Publications by authors named "Omid Rezahosseini"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incidence and impact of parvovirus B19 infection in seronegative solid organ transplant recipients.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Viro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases 8632, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Routine monitoring of Parvovirus B19 (B19V) the first six months post-transplantation was performed in 241 seronegative solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Incidence rates (IR) during the 1st month and the 2nd to 6th months post-transplantation were 1.2 (95% CI, 0.33-3.2) and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.06-0.57) per 100 recipients per-month, respectively. Of the 6 SOT recipients with positive B19V PCR, 3 (50%) were admitted to hospital and 2 (33%) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Thus, routine monitoring of B19V in seronegative SOT recipients may not be necessary. Targeted screening one-month post-transplantation and screening upon clinical suspicion could be an alternative strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab024DOI Listing
January 2021

Use of T Cell Mediated Immune Functional Assays for Adjustment of Immunosuppressive or Anti-infective Agents in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:567715. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Viro-Immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases 8632, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Defining the optimal dosage of the immunosuppressive or duration of anti-infective agents is a challenge in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We aimed to systematically review the literature regarding the use of T cell mediated immune functional assays (IFAs) for adjustment of the immunosuppressive or anti-infective agents in SOT recipients. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science (WOS), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov to find human interventional studies or study protocols that used either in-house or commercially available IFAs for adjustment of the immunosuppressive or anti-infective agents in SOT recipients. We included six clinical trials and six study protocols. Four out of the six clinical trials used interferon-γ release assays for cytomegalovirus (IGRA-CMV), and five out of the six registered study protocols planned to use IGRA-CMV for adjustment of anti-CMV antiviral (Valganciclovir) prophylaxis or preemptive therapy in SOT recipients. Primary or secondary anti-CMV prophylaxes were discontinued in SOT recipients who had positive IGRA-CMV results without an increase in the rate of CMV infection or reactivation. Among other IFAs, one clinical trial used interferon-γ release assays for tuberculosis (IGRA-TB), and one study used ImmuKnow for adjustment of the duration and dosage of isoniazid and tacrolimus, respectively. Our systematic review supports a promising role for the IGRA-CMVs for adjustment of the duration of anti-CMV antiviral prophylaxis in SOT recipients. There are limited data to support the use of IFAs other than IGRA-CMVs for adjustment of immunosuppressive or anti-infective agents. Further multicenter randomized clinical trials using IFAs other than IGRA-CMVs may help in personalized immunosuppressive or prophylactic anti-infective therapy in SOT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.567715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593245PMC
October 2020

Acute Myocardial Infarction following Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: Is it a result of infection or the antibiotics prescribed?

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Sep 24. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Viro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1448DOI Listing
September 2020

Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella-zoster virus serology and infections in solid organ transplant recipients during the first year post-transplantation.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Viro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Mumps, measles, rubella, and varicella-zoster viruses (MMRV) may cause severe infections in seronegative adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients but can be prevented by vaccination. We aimed to determine MMRV serostatus in adult SOT recipients before and one-year post-transplantation as well as evidence of MMRV infections in a large, prospective cohort of SOT recipients.

Methods: A prospective study of 1182 adult SOT recipients included in the Management of Posttransplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) cohort from 2011 to 2017 with a one-year follow-up. Systematic monitoring of MMRV serology was performed prior to transplantation and one-year post-transplantation. PCR was used to confirm viral replication in SOT-recipients presenting with clinical evidence of infection.

Results: Among 1182 adult SOT recipients, 28 (2.4%), 77 (6.5%), 65 (5.5%), and 22 (1.9%) were seronegative for measles, mumps, rubella, and VZV, respectively, and 165 (14%) were seronegative for at least one of the MMRV viruses. One-year post-transplantation, 29/823 (3.5%) of seropositive SOT recipients had seroreverted, and 63/111 (57%) of seronegative SOT recipients seroconverted for at least one MMRV virus. No evidence of MMR infections was found, but 8 (0.7%) SOT recipients developed symptoms and had a positive VZV PCR.

Conclusions: A large proportion of SOT recipients were seronegative for at least one of the MMRV viruses. MMRV infections in SOT recipients may disseminate and become fatal, and although only few cases of VZV infection were detected, results from this study suggest increase attention towards vaccination of patients waiting for SOT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa824DOI Listing
June 2020

Combination antifungal therapy without craniotomy in an immunocompromised patient with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis: A case report.

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 ;11(2):227-230

Imam Khomeini Complex Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mucormycosis is an uncommon fungal infection caused by the members of the order Mucorales. In susceptible patients, mucormycosis can infect any tissue or organ, and without suitable treatment (i.e., debridement and antifungal therapy), this infection can be fatal. Our patient was a woman with lymphoma and cerebral mucormycosis who was treated with antifungals and without any neurosurgical debridement.

Case Presentation: Herein, we present the case of a 35-year-old woman with diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma and rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). She was a candidate for enucleation of the left eye, orbital decompression, and sinocerebral debridement. Nevertheless, the patient refused eye enucleation and craniotomy. Finally, she was treated with a combination of antifungals and sinus debridement without eye enucleation and craniotomy.

Conclusion: debridement, along with a combination of liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) and posaconazole, may be a suitable therapeutic option for patients with ROCM, who are not eligible candidates for extensive surgery or craniotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.2.227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265517PMC
January 2020

Plasma Cotinine Cutoff for Distinguishing Smokers From Nonsmokers Among Persons Living With HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 12;82(5):e54-e56

Viro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases 8632, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002189DOI Listing
December 2019

Immune function as predictor of infectious complications and clinical outcome in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (the ImmuneMo:SOT study): a prospective non-interventional observational trial.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jul 3;19(1):573. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Viro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is a well-established and life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Organ rejection and infections are among the main complications to SOT and largely determines the clinical outcome. The correct level of immunosuppression is of major importance to prevent these complications. However, it is a consistent observation that in recipients on the same immunosuppressive regimens the clinical outcome varies, and no reliable marker exists to monitor immune function.

Methods: In a prospective, observational study, we plan to enroll 630 adult patients with a planned organ transplantation at Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Prior to and on different time points up to two years after transplantation we will perform a complete immunological profile on the recipients. This profile will consist of classical descriptive immune phenotyping (flow cytometry and circulating biomarkers) and the functional assay TruCulture®. In TruCulture® whole blood is incubated ex vivo with stimulants imitating bacterial, viral and fungal infections, where after a panel of selected cytokines is quantified. Clinical data from electronic health records will be obtained from the PERSIMUNE (Centre of Excellence for Personalized Medicine of Infections Complications in Immune Deficiency at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen) data repository, a warehouse of data generated as part of routine care including vital signs, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology as well as medication, demographics, diagnoses, hospital contacts, surgical procedures and mortality.

Discussion: This will be the first large scale study to determine several aspects of immune function and perform a complete immunological profiling in SOT recipients. It is expected that knowledge generated will provide information to generate prediction models identifying patients at increased risk of infection and/or rejection. If the study is successful, we will subsequently use the generated prediction models to propose personalized immunosuppressive regimens to be tested in future randomized controlled trials.

Trial Registration: This study has been approved by the Regional ethical committee (H-17024315), the Danish Data Protection Agency (RH-2016-47, RH-2015-04, I-Suite 03605) and the Danish National board of Health (3-3013-1060/1). The trial is retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT03847285 ) the 20th February 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4207-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609391PMC
July 2019

Torque-Teno virus viral load as a potential endogenous marker of immune function in solid organ transplantation.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2019 07 4;33(3):137-144. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Viro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases 8632, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients receive immunosuppressive therapy to avoid rejection of the transplanted organ. Immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infections. However, no existing marker reliably reveals the status of the immune function in SOT recipients. Torque-Teno virus or Transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) has gained attention as a possible endogenous marker of the immune function. TTV is a non-enveloped, circular single strand DNA virus, and it may be considered a part of the human virome. In a bidirectional relationship, the immune system detects TTV and TTV may also modulate the activity of immune system. These characteristics have made the virus a possible candidate indicator of immune function. In this systematic review, we describe the role and potential function of TTV viral load as an endogenous marker of the immune function and consequently the level of immune suppression in SOT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2019.03.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Candidemia in a Referral Center in Tehran.

Caspian J Intern Med 2019 ;10(1):73-79

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Bloodstream infection with , or candidemia, is the most common systemic infection. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of patients with candidemia to provide appropriate perspectives on these patients and reduce the associated mortality and morbidity.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all patients with at least one positive blood culture of spp. were investigated from April 2015 to March 2016 in Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran.

Results: A total of 74 patients (44 men and 30 women), with the mean age of 53.15±17.89 years, were enrolled in this study. species was responsible for candidemia in 67.6% (50.74). The mean therapy intervals were 7 and 5.6±1.5 days in patients who died and were discharged, respectively. The differences in frequencies of urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation were statistically significant among patients who died and survived (P<0.001). Among the discharged patients, antifungal therapy was administered to 30.8% (12.39). The mortality rate was 54.3% (19.35) in the medical ward, 5.7% (2.35) in the surgical ward, and 40% (14.35) in the intensive care unit (P=0.041). The treatment was significantly associated with lower mortality than those with no treatment (OR=0.150 [0.023-0.996], P=0.05).

Conclusion: The number of candidemia cases caused by species is continuously increasing in our center. We demonstrated the epidemiologic characteristics of patients with candidemia and the significant effects of timely and appropriate treatment on their outcomes. Further studies are needed to illuminate more aspects of this healthcare problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.10.1.73DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386322PMC
January 2019

Coronary Artery Disease Presentation and Its Association with Shortened Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2018 Jan;13(1):1-5

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Standard coagulation screening tests are important constituents of basic examinations in clinical laboratories. There is no clear evidence of a relation between the type of clinical presentation and coagulation parameters in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. This cross-sectional study included 539 patients who underwent coronary angiography in Tehran Heart Center between November 2012 and January 2013. Patients presented with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, unstable angina, or stable angina. Prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured before angiography and compared between the clinical presentation groups. The mean age of the patients was 59.156 ± 11.05 years, and 47.7% were male. STEMI was reported in 41(7.6%) patients, non-STEMI in 42 (7.8%), unstable angina in 304 (56.4%), and stable angina in 152 (28.2%). No difference in the mean PT and INR was found between the groups. The mean APTT was significantly lower among the patients presenting with STEMI and non-STEMI (26.58 ± 2.32 s in the STEMI, 26.85 ± 2.41 s in the non-STEMI, 27.64 ± 2.54 s in the unstable, and 27.93 ± 2.53 s in the stable angina groups, respectively, p value = 0.005). After adjustment, the association between the patients' presentations and APTT was significant (OR for 5 s increase in APTT = 1.661, 95% CI = 1.184 to 2.332; p value = 0.003). We observed that the patients who presented with STEMI had the lowest value of APTT, whereas those who presented with stable angina had the highest. The value of APTT in patients undergoing coronary angiography may have a potential to predict the extent and severity of coronary stenosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037630PMC
January 2018

Treatment Related Hematologic Changes in a Population of Iranian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection from 2009 to 2014.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Oct;46(10):1386-1394

Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to assess the frequency of hematologic changes, response to treatment, rate of discontinuation and dose reduction in Hepatitis C positive patients, treated with Interferon and ribavirin from Apr 2009 to Mar 2014.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, out of registered patients, 554 were assessed and 150 patients with positive HCV PCR, regular patient visits to clinic and complete records were included. HCV viral load, complete blood count and liver enzyme levels were measured before initiation of treatment and monthly. Exclusion criteria's were other types of hepatitis and HIV infection, autoimmune or blood diseases, illegal drug use and treatment with bone marrow suppressors. The data was analyzed using SPSS.

Results: Out of 150 patients, 135 (90%) were male. Mean age was 39.7±10.7 (range 23-74) yr old. Forty-six patients (30.7%) had genotype 1 and 99 (66%) genotypes 2 and 3. Treatment regimens were prescribed as Pegafron+Ribavirin in 125 (83.3%), Interfron+Ribavirin 9 (6%) and Pegintron+Ribavirin in 16 (10.7%) of patients... The prevalence of anemia in genotype 1 patients was higher (=0.044). There was no association between sex and leukocyte changes. Thirty-four (22.7%) patients had moderate and severe thrombocytopenia. Six patients had severe anemia and Ribavirin dose was adjusted.

Conclusion: The hematological changes are common side effects of conventional hepatitis C treatment regiments. Although drug dose adjustment is not usually necessary, due to severe anemia in genotype 1 patients, we should treat high-risk patients cautiously and made the appropriate changes in drug dosage at the right time.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750351PMC
October 2017

The promising role of monoclonal antibodies for immunotherapy of the HIV-associated cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Int Rev Immunol 2018 05 19;37(3):165-173. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

c Research Center for Immunodeficiencies , Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Association between HIV/AIDS and some of the cancers such as lymphomais is well known. Relative risk for developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increases 60-200 folds in HIV-infected individuals. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) are among the most frequent subtypes. During the last century, scientists found that the immune system could potentially detect and destroy cancer cells. Therefore, they started a new field of study, which is named immunotherapy. There are different immunotherapeutic methods, among which therapeutic antibodies, such as Brentuximabvedotin (Adcetris), Ibritumomabtiuxetan (Zevalin) and rituximab (Rituxan), used for treatment of NHLs showed promising results. In this article, we will review the immunotherapeutic option, monoclonal antibodies, for treatment of HIV-associated NHLs as well as their recent clinical status. We will also discuss the selective monoclonal antibody for each subtype of NHLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08830185.2017.1405396DOI Listing
May 2018

Jolt accentuation of headache: can this maneuver rule out acute meningitis?

BMC Res Notes 2017 Oct 30;10(1):540. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Acute meningitis is a medical emergency and its accurate diagnosis could help physicians to accelerate treatment and reduce the mortality and morbidity of patients. Jolt accentuation of headache (Jolt) is an easy clinical maneuver that can be used to diagnose meningitis, but its diagnostic accuracy is controversial. We aimed to assess the "Jolt maneuver" in diagnosis of suspected acute meningitis patients admitted to the emergency ward of Imam-Khomeini Hospital Complex in Tehran, Iran.

Results: Out of 250 patients, 227 were included and 64 (28.2%) had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes compatible with meningitis. Jolt was positive in 40 of 64 (62.5%) meningitis patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (+ LR and - LR) of Jolt were 62.5, 88.3%, 5.36 and 0.42, respectively. These indices were also compared to nuchal rigidity, Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs. The highest + LR was for Kernig's sign (6.79) and the lowest - LR was for nuchal rigidity (0.39). CSF culture was positive in two patients (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Aspergillus sp.). We found that in adult patients with fever and acute headache, a positive Jolt maneuver has a good diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis of meningitis and indicates a need for CSF assessment, but negative results cannot exclude it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2877-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663092PMC
October 2017

Collapsed membranes within pelvic cyst: What is the diagnosis?

Clin Case Rep 2017 02 17;5(2):199-200. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Resident of Pathology Department of Pathology Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

Collapsed membranes and daughter cysts are pathognomonic for hydatid cysts on imaging. The comma-shaped lesions, visible within the hydatid cyst in sagittal view of MRI, are collapsed membranes. Although primary hydatid cyst of pelvic cavity is rare, clinicians should remember to include hydatid cysts in differential diagnosis of pelvic cysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5290517PMC
February 2017

Brucellosis With Multi-Organ Involvement in a Patient With History of Composite Aortic Graft and Hepatitis B.

Acta Med Iran 2016 Nov;54(11):750-753

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The brucellosis with multi-organ involvement in a patient with a history of the composite aortic graft (Bentall procedure) and Hepatitis B infection is rare. A 35-year-old man presented to us with fever and loss of consciousness. Four years ago, he was IDU and underwent cardiac surgery because of endocarditis. Recently lumbar spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. The Wright (1/320) and Coombs Wright tests (1/640) were positive. After CNS imaging, lumbar puncture was done. The CSF pleocytosis was lymphocyte dominant. In cardiac echocardiography, large vegetation on prosthetic aortic valve leaflets was seen. The brain MRI was reported abnormal. Treatment of brucellosis started with Ceftriaxone, Doxycycline, Rifampin and Gentamycin. After 4 days, he became oriented, and fever was disappeared then we continued the treatment for 16 days. The patient discharged and followed by daily phone calls. As symptoms of abdominal pain and jaundice were presented on the fifth day, he re-admitted. The patient expired because of hepatorenal and cardiac insufficiency. Drug side effects, activation of Hepatitis B and embolism of cardiac vegetation to other organs were suspected causes of death. We do not suggest medical therapy without cardiac surgery in such cases. When combination therapy is necessary for brucellosis in an HBsAg-positive patient, hepatitis virus activity should be assess by HBV-DNA PCR and the dose of drugs with known hepatotoxic effects such as rifampin and co-trimoxazole should be adjust. Combination therapy with quinolones instead of hepatoxic drugs is one of our suggustions.
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November 2016

Cardiac Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report.

Iran J Public Health 2016 Nov;45(11):1507-1510

Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hydatid disease commonly involves liver but in rare cases, it can involve cardiac structures. A 75-yr-old farmer from Parsabad-Moghan, northwestern Iran was presented to the Emergency Room of Tehran Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran with dyspnea and without chest pain in 2014. A lesion compatible with hydatid cyst was found in echocardiography and confirmed by serology and MRI. Surgical treatment was done but the patient was died in recovery room because of cardiac arrhythmia. In endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of heterogeneous echogenic lesions even if the serologic tests are negative. Physician can use cardiac MRI to earn valuable information about the lesion and its relation to other structures. However, with all of these assessments, surgical removal of cardiac cysts may have some complications.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5182260PMC
November 2016

Transseptal Approach versus Left Atrial Approach to Mitral Valve: A Propensity Score Matching Study.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2015 Oct;10(4):188-93

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Many patients with mitral valve diseases need surgical procedures for the repair or replacement of their mitral valve. There is a great deal of controversy over the outcomes of the transseptal (TS) and left atrial (LA) approaches to the mitral valve. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of each approach more accurately by eliminating the possible biases in case selection and matching.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients who had surgery for mitral valve diseases via either the TS approach or the LA approach between 2004 and 2011 in Tehran Heart Center. Patients with surgical approaches other than the TS and LA were excluded. To control for the confounding effects, a propensity score matching technique was applied and the patients were matched for 14 demographic and preoperative variables. After the selection of controls, the effect of the TS approach (163 patients) versus the LA approach (652 patients) on the outcomes was presented through odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 53.15 ± 12.02 years in the TS group and 52.93 ± 13.56 years in the LA group. Females comprised 119 (73.0%) patients in the TS group and 462 (70.9%) in the LA group. There was a significant association in the prevalence of new postoperative atrial fibrillation in the two groups (OR = 1.539, 95%CI: 1.072-2.210; p value = 0.019). Temporary pacemaker placement had no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p value = 0.418). The TS patients had significantly longer pump (p value < 0.001) and cross-clamp (p value < 0.001) times. The mortality rate was 4.1% (27 patients) in the LA group and 6.1% (10 patients) in the TS group (p value = 0.274).

Conclusion: In our study population, the TS approach was associated with higher pump and cross-clamp times as well as risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation, but it did not increase the rates of permanent pacemaker placement, re-operations, and mortality.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791647PMC
October 2015

Drug Abuse among University Students of Rafsanjan, Iran.

Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2014 ;8(2):81-5

Dental Student, Students Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Ranfsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Objective: The present study aimed to determine the frequency of drug abused in a sample of university students in Rafsanjan, Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,260 students volunteered (311 males and 949 females) with mean age of 21.35 years. Data were collected by a self-administrated questionnaire regarding drugs abuse and demographic information.

Results: Benzodiazepines were the most common abused drugs which were reported in 94 students (7.4%). Other agents studied were cigarette and tobacco (159, cases 12.6%), alcoholic drinks (60 cases, 4.7%), and opiates (42 cases, 3.3%). Forty-three students (3.4%) had used methylphenidate in the last 6 months. Of this, 39 (90.6%) experienced insomnia. All students who abused methylphenidate indicated that the reason for this behavior was to raise alertness and conscious levels.

Conclusion: The pattern of drug abuse among the students here seems similar to other reports from Iranian universities.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105608PMC
July 2014