tenderness was present only for a mean duration of 9 days (range 7-21 days). The mean duration for patients to resume their daily activities was12 days (range 7-28 days) and to work was 32 days (range 21-90 days). The hand grip showed mean values of 45.12 ± 16.16 g/mm preoperatively, 62.45 ± 18.86 g/mm at 6 months postoperatively, and 74.87 ± 20.35 g/mm at 1-year postoperatively. The key pinch showed mean values of 11.27 ± 3.51 g/mm preoperatively, 20.181 ± 3.94 g/mm at 6 months postoperatively, and 27.96 ± 94.42 g/mm at 1-year postoperatively. The tip pinch showed mean values of 8.88 ± 2.39 g/mm preoperatively, 15.393 ± 3.25 g/mm at 6 months postoperatively, and 19.27 ± 4.81 g/mm at 1-year postoperatively. The palmar pinch showed mean values of 14.42 ± 2.92 g/mm preoperatively, 19.303 ± 3.62 g/mm at 6 months postoperatively, and 22.97 ± 4.08 g/mm at 1-year postoperatively.

Conclusion: Limited incision carpal tunnel release can be considered a feasible alternative to traditional open release and endoscopic release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.201700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361471PMC
April 2017

Lessons learnt from a MOOC about social media for digital health literacy.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:5636-5639

Nowadays, the Internet and social media represent prime channels for health information seeking and peer support. However, benefits of health social media can be reduced by low digital health literacy. We designed a massive open online course (MOOC) course about health social media to increase the students' digital health literacy. In this course, we wanted to explore the difficulties confronted by the MOOC users in relation to accessing quality online health information and to propose methods to overcome the issues. An online survey was carried out to assess the students' digital health literacy. This survey was one of the activities for the enrolled learners in an online course entitled "Social Media in Health Care" on "FutureLearn", one of the popular MOOC platforms. The course was hosted by Taipei Medical University, Taiwan. Data from a total of 300 respondents were collected through the online survey from 14 December 2015 to 10 January 2016. Most participants (61%) considered finding online health information is easy or very easy, while 39% were unsure or found it difficult to retrieve online health information. Most (63%) were not sure about judging whether available information can be used for making health decisions. This study indicates a demand for more training to increase skills to improve the capability of health consumers to identify trustworthy, useful health information. More research to understand the health information seeking process will be crucial in identifying the skillsets that need to be further developed. MOOCs about digital health can be a great source of knowledge when it comes to studying patients' needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2016.7592005DOI Listing
August 2016

Prediction of HIV-1 protease cleavage site using a combination of sequence, structural, and physicochemical features.

BMC Bioinformatics 2016 Dec 23;17(Suppl 17):478. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) aspartic protease is an important enzyme owing to its imperative part in viral development and a causative agent of deadliest disease known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Development of HIV-1 protease inhibitors can help understand the specificity of substrates which can restrain the replication of HIV-1, thus antagonize AIDS. However, experimental methods in identification of HIV-1 protease cleavage sites are generally time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, using computational methods to predict cleavage sites has become highly desirable.

Results: In this study, we propose a prediction method in which sequence, structural, and physicochemical features are incorporated in various machine learning algorithms. Then, a bidirectional stepwise selection algorithm is incorporated in feature selection to identify discriminative features. Further, only the selected features are calculated by various encoding schemes and used as input for decision trees, logistic regression, and artificial neural networks. Moreover, a more rigorous three-way data split procedure is applied to evaluate the objective performance of cleavage site prediction. Four benchmark datasets collected from previous studies are used to evaluate the predictive performance.

Conclusions: Experiment results showed that combinations of sequence, structure, and physicochemical features performed better than single feature type for identification of HIV-1 protease cleavage sites. In addition, incorporation of stepwise feature selection is effective to identify interpretable biological features to depict specificity of the substrates. Moreover, artificial neural networks perform significantly better than the other two classifiers. Finally, the proposed method achieved 80.0% ~ 97.4% in accuracy and 0.815 ~ 0.995 evaluated by independent test sets in a three-way data split procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-016-1337-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5259813PMC
December 2016

Alkaptonuric Ochronosis.

Urology 2017 Feb 2;100:e3-e4. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India.

Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine metabolism. Deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase results in accumulation of oxidized homogentisic acid in the connective tissues of the skin, eyes and ears, musculoskeletal system, and cardiac valves, and in urolithiasis. Excretion of excessive homogentisic acid in urine causes dark-colored urine on exposure to air. We present a case of alkaptonuria with multiple system involvement, who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to vesical and prostatic calculi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2016.09.035DOI Listing
February 2017

BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

Database (Oxford) 2016 1;2016. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asan Medical Center, 138-736 Seoul, South Korea.

BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/baw121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5009341PMC
November 2017

Overview of the interactive task in BioCreative V.

Database (Oxford) 2016 1;2016. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

Fully automated text mining (TM) systems promote efficient literature searching, retrieval, and review but are not sufficient to produce ready-to-consume curated documents. These systems are not meant to replace biocurators, but instead to assist them in one or more literature curation steps. To do so, the user interface is an important aspect that needs to be considered for tool adoption. The BioCreative Interactive task (IAT) is a track designed for exploring user-system interactions, promoting development of useful TM tools, and providing a communication channel between the biocuration and the TM communities. In BioCreative V, the IAT track followed a format similar to previous interactive tracks, where the utility and usability of TM tools, as well as the generation of use cases, have been the focal points. The proposed curation tasks are user-centric and formally evaluated by biocurators. In BioCreative V IAT, seven TM systems and 43 biocurators participated. Two levels of user participation were offered to broaden curator involvement and obtain more feedback on usability aspects. The full level participation involved training on the system, curation of a set of documents with and without TM assistance, tracking of time-on-task, and completion of a user survey. The partial level participation was designed to focus on usability aspects of the interface and not the performance per se In this case, biocurators navigated the system by performing pre-designed tasks and then were asked whether they were able to achieve the task and the level of difficulty in completing the task. In this manuscript, we describe the development of the interactive task, from planning to execution and discuss major findings for the systems tested.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/baw119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5009325PMC
November 2017