Publications by authors named "Omar Aldibasi"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Urinary Tract Infection in Children With Bronchiolitis: Is It Worth Testing Everyone?

Cureus 2021 Jun 6;13(6):e15485. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, SAU.

Objective The current study aims to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and the need to perform urine analysis and cultures in children admitted with bronchiolitis in a large tertiary children's hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients 0-2 years of age who were admitted with bronchiolitis from November 2016 till April 2017. All charts were analyzed to identify the children investigated for UTI, and their results were then reviewed. Results There were 407 children admitted with bronchiolitis during the study period. Two-thirds of them were investigated for UTI. Only 2.6% of the patients tested positive for urine culture, and only 0.96% were found to have a true UTI. Conclusion The prevalence of UTI in children with bronchiolitis is too low to justify routine screening. Therefore, only children with a high risk of having UTI should be investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260889PMC
June 2021

Nationwide Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Saudi Arabia.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jul 24;14(7):832-838. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Estimated seroprevalence of Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a critical evidence for a better evaluation of the virus spread and monitoring the progress of COVID-19 pandemic in a population. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence has been reported in specific regions, but an extensive nationwide study has not been reported. Here, we report a nationwide study to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the population of KSA during the pandemic, using serum samples from healthy blood donors, non-COVID patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in six different regions of the kingdom, with addition samples from COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A total of 11,703 serum samples were collected from different regions of the KSA including; 5395 samples from residual healthy blood donors (D); 5877 samples from non-COVID patients collected through residual sera at clinical biochemistry labs from non-COVID patients (P); and 400 samples from consented HCWs. To determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, all serum samples, in addition to positive control sera from RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients, were subjected to in-house ELISA with a sample pooling strategy, which was further validated by testing individual samples that make up some of the pools, with a statistical estimation method to report seroprevalence estimates.

Results: Overall (combining D and P groups) seroprevalence estimate was around 11% in Saudi Arabia; and was 5.1% (Riyadh), 1.5% (Jazan), 18.4% (Qassim), 20.8% (Hail), 14.7% (ER; Alahsa), and 18.8% in Makkah. Makkah samples were only D group and had a rate of 24.4% and 12.8% in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah, respectively. The seroprevalence in Saudi Arabia across the sampled areas would be 12 times the reported COVID-19 infection rate. Among HCWs, 7.5% (4.95-10.16 CI 95%) had reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 without reporting any previously confirmed infection. This was higher in HCWs with hypertension. The study also presents the demographics and prevalence of co-morbidities in HCWs and subset of non-COVID-19 population.

Interpretation: Our study estimates the overall national serological prevalence of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia to be 11%, with an apparent disparity between regions. This indicates the prevalence of asymptomatic or mild unreported COVID-19 cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188888PMC
July 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Maxitrol in Pediatric Age Group Below Two Years With Adenoid Hypertrophy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cureus 2021 Apr 28;13(4):e14736. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, King Abdullah Specialized Children Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, SAU.

Introduction Adenoid hypertrophy, a common condition in children, represents one of the common indications for surgery in pediatrics. Medical treatment alone is not effective, and most of the time patients are managed by surgical removal of the adenoid. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of intranasal Maxitrol® drops (Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland) in pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy aged less than two years and to document any side effects during its use. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdullah Specialist Children's Hospital (KASCH). We reviewed the charts of 86 pediatric patients aged less than two years who were diagnosed with adenoid hypertrophy between 2015 and 2018. Patients were grouped according to the type of intervention (use of Maxitrol®, and no use). The follow-up time was up to one year. Results Out of 86 patients, 55 (63.9%) patients had adenoid hypertrophy alone and 31 (36.1%) had adenoid hypertrophy plus another disease. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms (p=0.026) and grade of adenoid (p=0.040) showed a significant relationship with surgery booking after one year. The probability of booking for surgery for those who used Maxitrol® was 1.394 times higher than for those who were not using it (odds ratio [OR]=1.394; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.549-3.537). Suppression of growth and eye complications were not reported in any of our patients. Conclusion In this small sample, the use of Maxitrol® in the pediatric age group below two years with adenoid hypertrophy was safe and effective in relieving nasal symptoms; however, eventually, surgery was needed in most of our patients. Suppression of growth and eye complications were not reported in any of our patients during the follow-up time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162137PMC
April 2021

Multicentre randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of favipiravir in adults with mild COVID-19.

BMJ Open 2021 04 14;11(4):e047495. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: A novel coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, caused an international outbreak of a respiratory illness, termed COVID-19 in December 2019. There is a lack of specific therapeutic agents based on evidence for this novel coronavirus infection; however, several medications have been evaluated as a potential therapy. Therapy is required to treat symptomatic patients and decrease the virus carriage duration to limit the communitytransmission.

Methods And Analysis: We hypothesise that patients with mild COVID-19 treated with favipiravir will have a shorter duration of time to virus clearance than the control group. The primary outcome is to evaluate the effect of favipiravir on the timing of the PCR test conversion from positive to negative within 15 days after starting the medicine.Adults (>18 years, men or nonpregnant women, diagnosed with mild COVID-19 within 5 days of disease onset) are being recruited by physicians participating from the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs and the Ministry of Health ethics committee approved primary healthcare centres. This double-blind, randomised trial comprises three significant parts: screening, treatment and a follow-up period. The treating physician and patients are blinded. Eligible participants are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either the therapy group (favipiravir) or a control group (placebo) with 1800 mg by mouth two times per day for the first day, followed by 800 mg two times per day for 4-7 days. Serial nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab samples are obtained on day 1 (5 days before therapy). On day5±1 day, 10±1 day, 15±2 days, extra nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal PCR COVID-19 samples are requested.The primary analysis population for evaluating both the efficacy and safety outcomes will be a modified intention to treat population. Anticipating a 10% dropout rate, we expect to recruit 288 subjects per arm. The results assume that the hazard ratio is constant throughout the study and that the Cox proportional hazard regression is used to analyse the data.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study was approved by the King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre Institutional Review Board (28 April 2020) and the Ministry of Health Institutional Review Board (1 July 2020). Protocol details and any amendments will be reported to https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04464408. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Number: National Clinical Trial Registry (NCT04464408).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053307PMC
April 2021

Portable RT-PCR System: a Rapid and Scalable Diagnostic Tool for COVID-19 Testing.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 04 20;59(5). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Liver Transplantation Unit, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Combating the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demands accurate, rapid, and point-of-care testing with fast results to triage cases for isolation and treatment. The current testing relies on reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), which is routinely performed in well-equipped laboratories by trained professionals at specific locations. However, during busy periods, high numbers of samples queued for testing can delay the test results, impacting efforts to reduce the infection risk. Besides, the absence of well-established laboratories at remote sites and low-resourced environments can contribute to a silent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). These reasons compel the need to accommodate point-of-care testing for COVID-19 that meets the ASSURED criteria (ffordable, ensitive, pecific, ser-friendly, apid and robust, quipment-free, and eliverable). This study assessed the agreement and accuracy of the portable Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system against the gold standard tests. Nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs were used. Of the 192 samples tested using the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system, the results from 189 samples (98.4%) were in agreement with the reference standard-of-care RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. The portable system generated simultaneous results for nine samples in 80 min with high positive and negative percent agreements of 99.0% and 97.8%, respectively. We performed separate testing in a sealed glove box, offering complete biosafety containment. Thus, the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system can help decentralize COVID-19 testing and offer rapid test results for patients in remote and low-resourced settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03004-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091859PMC
April 2021

The Incidence and Risk Factors of Cholelithiasis Development After Bariatric Surgery in Saudi Arabia: A Two-Center Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Surg 2020 22;7:559064. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Bioethics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Rapid weight loss after bariatric surgery is a known risk factor for cholelithiasis development. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of cholelithiasis following bariatric surgery among morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. This is a retrospective cohort study of all morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery in King Abdulaziz Medical City (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) or King Abdulaziz Hospital (Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia) between January 2015 and December 2018. Patients with a history of cholecystectomy or previous bariatric surgery were excluded. We estimated the incidence rate of cholelithiasis among the cohort. We also examined the associated risk factors of cholelithiasis development. The study cohort contained 490 patients (38.7% males; 61.43% females) with a mean age of 36.87 ± 11.44 years. Most patients (58.54%) were followed up for 12 months. The incidence of cholelithiasis post-operation was 6.53% ( = 32). The average period of cholelithiasis formation was 12-24 months. The percentage of total weight loss (TWL%) was significantly associated with the development of cholelithiasis post-operatively. A significant association was found between weight loss following bariatric surgery and the incidence of cholelithiasis. Gender, age, and comorbidities were not associated with the formation of cholelithiasis. We recommend regular follow-up appointments with thorough patient education about gradual weight loss to reduce the risk of developing cholelithiasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.559064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641899PMC
October 2020

A Trial of Favipiravir and Hydroxychloroquine combination in Adults Hospitalized with moderate and severe Covid-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Oct 31;21(1):904. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The selected combination was based on limited evidence clinically and in vitro on the efficacy of the Favipiravir and Hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2. The two medications were listed in many guidelines as treatment options and ongoing trials assessing their efficacy and safety. Thus, we want to prove the clinical effectiveness of the combination as therapy.

Trial Design: This is an Open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel therapeutic agents in hospitalized adults diagnosed with COVID-19. It is a multicenter trial that will compare Favipiravir plus Hydroxychloroquine combination (experimental arm) to a control arm.

Participants: All study procedures will be conducted in eight centres in Saudia Arabia: King Abdulaziz Medical City National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh. King Abdulaziz Hospital - Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia AlMadina General Hospital, Madnia, Saudi Arabia Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia Imam Abdulrahman Al Faisal Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia King Abdulaziz Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Imam Abdulrahman Alfaisal Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Inclusion Criteria • Should be at least 18 years of age, • Male or nonpregnant female, • Diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR confirmed SARS-coV-2 viral infection. • Able to sign the consent form and agree to clinical samples collection (or their legal surrogates if subjects are or become unable to make informed decisions).. • Moderate or Severe COVID-19, defined as oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or significant clinical symptoms that require hospital admission. • patients had to be enrolled within 10 days of disease onset. Exclusion Criteria • Patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding. • Will be transferred to a non-study site hospital or discharged from hospital within 72 hours. • Known sensitivity/allergy to hydroxychloroquine or Favipiravir • Current use of hydroxychloroquine for another indication • Prior diagnosis of retinopathy • Prior diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency • Major comorbidities increasing the risk of study drug including: i. Hematologic malignancy, ii. Advanced (stage 4-5) chronic kidney disease or dialysis therapy, iii. Known history of ventricular arrhythmias, iv. Current use of drugs that prolong the QT interval, Severe liver damage (Child-Pugh score ≥ C, AST> 5 times the upper limit), HIV. • The investigator believes that participating in the trial is not in the best interests of the patient, or the investigator considers unsuitable for enrollment (such as unpredictable risks or subject compliance issues). • Clinical prognostic non-survival, palliative care, or in deep coma and no have response to supportive treatment within three hours of admission • Patient with irregular rhythm • Patient with a history of heart attack (myocardial infarction) • Patient with a family history of sudden death from heart attack before the age of 50 • Take other drugs that can cause prolonged QT interval • Patient who is receiving immunosuppressive therapy (cyclosporin) which cannot be switched to another agent or adjusted while using the investigational drug • Gout/history of Gout or hyperuricemia (above the ULN), hereditary xanthinuria or xanthine calculi of the urinary tract.

Intervention And Comparator: The treatment intervention would be for a maximum of 10 days from randomization and it would be as follows: Favipiravir for 10 days: Administer 1800 mg (9 tablets) by mouth twice daily for one day, followed by 800mg (4 tablets) twice daily (total days of therapy is 10 days) Hydroxychloroquine for 5 days: (400mg) twice daily on day 1; for days 2-5 (200mg) twice daily. Reference Comparator Therapy: Standard of care is defined as: Treatment that is accepted by medical experts as a proper treatment for Covid-19 disease. Standard care comprised of, as necessary, supplemental oxygen, noninvasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, vasopressor support, renal-replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and antiviral therapy except Favipiravir. Also, it may include intravenous fluids and medications for symptoms relief .

Main Outcomes: The primary endpoint is the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to an improvement of two points (from the status at randomization) on a seven-category ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital, whichever came first (14 days from Randomization).

Randomisation: Eligible participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the combination group (Favipiravir and Hydroxychloroquine) or a control group. The patients will be randomized utilizing Web based data entry System with a stratification based on the centre and the ICU admission.

Blinding (masking): This is an Open label study and only the analyst will be blinded during the study conduct.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): Under the classical two arm parallel design the total effective sample sizes needed is 472 subjects (236 subjects per group).

Trial Status: Protocol version 3.1 (dated 11 Aug 2020), and currently recruitment is ongoing. The date recruitment started was May 21, 2020 and the investigators anticipate the trial will finish recruiting by the end of December 2020.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04392973 , 19 May 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04825-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602769PMC
October 2020

Assessing parental awareness and attitudes toward leaving children unattended inside locked cars and the risk of vehicular heat strokes.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2020 Jun 27;7(2):93-97. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Vehicular heat stroke is considered as one of the preventable causes of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among children. The prevalence of parents and caregivers leaving children unattended in enclosed vehicles is non-negligible.

Objective: This paper aims to assess parents' knowledge and beliefs about vehicular heat strokes among children in addition to the prevalence and associated factors of leaving children inside locked cars.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Abdullah Specialist Children's Hospital in Riyadh. Two hundred nine parents completed a self-administered questionnaire addressing vehicular heat strokes.

Results: Among the participants, 24.88% have left at least one of their children unattended inside locked cars during a sunny day; 78.85% of parents have heard about accidental deaths secondary to leaving children in locked vehicles. When assessing parental knowledge of increased sensitivity to heat in infants/children, 81.34% of them knew the correct information. Older age ( = .0150), less paternal education ( = .0157), and increased number of children ( = .0020) were associated with increased incidences of leaving children unattended in enclosed cars.

Conclusion: Considering the high temperatures in the Gulf region, the prevalence of vehicular heat stroke secondary to locking children inside vehicles is nontrivial. Awareness programs for parents and caregivers are strongly encouraged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2019.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335822PMC
June 2020

Reduction of severe intraventricular hemorrhage, a tertiary single-center experience: incidence trends, associated risk factors, and hospital policy.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 12 4;36(12):2971-2979. Epub 2020 May 4.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To determine the incidence, trends, maternal and neonatal risk factors of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) among infants born 24-32 weeks and/or < 1500 g, and to evaluate the impact of changing of hospital policies and unit clinical practice on the IVH incidence.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review of preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of 24-32 weeks and/or weight of < 1500 g born at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R), Saudi Arabia, from 2016 to 2018. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to determine the probability of developing severe IVH and identify associations with maternal and neonatal risk factors.

Results: Among 640 infants, the overall incidence of severe IVH was 6.4% (41 infants), and its rate decreased significantly, from 9.4% in 2016 to 4.5% and 5% in 2017 and 2018 (p = 0.044). Multivariate analysis revealed that caesarian section delivery decreased the risk of severe IVH in GA group 24-27 weeks (p = 0.045). Furthermore use of inotropes (p = 0.0004) and surfactant (p = 0.0003) increased the risk of severe IVH. Despite increasing use of inotropes (p = 0.024), surfactant therapy (p = 0.034), and need for delivery room intubation (p = 0.015), there was a significant reduction in the incidence of severe IVH following the change in unit clinical practice and hospital policy (p = 0.007).

Conclusion: Cesarean section was associated with decreased all grades of IVH and severe IVH, while use of inotropes was associated with increased severe IVH. The changes in hospital and unit policy were correlated with decreased IVH during the study period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04621-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649152PMC
December 2020

Humoral Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Single Dose of ChAdOx1 MERS Vaccine Candidate in Dromedary Camels.

Sci Rep 2019 11 8;9(1):16292. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Infectious Disease Research, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

MERS-CoV seronegative and seropositive camels received a single intramuscular dose of ChAdOx1 MERS, a replication-deficient adenoviral vectored vaccine expressing MERS-CoV spike protein, with further groups receiving control vaccinations. Infectious camels with active naturally acquired MERS-CoV infection, were co-housed with the vaccinated camels at a ratio of 1:2 (infected:vaccinated); nasal discharge and virus titres were monitored for 14 days. Overall, the vaccination reduced virus shedding and nasal discharge (p = 0.0059 and p = 0.0274, respectively). Antibody responses in seropositive camels were enhancedby the vaccine; these camels had a higher average age than seronegative. Older seronegative camels responded more strongly to vaccination than younger animals; and neutralising antibodies were detected in nasal swabs. Further work is required to optimise vaccine regimens for younger seronegative camels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52730-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6841732PMC
November 2019
-->