Publications by authors named "Ondřej Audy"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A comprehensive assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in an Indian food basket: Levels, dietary intakes, and comparison with European data.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 9;288:117750. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, 62500, Brno, Czech Republic; Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, 0349, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in diet are a health concern and their monitoring in food has been introduced in the European Union. In developing countries, EDC dietary exposure data are scarce, especially from areas perceived as pollution hotspots, including industrialized countries like India. Several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) act as EDCs and pose a pressure to human health mainly through dietary exposure. In the present study a range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dioxins and furans were measured in several food items collected in an Indian urban (Delhi) and a rural area (Dehradun). Food basket contamination data were used to estimate dietary exposure and compare it with that of the average European population estimated from available monitoring data. All targeted contaminants were found in most food items, especially in dairies and meat products. OCPs were the main contributors. Food supplied to Delhi's markets had higher contamination than that supplied to the peri-urban market in Dehradun. Despite looser control and restrictions, Indian dietary exposure of OCPs and PBDEs were comparable with that of Europe and were lower for PCBs and dioxins. Higher meat consumption in Europe only partly explained this pattern which was driven also by the higher residues in some European food items. A substantial part of endocrine disrupting potential in the diet derives from food and animal feeds internationally traded between developed and developing countries. With increasingly globalized food systems, internationally harmonized policies on EDC in food can lead to better protection of health in both these contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117750DOI Listing
July 2021

Chlorinated and brominated persistent compounds in hard coral, soft coral, and parrotfish from remote Mascarene islands.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 15;267:129316. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Persistent halogenated compounds (PHC) are of concern for human and environmental health. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are regulated by international treaties, but alternative compounds such as novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) are not-yet they are increasingly used. There are no data on PHCs in coral reef biota from tropical islands in the western Indian Ocean (WIO). For this assessment, three hard coral genera, two soft coral genera, and ember parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus) were collected from the remote Rodrigues, Agalega, and St. Brandon's Atoll (Republic of Mauritius) in the Mascarene Basin of the WIO. Five compounds - Pentabromotoluene (PBT), γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, HCB, and BDE-47- were quantifiable in all samples. Hard coral consistently contained the lowest concentrations of PHCs, except for NBFRs. The presence of BDE-47 suggests long-range aerial transport. We quantified DP, currently a candidate POP, in coral reef biota. PBT was measured in all samples also suggests long-range transport. Because the hard coral, soft coral, and fish had differing concentrations and patterns of PHCs, future surveys should stratify sampling accordingly. Agalega and St. Brandon's Atoll can be considered as locations to monitor changes in background concentrations of pollutants due to their remoteness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129316DOI Listing
March 2021

Legacy and novel flame retardants from indoor dust in Antarctica: Sources and human exposure.

Environ Res 2021 05 14;196:110344. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic; Facultad de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad San Sebastián, Lientur #1457, Concepción, Chile.

The air humidity in Antarctica is very low and this peculiar weather parameter make the use of flame retardants in research facilities highly needed for safety reasons, as fires are a major risk. Legacy and novel flame retardants (nFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), Dechlorane Plus (DP), and other nFRs were measured in indoor dust samples collected at research Stations in Antarctica: Gabriel de Castilla, Spain (GCS), Julio Escudero, Chile (JES), and onboard the RRS James Clark Ross, United Kingdom (RRS JCR). The GC-HRMS and LC-MS-MS analyses of dust samples revealed ∑PBDEs of 41.5 ± 43.8 ng/g in rooms at GCS, 18.7 ± 11.6 ng/g at JES, and 27.2 ± 37.9 ng/g onboard the RRS JCR. PBDE pattern was different between the sites and most abundant congeners were BDE-183 (40%) at GCS, BDE-99 (50%) at JES, and BDE-153 (37%) onboard the RRS JCR. The ∑HBCDs were 257 ± 407 ng/g, 14.9 ± 14.5 ng/g, and 761 ± 1043 ng/g in indoor dust collected in rooms at GCS, JES, and RRS JCR, respectively. The ∑nFRs were 224 ± 178 ng/g at GCS, 14.1 ± 13.8 ng/g at JES, and 194 ± 392 ng/g on the RRS JCR. Syn- and anti-DP were detected in most of the samples and both isomers showed the highest concentrations at GCS: 163 ± 93.6 and 48.5 ± 61.1 ng/g, respectively. The laboratory and living room showed the highest concentration of HBCDs, DPs, BTBPE. The wide variations in FR levels in dust from the three research facilities and between differently used rooms reflect the different origin of furnishing, building materials and equipment. The potential health risk associated to a daily exposure via dust ingestion was assessed for selected FRs: BDEs 47, 99, and 153, α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, BTBPE, syn- and anti-DP. Although the estimated exposures are below the available reference doses, caution is needed given the expected increasing use of novel chemicals without a comprehensive toxicological profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110344DOI Listing
May 2021

Marine plastic debris in Central Chile: Characterization and abundance of macroplastics and burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 17;152:110881. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

RECETOX (Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

In this study, we characterized plastic debris (PD) found on beaches from Concepción Bay in central Chile during spring 2017 and summer 2018. The identification of polymers was carried out using FT-IR. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extracted with hexane using an ultrasonic bath and further quantified through GC-MS. The highest abundance of PD was obtained during the summer (4.1 ± 3.7 items/m), with the most common size range between 2.5 and 10 cm (42%) and the most frequent shape were plastic fragments (44%). FT-IR analysis showed that polypropylene was the most recurrent plastic polymer found. The ∑10PBDEs ranged from 2.1 to 1300 ng/g in spring 2017 and 392 to 3177 ng/g in summer 2018. ∑7PCBs ranged from 0.9 to 93 ng/g during the spring 2017 and 0.3 to 4.5 ng/g for summer 2018. This study is the first with information on POPs occurrence in the plastic debris of central Chile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110881DOI Listing
March 2020

Persistent organic pollutants sorbed in plastic resin pellet - "Nurdles" from coastal areas of Central Chile.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Feb 29;151:110786. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

RECETOX (Research center for toxic compounds in the environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Plastic resin pellets were collected from coastal areas (n = 7) of central Chile. Pellets were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for polymer identification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) determination. Screened compounds were PBDEs (n = 10), PCBs (n = 7), and OCPs (n = 13). Pellets were only found at Lenga Beach (San Vicente Bay), which is likely influenced by the presence of industrial activities in the surrounding coastal area. The diameter of the pellets was 4.0 ± 0.6 cm (n = 370), the color varied from white (32%) to yellowing (68%), and the most prevalent polymer identified was high-density polyethylene (99%). POPs concentrations (ng/g-pellet) ranged from 10 to 133 for Ʃ10PBDEs, from 3 to 60 for Ʃ7PCBs and between 0.1 and 7 for DDTs. Levels of POPs are consistent with other investigations around the world and highlight the sorbtion capacity of plastics resin pellets, and consequently transport of POPs into coastal environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110786DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparability of long-term temporal trends of POPs from co-located active and passive air monitoring networks in Europe.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2019 Jul;21(7):1132-1142

RECETOX Centre, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

The comparability of data from active (ACT) and passive sampling (PAS) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air is hindered by uncertainties related to the derivation of sampling rates and concentrations, as well as differences in the duration, volume and frequency of sampling. Although data from ACT have been used extensively in short-term PAS calibration studies, no attempts have been made to evaluate the comparability of long-term trends calculated from PAS to established ACT trends. This is crucial, as continuous long-term ACT is unfeasible in most regions of the world. To address these challenges, we calculated and compared trends for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at the six sites in Europe with at least 5 years of co-located ACT and PAS data (2012-2016): Birkenes, Košetice, Pallas, Råö, Stórhöfði and Zeppelin. Strong agreement of ACT and PAS trends was observed for most OCPs and PCBs. Apart from two PCBs at Stórhöfði, all pairs of ACT and PAS trends followed the same direction. However, differences in the magnitude, significance and confidence intervals of their slopes were observed for some compounds and were primarily attributed to the short duration of the PAS time series. Despite some limitations, our results suggest that the comparability of ACT and PAS POP trends will continue to improve with additional years of data. This study confirms the suitability of PAS for the calculation of long-term POP trends in air, and highlights the importance of continuous sampling at established monitoring sites with consistent analytical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9em00136kDOI Listing
July 2019

Bulk atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Central Europe.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 14;26(23):23429-23441. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous and toxic contaminants. Their atmospheric deposition fluxes on the regional scale were quantified based on simultaneous sampling during 1 to 5 years at 1 to 6 background/rural sites in the Czech Republic and Austria. The samples were extracted and analysed by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For all seasons and sites, total deposition fluxes for ΣPAHs ranged 23-1100 ng m d, while those for Σ6PCBs and Σ12OCPs ranged 64-4400 and 410-7800 pg m d, respectively. Fluoranthene and pyrene were the main contributors to the PAH deposition fluxes, accounting on average for 19% each, while deposition fluxes of PCBs and OCPs were dominated by PCB153 (26%) and γ-hexachlorobenzene (30%), respectively. The highest deposition flux of ΣPAHs was generally found in spring, while no seasonality was found for PCB deposition. For deposition fluxes for ΣOCPs, no clear spatial trend was found, confirming the perception of long-lived regional pollutants. Although most OCPs and PCBs hardly partition to the particulate phase in ambient air, on average, 42% of their deposition fluxes were found on filters, confirming the perception that particle deposition is more efficient than dry gaseous deposition. Due to methodological constraints, fluxes derived from bulk deposition samplers should be understood as lower estimates, in particular with regard to those substances which in ambient aerosols mostly partition to the particulate phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05464-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667414PMC
August 2019

Characterization, source identification and risk associated with polyaromatic and chlorinated organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, PCBzs and OCPs) in the surface sediments of Hooghly estuary, India.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 27;221:154-165. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Ecological Studies and International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia 741235, India.

The spatial distribution, source identification and ecotoxicological impact of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (PCBzs)), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface sediment samples (0-5 cm, <63 μm grain size) along the ecologically stressed Hooghly River estuary, East India. The results demonstrated a wide range of concentrations (ng/g dry weight) with the following decreasing order: ∑PAHs (3.3-630) > ∑DDTs (0.14-18.6) > ∑PCBs (0.28-7.7) > ∑PCBzs (0.01-1.3) > ∑HCH (0.10-0.6), with a dominance of p,p'-DDT and higher molecular weight PAHs. Selected diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources of PAHs, inputs of weathered DDT and their degradation in oxidizing environment, and a predominance of industrial input over the agricultural wastes. The cumulative impact of the pollutants (effective range medium quotient (ERMq): 0.01-0.16) reflected minimal to low ecotoxicological risk, with highest probability of toxic effects towards surrounding biota at Barrackpore (21%). ∑DDTs exceeded the effect range low value resulting occasional adverse impact to the sediment dwelling organisms. Among the PAHs, the 4-ringed compounds accounted for 68% of the PAHs. Further, carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Chry, BbF, BkF, BaP, DahP, Inp) possessed highest cancer risk (CR = 2.09 × 10) to the local population when exposed to the sediments from the studied area and ingestion was found to be the primary process of contamination. The study strongly recommends a systematic monitoring of POPs and PAHs, being the Hooghly River water used by local people for their livelihood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.173DOI Listing
April 2019

Contamination Profile of DDTs in the Shark Somniosus microcephalus from Greenland Seawaters.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Jul 29;101(1):7-13. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

DDT isomers were detected in all the liver and muscle samples of Greenland sharks Somniosus microcephalus (n = 15) caught in Greenland seawaters. The mean concentrations of ΣDDTs (sum of o,p' and p,p' DDT, DDD, and DDE isomers) were 1094 ± 818 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in the muscle and 761 ± 416 ng/g lw in the liver. The p,p'-DDE accounted for 48% ± 41% and 53% ± 54% of the total DDT residue in the white muscle and liver, respectively. The lipid content was 48% ± 10% in the muscle and 43% ± 17% in the liver. Female sharks showed the highest concentrations of ΣDDTs. The youngest shark showed higher concentrations of ΣDDTs in the liver than the older sharks. To our knowledge, this is one of the few investigations on DDT levels in S. microcephalus where concentrations were correlated to lipid content and sex/size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2371-zDOI Listing
July 2018

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in indoor environments - A comparison of indoor contamination in Canada and Czech Republic.

Chemosphere 2018 Sep 3;206:622-631. Epub 2018 May 3.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Pavilion A29, 62500, Brno, Czech Republic.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are restricted compounds that are ubiquitously detected in the environment, including indoor matrices such as air and residential dust. We report concentrations of PCBs and selected OCPs in indoor air and dust from homes in Canada (23 homes) and Czech Republic (20 homes). Indoor air concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were ∼10 times higher than that outdoors. PCB concentrations of ∼450 ng/m were similar in both countries, higher in homes built before the restrictions on PCBs, and had congener profiles consistent with PCB mixtures manufactured or used in each country. All OCP air concentrations were higher in the Czech Republic than in the Canadian samples, suggesting greater indoor use of, for example, DDT and HCH. These data emphasize the persistence of these organochlorine compounds indoors and their presence in homes even decades after new usage was prohibited. Indoor levels of these legacy POPs remain at similar concentrations to compounds of current concern, such as brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated alkyl substances, emphasizing that they deserve ongoing attention in view of knowledge of PCB and OCP toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.016DOI Listing
September 2018

A contemporary assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the ambient air and soil of Azerbaijan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 7;25(32):31863-31873. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK.

PBDEs were measured in air and soil across Azerbaijan to establish contemporary concentrations at 13 urban and rural sites. Polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed for a period of a month with surface soil samples collected at the same sites. Unlike organochlorine pesticides previously surveyed by our group, PBDE concentrations in both contemporary air and soil were low in comparison to recent European and Asian studies. For example, mean ∑PBDE concentrations in air and soil were 7.13 ± 1.66 pg m and 168 ± 57 pg g, respectively. The fully brominated BDE-209 was the most abundant congener observed in soil (174.8 ± 58.5 pg g), comprising ~ 96% of ∑PBDE. However, the PAS-derived air concentrations for highly brominated congeners must be viewed with caution as there is uncertainty over the uptake rates of particle-bound chemicals using these devices. Some of the highest concentrations in air were observed at sites with the highest wind speeds and at several remote locations in the north of the country and this requires further research. Levels of BDE-47 and 99 (the two most abundant congeners in the widely used penta-formulation) were lower than levels reported elsewhere suggesting limited use/import of the penta-BDE formulation in Azerbaijan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0573-2DOI Listing
November 2018

Organochlorine pesticides in the indoor air of a theatre and museum in the Czech Republic: Inhalation exposure and cancer risk.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 27;609:598-606. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used to preserve the integrity of historical buildings or to protect collections of artefacts at potentially large volumes and often without detailed application records. Previous research has focused on the efficiency of remediation at contaminated sites (where identified), as well as improvement of preservation techniques and workplace health and safety. Few studies have assessed the human health risks from occupational exposure to OCPs in buildings of cultural and historical importance. Thus, potential risks may remain unidentified. In the present study, OCPs in indoor air were measured in a baroque theatre and a natural history museum in the Czech Republic, both of which had suspected past indoor application. In the theatre attic p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels in air were up to 190ngm, confirming past indoor use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT). There was also evidence of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) use in the theatre (max γ-HCH in air of 56ngm). Yet, the cancer risk (CR) from occupational exposure via inhalation (Exp) to OCPs in the theatre was low (CR<4.0×10). γ-HCH was found at elevated levels in air of the museum (max γ-HCH in air of 15,000ngm). CR from Exp in the museum was moderate to high (>1×10). Our results show the CR through Exp to OCPs in buildings, such as museums can still be significant enough to warrant mitigation measures, e.g., remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.203DOI Listing
December 2017

Bioindication of PBDEs and PCBs by native and transplanted moss Pleurozium schreberi.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Sep 18;143:136-142. Epub 2017 May 18.

Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

PBDEs and PCBs are toxic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the use of PCBs is forbidden, but they are still present in many environments and biota. 90-day assays were conducted with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to ten sites (rural and urban) selected in one of the most polluted regions of Upper Silesia in Poland. Native P. schreberi mosses were collected from the same ten polluted sites. Concentrations of PBDEs (28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) and PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were determined in all native and transplanted P. schreberi from all sites. Native P. schreberi contained the highest ΣPBDE and ΣPCB levels (63.6ngg and 4.47pgg, respectively) when collected in the vicinity of a steel smelter. After 90 days of the experiment native and transplanted P. schreberi contained the highest concentrations of the same BDE 209 congener (88-91% of total PBDEs in the native mosses and 85-90% of the total PBDE burden in the transplants). The native and transplanted mosses from the industrial sites after 90 days of exposure contained significantly higher concentrations of all the examined PBDE and PCB congeners (except for 153 and 180) than mosses from rural sites. PBDE and PCB values were higher in native than in transplanted mosses after 90 days of exposure in both rural and industrial sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.05.025DOI Listing
September 2017

Assessment of seasonal variations in persistent organic pollutants across the region of Tuscany using passive air samplers.

Environ Pollut 2017 Mar 11;222:609-616. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured for an entire year in the region of Tuscany, Italy. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed over four sampling periods of 3-5 months from April 2008 to July 2009 in urban (n = 6) and rural (n = 4) sites. The aim of the study was to characterize the spatial and seasonal variations in selected POPs. The POP concentrations (pg m) in the air were dominated by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCBs). DDTs, and ∑PCBs showed a clear decreasing urban > rural gradient. The concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were up to 10 and 6 times higher, respectively, in urban sites than in rural sites. ∑PCBs showed a significant correlation with the urbanized areas located <5 km around the sampling sites. For hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), α-HCH concentrations were similar at both sampling sites and were found to be quite uniform during the four sampling periods. Seasonal fluctuations were observed for DDTs, and ∑PCBs, with the highest concentrations observed during period 4 (summer-spring); this is most likely due to a temperature-driven re-emission from local sources. These findings were also supported by an air back trajectory analysis in the study area. This study contributes new information about POP levels in the Italian atmosphere and demonstrates the feasibility of using PUF disks to simultaneously assess seasonal concentrations at different sampling sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.092DOI Listing
March 2017

Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments and soils from the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (South eastern part of the GRULAC region).

Sci Total Environ 2017 Jan 22;575:1470-1476. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

PCBs and PBDEs (7 and 10 congeners, respectively) were analyzed in four coastal surface sediments collected from the northern shore of Bahía Blanca estuary and in nine soils from different locations of Bahía Blanca city and the surrounding region (Southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). Sediment samples showed PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.61 to 17.6ngg (dry weight=dw) and PBDEs from 0.16 to 2.02ngg dw, whereas in soil samples ranged from 0.04 to 1.67ngg dw for PCBs and 0.04 to 10.7ngg dw for PBDEs. The highest concentrations of both chemicals were detected in the urban and industrial/port areas showing a dominance of the higher chlorinated PCB congeners: in sediments for PCB-180 (56±33%) and PCB-153 (11±6%); and in soils for PCB-138 (23±3%), PCB-153 (22±2%) and PCB-180 (18±7%). In contrast, lower chlorinated PCB congeners were predominant at more distant sites; in sediments for congeners PCB-28 (33±4%) and PCB-52 (14.5±0.2%); and in soils PCB-28 (56±14%) and PCB-52 (33±19%). PBDE-209 (high brominated PBDE) showed the highest relative abundance in both sample types i.e., sediment (94±7%) and soil (80±12%). These findings can be considered lower or similar when compared with other sites of the world, and are likely associated with anthropogenic activities in their surrounding area, which has experienced a fast industrial growth in the last decade. This is the first investigation of PBDEs levels in the whole study area and of PCBs in soils from the Bahía Blanca city and surrounding region. This article provides new and useful information on POP levels in the South eastern part of the GRULAC region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.013DOI Listing
January 2017

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls along an east-to-west gradient in subtropical North Atlantic surface water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Apr 18;24(12):11045-11052. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany.

Despite the fact that most persistent toxic substances have hardly been primarily emitted for several decades, their concentrations are only slowly decreasing in the global oceans. Surface seawater samples were collected along a 38°-24° N/28°-67° W transect in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. While the concentration levels of hexachlorobenzene (2.1-6.1 pg L), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, up to 2.1 pg L) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, 10.8-24.9 pg L) were in the same range as observed earlier in the North Atlantic, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, 90-627 pg L) was found elevated, partly also relative to previous measurements in the same sea region. Hereby, the ratio α-HCH/γ-HCH was very low, 0.09-0.13. Chlordane and endosulfan were found in the range <3.0-11.1 and <5.8-8.8 pg L respectively. DDT metabolites, endrin and related pesticides were found below quantification limits. Spatial pollution patterns in surface seawaters seem to be determined by atmospheric and oceanic transport patterns, rather than by mixing and air-sea equilibrium. The comparison with global multicompartment chemistry-transport model predictions of surface seawater levels indicate underestimated degradation of PCBs and overestimated emissions of endosulfan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7429-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5393290PMC
April 2017

Brominated flame retardants in the indoor environment - Comparative study of indoor contamination from three countries.

Environ Int 2016 Sep 29;94:150-160. Epub 2016 May 29.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 702 Walnut Grove Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States.

Concentrations of more than 20 brominated flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging FRs, were measured in air, dust and window wipes from 63 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic and the United States in the spring and summer of 2013. Among the PBDEs, the highest concentrations were generally BDE-209 in all three matrices, followed by Penta-BDEs. Among alternative FRs, EHTBB and BEHTBP were detected at the highest concentrations. DBDPE was also a major alternative FR detected in dust and air. Bromobenzenes were detected at lower levels than PBDEs and other alternative FRs; among the bromobenzenes, HBB and PBEB were the most abundant compounds. In general, FR levels were highest in the US and lowest in the Czech Republic - a geographic trend that reflects the flame retardants' market. No statistically significant differences were detected between bedroom and living room FR concentrations in the same house (n=10), suggesting that sources of FRs are widespread indoors and mixing between rooms. The concentrations of FRs in air, dust, and window film were significantly correlated, especially for PBDEs. We found a significant relationship between the concentrations in dust and window film and in the gas phase for FRs with log KOA values <14, suggesting that equilibrium was reached for these but not compounds with log KOA values >14. This hypothesis was confirmed by a large discrepancy between values predicted using a partitioning model and the measured values for FRs with log KOA values >14.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.029DOI Listing
September 2016

Distribution of legacy and emerging semivolatile organic compounds in five indoor matrices in a residential environment.

Chemosphere 2016 Jun 24;153:179-86. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Pavilion A29, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Seven types of indoor samples, covering five indoor matrices, were collected in a residential room, and analyzed for five classes of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The goal was to improve the understanding of the relationship between indoor air, surface films and dust, based on differences in sources, physicochemical properties, and indoor environmental characteristics. Comparisons of the five matrices (gas- and particle-phase air, floor dust, surface dust/films and window films) demonstrated that within our test room a semi-quantitative measurement of the SVOC distributions and concentrations could be obtained by air, and composite dust or furniture surface wipes. Dust concentrations varied within the room, and spot samples were not necessarily representative of the average room conditions. Polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) successfully quantified the total air concentrations of the studied SVOC compound groups, as indoor air concentrations were dominated by gas-phase compounds, however air concentrations of individual particle-bound compounds had higher uncertainty. Measured concentrations of dust/surfaces could be used to estimate air concentrations of legacy SVOCs, demonstrating equilibrium in the room. However, air concentrations of current-use compounds (flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) could not be estimated from dust/surface concentrations, demonstrating the influence of ongoing primary emissions and non-equilibrium status in the room.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.012DOI Listing
June 2016

Diurnal Variations of Air-Soil Exchange of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs) in a Central European Receptor Area.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 Apr 30;50(8):4278-88. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry , Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air and soil, their fugacities, and the experimental soil-air partitioning coefficient (KSA) were determined at two background sites in the Gt. Hungarian Plain in August 2013. The concentrations of the semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the soil were not correlated with the organic carbon content but with two indirect parameters of mineralization and aromaticity, suggesting that soil organic matter quality is an important parameter affecting the sorption of SOCs onto soils. Predictions based on the assumption that absorption is the dominant process were in good agreement with the measurements for PAHs, OCPs, and the low chlorinated PCBs. In general, soils were found to be a source of PAHs, high chlorinated PCBs, the majority of OCPs and PBDEs, and a sink for the low chlorinated PCBs and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane. Diurnal variations in the direction of the soil-air exchange were found for two compounds (i.e., pentachlorobenzene and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane), with volatilization during the day and deposition in the night. The concentrations of most SOCs in the near-ground atmosphere were dominated by revolatilization from the soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05671DOI Listing
April 2016

Trematomus bernacchii as an indicator of POP temporal trend in the Antarctic seawaters.

Environ Pollut 2016 Oct 14;217:19-25. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

The occurrence of POPs in remote areas, such as Antarctica, is the result of their ability to udergo Long Range Transport (LRT) in the atmosphere, precipitation and cold condensation. In this study, both recent levels of various POPs in Trematomus bernacchii and their changes in roughly three decades were determined in order to evaluate trends of POPs in Antarctic benthic seawaters. In fact, Trematomus bernacchii is considered a good sentinel bio-indicator for monitoring not only the extent of contamination by POPs in the Antarctic aquatic ecosystem, but also changes in Antarctic ecosystem quality and trends. A slight decreasing PCB trend was detected during 30-years time span (from early 1980's to 2010) in the circumantarctic seawaters. Two higher peaks of concentrations were reported in 2001 and 2005 in the Ross Sea and they may reflect the ice melting of icebergs. Because fire risk is very high in Antarctica due to the very dry air, a large use of flame retardants in buildings and furniture of stations is highly probable; moreover, many stations were built when there were no restrictions on flame retardants use. The PBDE levels in the T. bernacchii from 2001 to 2011 ranged 0.05-0.35 pg/g and were of the same order of magnitude in 2001/2011 and in 2002/2005, with a maximum value in 2005 (0.35 pg/g). Comparable concentrations of HCB, HCHs PCDDs and PCDFs are available only for few seasons: all these compounds showed a decreasing temporal trends and their concentrations were one or more order of magnitude lower in 2000s-2010s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.12.057DOI Listing
October 2016

Melting Himalayan glaciers contaminated by legacy atmospheric depositions are important sources of PCBs and high-molecular-weight PAHs for the Ganges floodplain during dry periods.

Environ Pollut 2015 Nov 24;206:588-96. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, 0349, Norway.

Melting glaciers are natural redistributors of legacy airborne pollutants, affecting exposure of pristine proglacial environments. Our data shows that melting Himalayan glaciers can be major contributors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for surface water in the Gangetic Plain during the dry season. Glacial emissions can exceed in some cases inputs from diffuse sources within the catchment. We analyzed air, deposition and river water in several sections along the Ganges River and its major headwaters. The predominant glacial origin of these contaminants in the Himalayan reach was demonstrated using air-water fugacity ratios and mass balance analysis. The proportion of meltwater emissions compared to pollutant discharge at downstream sections in the central part of the Gangetic Plain was between 2 and 200%. By remobilizing legacy pollutants from melting glaciers, climate change can enhance exposure levels over large and already heavily impacted regions of Northern India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.012DOI Listing
November 2015

Source identification, spatio-temporal distribution and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the upper Danube catchment.

Chemosphere 2015 Nov 18;138:777-83. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Riverine sediments, collected on a monthly basis during a period of one year, from five sites in a mixed land use region of the Czech Republic were analysed for chlorinated and brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The region is located in the upper catchment of the Danube River. The POPs concentrations were as follows: 11-930 pg g(-1) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 170-980 pg g(-1) dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), 34-13,700 pg g(-1) polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), 5.7-29,200 pg g(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 0.21-351 ng g(-1) hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs), for PCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN (TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN) ranged from 0.37 to 19 pg g(-1). The results revealed a clear spatial separation between sites based on concentration and congener profile. There were also some obvious temporal patterns of selected POPs, which were related to river flow (seasonality) and organic carbon (TOC) of the sediment. Potential sources of POPs include local municipalities (flame retardants), some diffuse sources (PCNs and PCDDs/Fs) and potential point sources (PBDEs). Risk assessment based on risk quotients (RQ) revealed limited to medium ecological risk from PBDEs. TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN were low relative to other European rivers, hence the risk to aquatic organisms was considered to be low. PCNs contributed significantly to overall TEQ in several cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.001DOI Listing
November 2015

Air and seawater pollution and air-sea gas exchange of persistent toxic substances in the Aegean Sea: spatial trends of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Aug 25;22(15):11301-13. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic,

Near-ground air (26 substances) and surface seawater (55 substances) concentrations of persistent toxic substances (PTS) were determined in July 2012 in a coordinated and coherent way around the Aegean Sea based on passive air (10 sites in 5 areas) and water (4 sites in 2 areas) sampling. The direction of air-sea exchange was determined for 18 PTS. Identical samplers were deployed at all sites and were analysed at one laboratory. hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products are evenly distributed in the air of the whole region. Air concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and o,p'-DDT and seawater concentrations of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were elevated in Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea. The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener pattern in air is identical throughout the region, while polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE)patterns are obviously dissimilar between Greece and Turkey. Various pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, DDE, and penta- and hexachlorobenzene are found close to phase equilibrium or net-volatilisational (upward flux), similarly at a remote site (on Crete) and in the more polluted Thermaikos Gulf. The results suggest that effective passive air sampling volumes may not be representative across sites when PAHs significantly partitioning to the particulate phase are included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4363-4DOI Listing
August 2015

Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2014 Nov;16(11):2617-26

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, CZ-625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have lagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (RS) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4em00305eDOI Listing
November 2014
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