Publications by authors named "Ondřej Fischer"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prognostic impact of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma: an international multicenter study.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Apr;10(4):1594-1607

Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Programmed cell death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune-checkpoint blockade is a promising new therapeutic strategy in cancer. However, expression patterns and prognostic significance of PD-L1 and PD-1 are still controversial in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from 203 MPM patients receiving standard treatment without immunotherapy were collected from 5 European centers. PD-L1 and PD-1 expression of tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were measured by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical parameters and long-term outcome.

Results: High (>10%) PD-L1 TC and PD-1 TILs expressions were found in 18 (8%) and 39 (24%) patients, respectively. PD-L1 was rarely expressed by TILs [≥1%, n=13 (8%); >10%, n=1]. No significant associations were found between the PD-L1 or PD-1 expression of TCs or TILs and clinicopathological parameters such as stage or histological subtype. Notably, patients with high (>10%) TC-specific PD-L1 expression exhibited significantly worse median overall survival (OS) (6.3 15.1 months of those with low TC PD-L1 expression; HR: 2.51, P<0.001). In multivariate cox regression analysis adjusted for clinical parameters, high TC PD-L1 expression (>10%) proved to be an independent negative prognostic factor for OS (HR: 2.486, P=0.005). There was no significant correlation between PD-L1 or PD-1 expression of TILs and OS.

Conclusions: In this multicenter cohort study, we demonstrate that high (>10%) PD-L1 expression of TCs independently predicts worse OS in MPM. Further studies are warranted to investigate the value of PD-L1/PD-1 expression as a marker for treatment response in MPM patients receiving immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107750PMC
April 2021

Comparison of Chemotherapeutic Regimens Frequently Used in Metastatic Non-squamous NSCLC Treatment.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2597-2603

Department of Pneumology and Phthisiology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic

Background/aim: Platinum-based chemotherapy with pemetrexed or paclitaxel/bevacizumab are regimens used in combination with checkpoint inhibitors in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. We conducted a real-world study to compare the outcomes of these chemotherapeutic regimens.

Patients And Methods: We investigated 1,534 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC treated with platin/pemetrexed (n=1212) or platin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab (n=322) in 9 cancer centres in the Czech Republic.

Results: The regimen containing platin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab showed significantly better overall response rate (ORR) compared to the platin/pemetrexed [40.8% vs. 32.7% (p=0.008)] in the overall population and [55.0% vs. 38.8% (p=0.002)] in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 group. There was no significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in either of these two groups of patients.

Conclusion: In our real-world data analysis, patients treated with platin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab had better overall response rate (ORR), but not PFS or OS. Thus, both treatment regimens are similarly effective. Their selection should therefore be based on the potential side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15039DOI Listing
May 2021

Real-life Effectiveness of Afatinib Gefitinib in Patients With Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Czech Multicentre Study.

Anticancer Res 2021 Apr;41(4):2059-2065

Department of Respiratory Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background/aim: We investigated efficacy differences for afatinib versus gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analysed data for 343 patients with NSCLC with performance status 1 having EGFR mutations treated with gefitinib or afatinib. Overall response rate (ORR) was tested by Fisher's exact test. Overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: ORR did not differ in any group or subgroup. Among all patients, we observed significantly longer PFS for those treated with afatinib vs. gefitinib (median 13.4 vs. 9.5 months, p=0.026), but only a nonsignificant trend was observed for OS. We showed nonsignificant trends of better PFS and OS using afatinib for exon 19 deletion and L858R subgroups. We observed no significant PFS differences for other EGFR mutations but a nonsignificant trend towards better OS for those treated with afatinib.

Conclusion: Afatinib led to longer PFS for patients with common EGFR mutations but not for those with rare mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14975DOI Listing
April 2021

Giant lung metastasis of NRAS-mutant melanoma in a 24-year-old patient with a history of BRAF-mutant conventional melanoma harboring Spitzoid morphology: a case report.

Diagn Pathol 2020 Oct 25;15(1):132. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Third Department of Surgery, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Spitzoid melanocytic lesions represent a heterogeneous group of proliferations with ambiguous and overlapping terminology. The exact distinction of a Spitz nevus from a Spitzoid melanoma can be very difficult or, in some cases, impossible. Among the Spitzoid lesions, there is a lesion termed an atypical Spitz tumour (AST) that has intermediate histopathologic features between those of a Spitz nevus and a Spitzoid melanoma and thus uncertain malignant potential. There are several rare cases of patients with a Spitzoid melanoma initially misdiagnosed as a Spitz nevus or an AST with fatal consequences. It is, therefore, advised to perform a molecular characterization in cases where uncertain skin lesions are presented, as it may provide extended set of information with a possible impact on the treatment options. Furthermore, preventive measures, such as regular physical and skin examinations, as well as thorough scheduling of individual follow-up visits, are essential in patients with potentially malignant skin nevi.

Case Report: We report a case of a young adult female with a history of AST excision with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and insufficient follow-up. Four years after the primary dermatological diagnosis, she presented with a giant tumour in the right hemithorax. Radical en bloc resection of the tumour with right pneumonectomy and resection of the pericardium with reconstruction of the pericardium using mesh was performed. A definitive histopathological examination revealed a metastatic melanoma. The association of the previously diagnosed AST and subsequent appearance of melanoma metastases led to a retrospective re-evaluation of the initial lesion. The suspected diagnosis of Spitzoid melanoma, however, was not confirmed. Moreover, the molecular examination revealed a major discordance between the initial lesion and the lung tumour, which most likely excluded the possible association of the lung metastasis with the initial skin lesion. The initial skin lesion was a BRAF-mutant melanoma with Spitzoid features and termed as AST, while the giant lung metastasis was NRAS-mutant melanoma. The subsequent postoperative course was complicated by the appearance of brain metastases that were stereotactically irradiated. Nevertheless, despite complex specialised medical care, the patient's clinical condition rapidly deteriorated. By this time, no active oncological treatment was possible. The patient was delegated to local hospice for palliative care six months after the surgery and died three weeks later.

Conclusions: Our patient was surgically treated at the age of 20 for AST and died four years later of metastatic NRAS-mutant melanoma most likely of different occult origin. Molecular characterization, as well as the close clinical follow-up should be always precisely performed in patients with uncertain skin lesions, such as AST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-020-01046-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586673PMC
October 2020

Real-life effectiveness of first-line anticancer treatments in stage IIIB/IV NSCLC patients: Data from the Czech TULUNG Registry.

Thorac Cancer 2020 11 5;11(11):3346-3356. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Pneumology, University Hospital Pilsen, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Background: Data regarding real-life effectiveness of any treatment may improve clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to evaluate real-life effectiveness of tyrosin-kinase inhibitors, bevacizumab and pemetrexed as first-line treatments in patients with advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We analyzed data of 2157 patients of the Czech TULUNG Registry of patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC who received modern-era treatments between 2011 and 2018. Patients treated with gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, bevacizumab (+ maintenance), pemetrexed (+ maintenance) as first-line therapy were included in the study. A systematic literature search separately identified clinical trials suitable for calculation of comparator pooled OS and PFS for each regimen. For each subgroup, basic characteristics and survival data (Kaplan-Meier estimates) are shown. We propose the "index of real-life effectiveness" (IRE), a ratio of real-life OS/PFS and comparator pooled OS/PFS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression identified factors were associated with longer OS (ie, IRE>1.1).

Results: Survival analysis showed median OS of 23 months for erlotinib, 29.3 months for afatinib, 19.6 months for gefitinib, 12.2 months for pemetrexed, 17.5 months for pemetrexed maintenance, 15.8 months for bevacizumab and 15.8 months for bevacizumab maintenance. Calculated IREs for OS for the regimens were: erlotinib 1.013, afatinib 1.184, gefitinib 0.736, pemetrexed 1.188, pemetrexed maintenance 1.294, bevacizumab 1.178, and bevacizumab maintenance 1.189. Multivariate regression analysis showed that these factors were associated with longer OS: lower PS for afatinib; lower PS, absence of adverse events and female sex for bevacizumab; and lower PS and female sex for pemetrexed.

Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrated that real-life effectiveness of certain treatment regimens may strongly differ in various populations/health care systems, and comparison between TULUNG data and pooled survival data from trials showed higher real-life effectiveness for most of the studied first-line regimens. Lower ECOG PS, younger age, female sex and adverse events were associated with longer survival in most regimens.

Key Points: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: Comparison between TULUNG data and pooled survival data from trials showed higher real-life effectiveness for most of the studied first-line regimens; for most regimens, lower ECOG PS, younger age, female sex and adverse events were associated with longer survival.

What This Study Adds: Real-life effectiveness of certain treatment regimens may strongly differ in various populations/health care systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606010PMC
November 2020

Impact of Concomitant Medication Administered at the Time of Initiation of Nivolumab Therapy on Outcome in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Anticancer Res 2020 Apr;40(4):2209-2217

Department of Oncology, Palacky University, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Aim: To investigate potential association between administration of corticosteroids, antibiotics, probiotics, proton pump inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), statins and metformin and outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab.

Patients And Methods: A total of 224 patients with advanced NSCLC treated at nine comprehensive cancer centers were analyzed in this national retrospective study. Survival statistics were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis.

Results: Only corticosteroid use had a significant negative effect on the objective response rate. In the univariate analysis, there was no significant effect of the studied concomitant medications on the efficacy of nivolumab. In a subsequent multifactorial analysis, a possible positive effect of the concomitant use of NSAID at the initiation of nivolumab treatment was revealed.

Conclusion: The results of the present retrospective exploratory analysis underscore the importance of knowing the exact type of concomitant medication, the route of administration, the dose of medication, and the region of the ongoing study. The present data indicated a significantly higher rate of progression in patients treated with corticosteroids and the possible positive effect of NSAID use at the initiation of nivolumab treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14182DOI Listing
April 2020

Dabrafenib monotherapy in BRAF+ non-small cell lung cancer - our experience.

Klin Onkol 2020 ;33(6):458-462

Background: Activating BRAF mutations result in constitutive activation of the MAP kinase signaling cascade, stimulating cell proliferation. BRAF mutations are typical for malignant melanoma, but occur less frequently in other tumors, including in 1-2% cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1,2].

Case: We present two case reports of BRAF+ NSCLC patients, treated with 3rd line dabrafenib monotherapy on our department, and also brief review of available information about dabrafenib and its use in monotherapy of BRAF+ NSCLC.

Conclusion: Monotherapy with BRAF inhibitors presents a viable alternative for BRAF+ NSCLC patients, incapable of combined therapy with trametinib. The lack of proper indication and reimbursement for NSCLC cases remains a problem, and individual treatment approval is required.
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January 2020
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