Publications by authors named "Ondrej Vacek"

3 Publications

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Skp2 and Slug Are Coexpressed in Aggressive Prostate Cancer and Inhibited by Neddylation Blockade.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University and University Hospital, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in Western countries, and there is still an urgent need for a better understanding of PCa progression to inspire new treatment strategies. Skp2 is a substrate-recruiting component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, whose activity is regulated through neddylation. Slug is a transcriptional repressor involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which may contribute to therapy resistance. Although Skp2 has previously been associated with a mesenchymal phenotype and prostate cancer progression, the relationship with Slug deserves further elucidation. We have previously shown that a high Gleason score (≥8) is associated with higher Skp2 and lower E-cadherin expression. In this study, significantly increased expression of Skp2, AR, and Slug, along with E-cadherin downregulation, was observed in primary prostate cancer in patients who already had lymph node metastases. Skp2 was slightly correlated with Slug and AR in the whole cohort (Rs 0.32 and 0.37, respectively), which was enhanced for both proteins in patients with high Gleason scores (Rs 0.56 and 0.53, respectively) and, in the case of Slug, also in patients with metastasis to lymph nodes (Rs 0.56). Coexpression of Skp2 and Slug was confirmed in prostate cancer tissues by multiplex immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The same relationship between these two proteins was observed in three sets of prostate epithelial cell lines (PC3, DU145, and E2) and their mesenchymal counterparts. Chemical inhibition of Skp2, but not RNA interference, modestly decreased Slug protein in PC3 and its docetaxel-resistant subline PC3 DR12. Importantly, chemical inhibition of Skp2 by MLN4924 upregulated p27 and decreased Slug expression in PC3, PC3 DR12, and LAPC4 cells. Novel treatment strategies targeting Skp2 and Slug by the neddylation blockade may be promising in advanced prostate cancer, as recently documented for other aggressive solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000894PMC
March 2021

A prolonged exposure of human lung carcinoma epithelial cells to benzo[a]pyrene induces p21-dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 10;263:128126. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Deciphering the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in lung cancer cells may help us to better understand the role of toxic AhR ligands in lung carcinogenesis, including cancer progression. We employed human lung carcinoma A549 cells to investigate their fate after continuous two-week exposure to model AhR agonists, genotoxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; 1 μM) and non-genotoxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 10 nM). While TCDD increased proliferative rate of A549 cells, exposure to BaP decreased cell proliferation and induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype, which was associated with enhanced cell migration, invasion, and altered cell morphology. Although TCDD also suppressed expression of E-cadherin and activated some genes linked to EMT, it did not induce the EMT-like phenotype. The results of transcriptomic analysis, and the opposite effects of BaP and TCDD on cell proliferation, indicated that a delay in cell cycle progression, together with a slight increase of senescence (when coupled with AhR activation), favors the induction of EMT-like phenotype. The shift towards EMT-like phenotype observed after simultaneous treatment with TCDD and mitomycin C (an inhibitor of cell proliferation) confirmed the hypothesis. Since BaP decreased cell proliferative rate via induction of p21 expression, we generated the A549 cell model with reduced p21 expression and exposed it to BaP for two weeks. The p21 knockdown suppressed the BaP-mediated EMT-like phenotype in A549 cells, thus confirming that a delayed cell cycle progression, together with p21-dependent induction of senescence-related chemokine CCL2, may contribute to induction of EMT-like cell phenotype in lung cells exposed to genotoxic AhR ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128126DOI Listing
January 2021

TGF-β regulates Sca-1 expression and plasticity of pre-neoplastic mammary epithelial stem cells.

Sci Rep 2020 07 9;10(1):11396. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, 612 65, Brno, Czech Republic.

The epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, in tight association with stemness, contributes to the mammary gland homeostasis, evolution of early neoplastic lesions and cancer dissemination. Focused on cell surfaceome, we used mouse models of pre-neoplastic mammary epithelial and cancer stem cells to reveal the connection between cell surface markers and distinct cell phenotypes. We mechanistically dissected the TGF-β family-driven regulation of Sca-1, one of the most commonly used adult stem cell markers. We further provided evidence that TGF-β disrupts the lineage commitment and promotes the accumulation of tumor-initiating cells in pre-neoplastic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67827-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347574PMC
July 2020