Publications by authors named "Om Prakash"

361 Publications

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Essential Oils from Kumaun Hills of Uttarakhand.

Molecules 2022 Jul 28;27(15). Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Campus de Pesquisa-Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi-Botany Coordination, Av. Perimetral, 19001-Terra Firme, 66077-830 Belem-PA, Brazil.

Buch. Ham. ex Sm. is a perennial rhizomatous herb belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The aim of the present study was to compare the chemical composition and biological activities of rhizome essential oil (HCCRO) and aerial part essential oil (HCCAO). The plant material was subjected to hydro-distillation using Clevenger's apparatus in order to obtain volatile oil and analyzed for its chemical constituents using GC-MS. The comparative study of the rhizome and aerial part essential oils of displayed that ()-nerolidol (15.9%), bornyl acetate (13.95%), davanone B (10.9%), spathulenol (8.9%), and 1, 8-cineol (8.5%) contributed majorly to the HCCRO, while 7-hydroxyfarnesen (15.5%), α-farnesene (11.1%), α-pinene (10.9%), spathulenol (7.7%), and β-pinene (6.8%) were present as major constituents in the HCCAO. Both the essential oils were studied for their biological activities, such as nematicidal, insecticidal, herbicidal, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. The essential oils exhibited significant nematicidal activity against , insecticidal activity against , and moderate herbicidal activity against sub sp. , and good antifungal activity against and . Essential oils were also tested for antibacterial activity against and serotype Typhi. Both oils showed good to moderate activity against the tested pathogens. The significant nematicidal, insecticidal, herbicidal, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of both the essential oils might be helpful for the development of environmentally friendly pesticides that could be an alternative to synthetic pesticides in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154833DOI Listing
July 2022

Optimal monitoring locations for identification of ambivalent characteristics of groundwater pollution sources.

Environ Monit Assess 2022 Aug 11;194(9):664. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna, Bihar, India.

Increasing pollution in the environment, particularly for groundwater, has been an issue of great concern for decades. Thus, proper management strategies need to be adopted for reclamation of such polluted groundwater aquifers. Success of these reclamation strategy relies on the precision with which the pollution source characteristics (location of sources, release flux histories, and the starting times of pollutant sources) are identified. In clandestine scenarios of groundwater pollution where neither the location nor starting times of pollutant sources are known, it is impossible to decide where to install a monitoring well. Therefore, an optimally designed pollutant data monitoring plan is needed to reduce the time and cost of monitoring and simultaneously achieve greater accuracy in identification of source characteristics. To address this issue, a principal component analysis (PCA)-based methodology is proposed to design an efficient well network for identifying unknown characteristics of pollutant sources (UCPS). PCA is applied to reduce the dimensionality of a dataset comprising a large number of interrelated variables, thus reducing the uncertainty due to ambivalent source characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10313-3DOI Listing
August 2022

Authors' Reply: Early Versus Delayed Cholecystectomy for Acute Biliary Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

World J Surg 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Surgical Disciplines, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-022-06673-zDOI Listing
July 2022

Efficient Herbicide Delivery through a Conjugate Gel Formulation for the Mortality of Broad Leaf Weeds.

ACS Omega 2022 Jun 3;7(23):19964-19978. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005, India.

Carfentrazone-ethyl is embedded in guar gum to prepare a polymer-herbicide conjugate gel formulation for a sustained release of the active ingredient (a.i.). The sprayable gel formulation was optimized at 0.5% (w/v) concentration. Strong interactions of the prepared composition of the polymer-herbicide conjugate system are shown through spectroscopic techniques, depicting the peak broadening of hydrophilic -OH bonds in the herbicide at 1743 cm, shifting to 1730 cm in the polymer-herbicide sample. There is a broadening and shifting of the peak at 329 nm for the n → π* transition at 335 nm in the polymer-herbicide conjugate system in UV spectra. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements show a lowering of endothermic melting peaks to 242 and 303 °C in the polymer-herbicide conjugate. X-ray diffraction studies showed a sharp diffraction peak of the pure polymer at a 2θ of ∼20.3°, while broadening and shifting of the peak position to a 2θ of ∼20.8° were observed after adding the herbicide. Diffusion of the active ingredient in the polymer-herbicide conjugate resulted in much greater coverage (most of the weed leaf stomata (>95%)) than conventional spraying. The efficacy of both the polymer-herbicide formulation and herbicide at different doses in weed nurseries showed significantly higher weed mortality in (95.4%), (∼97%), and (93.16%) treated with the polymer-herbicide formulation @ 20 g a.i. ha. Narrow SPAD readings range of (0.1-30.6) and that of (0-5) were observed in the polymer-herbicide formulation @ 20 g a.i. ha was at par with the conventional formulation @ 30 g a.i. ha. Less regeneration in a weed nursery of (27%), (77%), and (49%) treated with gel formulations @ 20 g a.i. ha was observed, which was significantly lower than those in conventional herbicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202071PMC
June 2022

Current trends in the development of soy-based foods containing probiotics and paving the path for soy-synbiotics.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 May 25:1-19. Epub 2022 May 25.

Division of Biochemistry, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

In the world of highly processed foods, special attention is drawn to the nutrient composition and safety of consumed food products. Foods fortified with probiotic bacteria confer beneficial effects on human health and are categorized as functional foods. The salubrious activities of probiotics include the synthesis of vital bioactives, prevention of inflammatory diseases, anticancerous, hypocholesterolemic, and antidiarrheal effects. Soy foods are exemplary delivery vehicles for probiotics and prebiotics and there are diverse strategies to enhance their functionality like employing mixed culture fermentation, engineering probiotics, and incorporating prebiotics in fermented soy foods. High potential is ascribed to the concurrent use of probiotics and prebiotics in one product, termed as "synbiotics," which implicates , in which a prebiotic ingredient particularly favors the growth and activity of a probiotic micro-organism. The insights on emended bioactive profile, metabolic role, and potential health benefits of advanced soy-based probiotic and synbiotic hold a promise which can be profitably implemented to meet consumer needs. This article reviews the available knowledge about strategies to enhance the nutraceutical potential, mechanisms, and health-promoting effects of advanced soy-based probiotics. Traditional fermentation merged with diverse strategies to improve the efficiency and health benefits of probiotics considered vital, are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2078272DOI Listing
May 2022

Lack of kinship with anaerobes is a kind of short-sightedness of agricultural and environmental microbiologists.

Authors:
Om Prakash

Environ Microbiol Rep 2022 06;14(3):330-332

National Centre for Microbial Resource (NCMR), National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India.

Due to limited diffusion, active root respiration and intense microbial metabolism, rhizosphere and deeper layer of bulk soil often face hypoxic or anaerobic conditions. The majority of the data on plant growth promotion (PGP) and rhizoremediation have been obtained in aerobic conditions using aerobic or facultative anaerobic microbes neglecting anaerobes and actual soil oxygen conditions. Data obtained with a nutrient-rich medium from an aerobic condition do not exactly translate in oxygen-stressed oligotrophic environments of soil, leading to failure of hypothesis and microbial technology for PGP and pollutants remediation. Anaerobes are key players in the soil ecosystems and participate in the different biogeochemical processes of ecological and environmental significance. This Opinion article aims to divert the attention of agricultural and environmental Microbiologists towards neglected anaerobes and anaerobic processes to develop successful and sustainable PGP and pollutants removal by rhizospheric microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.13058DOI Listing
June 2022

Two-Dimensional Cell Separation: a High-Throughput Approach to Enhance the Culturability of Bacterial Cells from Environmental Samples.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 06 25;10(3):e0000722. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

National Centre for Microbial Resource, National Centre for Cell Sciencegrid.419235.8, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Culture-independent sequence data from various environmental samples have revealed an immense microbial diversity of environmental, clinical, and industrial importance that has not yet been cultured. Cultivation is imperative to validate findings emerging from cultivation-independent molecular data and exploit the isolated organisms for biotechnological purposes. Efforts have been made to boost the cultivability of microbes from environmental samples by use of a range of techniques and instrumentation. The manuscript presents a novel yet simple and innovative approach to improving the cultivability of natural microorganisms without sophisticated instrumentation. By employing gradient centrifugation combined with serial dilution ("two-dimensional cell separation"), significantly higher numbers of genera (>2-fold higher) and species (>3-fold higher) were isolated from environmental samples, including soil, anaerobic sludge, and landfill leachate, than from using serial dilution alone. This simple and robust protocol can be modified for any environment and culture medium and provides access to untapped microbial diversity. In the manuscript, we have developed a novel yet simple and innovative approach to improving the cultivability of natural microorganisms without sophisticated instrumentation. The method used gradient centrifugation combined with serial dilution (two-dimensional cell separation) to improve taxum recovery from samples. This simple and robust protocol can be modified for any environment and culture medium and provides access to untapped microbial diversity. This approach can be incorporated with less labor and complexity in laboratories with minimal instrumentation. As cultivation is a workflow that is well suited to lower-resource microbiology labs, we believe improvements in cultivability can increase opportunities for scientific collaborations between low-resource labs and groups focused on high-resource cultivation-independent methodologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00007-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9248899PMC
June 2022

A Microcosm Model for the Study of Microbial Community Shift and Carbon Emission from Landfills.

Indian J Microbiol 2022 Jun 11;62(2):195-203. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

National Centre for Microbial Resource, National Centre for Cell Science, 411007 Pune, Maharashtra India.

The landfill is an inexpensive way of municipal solid waste (MSW) management and contributes extensively to the total carbon budget and global climate change. Three landfills from two geographically distinct metro- cities of India were taken as model systems to create microcosms and study their physiochemistry, microbiology, and carbon emission. The microcosm experiments revealed that facultative anaerobic bacterial community showing the dominance in the beginning but with the progression of anoxia and anaerobic conditions, methanogenesis prevailed, resulting in a clear shift towards the abundance of methanogens especially the members of , and (70-90% of the total microbial population). Geochemical data showed a wide range of heterogeneity in landfills' composition located even in the same city. In past, greenhouse gas emission from landfills is mainly estimated using different models which lack accuracy. As limited information is available as of now, this study can elicit researcher interest for in-depth characterization of microbial diversity and carbon emission from landfills. The microcosm model presented in the current study is a robust and straightforward method of accurate estimation of amounts of different types of gases release from landfill. It can also be extrapolate for estimation of different gases release from actual landfill sites by setting the on-site experiments.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12088-021-00995-7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-021-00995-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8980185PMC
June 2022

COVID-Kavach-Based Seropositivity in the General Population of Ahmedabad: Just Before the Start of the Vaccination for the Elderly in India.

Cureus 2022 Mar 1;14(3):e22759. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Community Medicine, Nathiba Hargovandas Lakhmichand (NHL) Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad, IND.

Background The present study was carried out in succession of three serosurvey studies carried out during 2020 in Ahmedabad with an objective to estimate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) in Ahmedabad city so as to scientifically understand the pandemic progression. Methods Polio booth-based stratification was followed for the population-based stratified sampling among the general population of Ahmedabad. The seroprevalence was compared with various factors for valid and precise predictions regarding the immunity status of the population. Results As on February 2021, the seroprevalence for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV2 in the general population of Ahmedabad was 27.92% (95% confidence interval 27.06-28.80), much below the minimum desired for herd immunity. Comparison of seropositivity with age groups showed higher seroprevalence with increasing age groups. Seroprevalence was higher among males (29.08%) than females (27.01%) and the difference was statistically significant (Z=2.30, P=0.02). Calculating the seropositivity among the subcategories, cases had a seropositivity of 64.90% and family contacts had a seropositivity of 28.00%. Seronegative cases indicate the possibility of absent, undetectable, or disappearing IgG antibodies. Seropositivity of 37% among the vaccinated individuals may be related to dose and duration of vaccination, as the COVID vaccination had started just before the present study and none had completed 14 days after the second dose. Conclusions The low level of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV2 using the COVID-Kavach test kit in the general population of Ahmedabad city of India, as on February 2021, before the start of COVID vaccination for the general population suggests that the preventive measures be strongly followed for continued control of the pandemic situation at least till majority of the population is effectively covered with vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971097PMC
March 2022

Early Versus Delayed Cholecystectomy for Acute Biliary Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

World J Surg 2022 06 19;46(6):1359-1375. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Surgical Disciplines, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Background: Recommendations regarding the timing of cholecystectomy for acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) require a systematic summary of current evidence to guide clinical practice. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing early cholecystectomy (EC) versus delayed cholecystectomy (DC) in patients with ABP.

Methods: We searched databases Medline, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials addressing this question. Pairs of reviewers abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias in included studies. A random-effects meta-analysis was done to study the effect of the timing of cholecystectomy on outcomes of interest in patients with ABP. GRADE methodology was used to rate the quality in the body of evidence for each outcome as high, moderate, low, or very low.

Results: 11 randomized trials (1176 participants) were included. High-quality evidence from seven RCTs (867 participants) showed a statistically significant reduction in the risk for recurrent biliary events in favour of early cholecystectomy (RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.19, I = 0%). High-quality evidence from five trials was in favour of early cholecystectomy with a significant reduction in the risk 7of recurrent pancreatitis (RAP) in comparison to delayed cholecystectomy (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.51, I = 0%).

Conclusion: This review showed that EC has definite advantages over DC in terms of reducing recurrent pancreaticobiliary events and LOS following mild ABP. However, more RCTs are required to study the role of EC in patients with moderately-severe and severe ABP. Trial Registration Protocol registered on Prospero (CRD42020192823).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-022-06501-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), a Leading Risk Factor for Mucormycosis (Black Fungus), During the Era of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): An Overview.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2022 Mar 15. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh-226028, India.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and steroid medication, coincided with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), results in a weakened immune system, allowing some commonly found pathogens to become more harmful. Mucormycosis (black fungus) is such a type of opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the Mucorales family. DM is the most prominent risk factor for mucormycosis. Excessive blood sugar and decreased insulin levels lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a devastating complication of DM that can be fatal if left untreated.

Methods: Diabetic ketoacidosis is more common in type 1 diabetic patients, although it can also be fall in type 2 diabetic patients. DKA occurs when the body lacks enough insulin to allow blood sugar to enter the cells and is used for energy. Instead, the liver breaks down fat for fuel producing chemicals known as ketones in the process.

Results: When too many ketones are created too quickly, they can reach dangerously high levels in the body. Mucormycosis is a rare but serious infectious disease that requires medication or surgical removal.

Conclusion: The confluence of diabetes and COVID-19 makes managing mucormycosis a serious and dead issue. Although the effectiveness of prophylactic antifungal therapy has yet to be demonstrated, hyperglycemia control appears to be the most important step in managing mucormycosis in DKA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399818666220315162424DOI Listing
March 2022

Comparison of extended totally extra peritoneal (eTEP) vs intra peritoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair for management of primary and incisional hernia in terms of early outcomes and cost effectiveness-a randomized controlled trial.

Surg Endosc 2022 Mar 11. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Surgical Disciplines, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Room No. 5026A, 5th Floor, Teaching Block, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: There are no randomized controlled trials comparing the eTEP with IPOM repair and this randomized study was designed to compare the two techniques in terms of early pain, cost effectiveness, and quality of life.

Method: This was a prospective randomized trial with intention to treat analysis. The primary outcome was immediate post-operative pain scores. Operative time, conversions, peri operative morbidity, hospital stay, return to daily activities, incremental cost effectiveness ratio and quality of life (WHO-QOL BREF) were secondary outcomes.

Results: Sixty patients were randomized equally. Early post-operative pain scores and seroma rates were significantly lower and with a significantly earlier return to activity in eTEP group (p value < 0.05). With negative costs and positive effects, eTEP group was 2.4 times more cost effective.

Conclusion: eTEP repair is better in terms of lesser early post-operative pain, earlier return to activities and cost effectiveness in small and medium size defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-022-09180-3DOI Listing
March 2022

Immunoglobulin-G Antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2 among Health-Care Workers: A Serosurveillance Study from India.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2022 Jan-Mar;12(1):18-23. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Microbiology, AMC MET Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Background: Seropositivity among health-care workers (HCWs) may help in better understanding of the immune response after COVID-19 infection.

Objectives: To estimate seropositivity among HCWs and to compare available variables with seropositivity to understand the factors affecting seropositivity.

Materials And Methods: A serosurveillance among HCWs was carried out using population proportion sampling during the second half of October 2020 in the city of Ahmedabad using the Covid-Kavach (immunoglobulin G [IgG] ELISA Antibody testing kit). Simple proportions and appropriate statistical tests were used as needed.

Results: As on October' 2020, HCWs in Ahmedabad demonstrated a seropositivity of 20.84% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.00-22.81%). Seropositivity among HCWs was lower than that of the general population (24.20%) which was estimated as part of the same study. Female HCWs had higher seropositivity 22.14% (95% CI 19.74-24.74%) as compared to 18.82% (95% CI 16.06-21.93%) among male HCWs and the difference was statistically not significant ( = 1.66, = 0.097). Age groups with increasing age show increasing trend in the seropositivity among HCWs.

Conclusion: As on October 2020, with 20.84% seropositivity among HCWs in Ahmedabad, one in every five HCW already demonstrate IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2. Further scientific studies on seropositivity and the factors affecting the seropositivity may be carried out to uncover more details of immune reaction after COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.ijabmr_516_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8848555PMC
January 2022

Severity of dengue illness and presence of anti DV IgG in serum of laboratory confirmed dengue cases.

J Vector Borne Dis 2021 Jul-Sep;58(3):228-231

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.

Background & Objectives: Presence of dengue is reported from India since 1960s. Secondary dengue infection may be more severe than primary, hence, distinction between primary and secondary dengue is essential. A way to detect secondary dengue is demonstration of anti DV IgG in patients' serum. In this study we explored the association of dengue severity with anti DV IgG positivity.

Methods: Laboratory confirmed cases of dengue (positive for anti DV IgM/ NS-1 Antigen/ DV -RNA), presenting to the hospital within 7 days of illness, were consecutively enrolled for a period of one month (September 1-30, 2018) and were tested for anti DV IgG in their serum. All PCR positive samples were serotyped. Cases positive for anti-dengue IgG were labeled as secondary cases. Clinical details were collected to assess the severity of illness. Association of dengue severity with anti DV IgG positivity was calculated.

Results: Of the 128 dengue positive cases, 89 (69.5%) were anti DV IgM positive, 72 (56.3%) were Dengue NS-1 positives and 37 (28.9%) were DV-RNA positive. Only 39 (30.5%) cases were having detectable anti-dengue IgG in their serum (secondary dengue). Anti-dengue IgM positivity was significantly higher in secondary dengue cases. No association of anti DV IgG positivity was seen with severity of dengue illness.

Interpretation & Conclusion: No association of IgG positivity with severity of illness was seen. D4 serotype is first time reported from Uttar Pradesh, India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-9062.325637DOI Listing
February 2022

Novel mechanism and degradation kinetics of pesticides mixture using Bacillus sp. strain 3C in contaminated sites.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2022 Feb 23;181:104996. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study has investigated the potential of Bacillus sp. strain 3C able to degrade mixture of pesticides from the environment. It showed maximum tolerance up to 450 mg·L for cypermethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid and sulfosulfuron. The strain 3C was able to degrade up to the 94% of mixture of pesticides (20 mg·L) within 15 days of experiment. The Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) determined the optimized conditions as; inoculum size 3.0 × 10 CFU·mL, shaking speed 120 rpm, and pesticides concentration 80 mg·L. In soil-based bioremediation with strain 3C after 15 days degradation pattern was; 99, 94, 92, 92 and 7% for the imidacloprid, sulfosulfuron, fipronil, cypermethrin and control respectively. The novel intermediate metabolites for cypermethrin degradation were investigated as decyl isobutyl ester, phthalic acid, cyclopropane carboxylic acid tri dec-2-ynyl ester, 9- octadecanal, tridecane, propanoic acid, cyclohexene, bicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-ol, and acetic acid were identified using Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) with strain 3C. Moreover, the results of the laccase based enzymatic kinetics suggested that the rate of production was maximum in pesticides stress (94 μg·μL) whereas, in normal condition 51 μg·μL. The K value found to be decreased in pesticides stress condition 12.25 and increment in K 13.58 mM was observed without stress. Furthermore, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and laccase encoding genes were amplified and linked with mixture of pesticides bioremediation. The efficiency of bacterial strain 3C, could be used for bioremediation of mixture of pesticides, and other xenobiotic compounds from the contaminated environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104996DOI Listing
February 2022

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on Fe N-heterocyclic carbene photosensitizers with improved rod-like push-pull functionality.

Chem Sci 2021 Dec 11;12(48):16035-16053. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Lund University Box 124 SE-22100 Lund Sweden

A new generation of octahedral iron(ii)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, employing different tridentate C^N^C ligands, has been designed and synthesized as earth-abundant photosensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and related solar energy conversion applications. This work introduces a linearly aligned push-pull design principle that reaches from the ligand having nitrogen-based electron donors, over the Fe(ii) centre, to the ligand having an electron withdrawing carboxylic acid anchor group. A combination of spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and quantum chemical calculations demonstrate the improved molecular excited state properties in terms of a broader absorption spectrum compared to the reference complex, as well as directional charge-transfer displacement of the lowest excited state towards the semiconductor substrate in accordance with the push-pull design. Prototype DSSCs based on one of the new Fe NHC photosensitizers demonstrate a power conversion efficiency exceeding 1% already for a basic DSSC set-up using only the I/I redox mediator and standard operating conditions, outcompeting the corresponding DSSC based on the homoleptic reference complex. Transient photovoltage measurements confirmed that adding the co-sensitizer chenodeoxycholic acid helped in improving the efficiency by increasing the electron lifetime in TiO. Time-resolved spectroscopy revealed spectral signatures for successful ultrafast (<100 fs) interfacial electron injection from the heteroleptic dyes to TiO. However, an ultrafast recombination process results in undesirable fast charge recombination from TiO back to the oxidized dye, leaving only 5-10% of the initially excited dyes available to contribute to a current in the DSSC. On slower timescales, time-resolved spectroscopy also found that the recombination dynamics (longer than 40 μs) were significantly slower than the regeneration of the oxidized dye by the redox mediator (6-8 μs). Therefore it is the ultrafast recombination down to fs-timescales, between the oxidized dye and the injected electron, that remains as one of the main bottlenecks to be targeted for achieving further improved solar energy conversion efficiencies in future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc02963kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8672732PMC
December 2021

Ecdysis triggering hormone peptide in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: The peptide structure for receptor activation.

Insect Sci 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506.

Infections by mosquito-borne diseases represent one of the leading causes of death in third world countries. The rapid progression of resistance to conventional insecticide causes a significant threat to the highly efficient preventive methods currently in place. Insect neuropeptidergic system offers potential targets to control the insect vectors. The essential roles of the neuropeptide ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) in insect development and reproduction led us to attempt understanding of the fundamentals of the biochemical interaction between ETH and its receptor in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. One of two ETH peptides of the African malaria mosquito (AgETH1), a small peptide hormone with 17 amino acid residues (SESPGFFIKLSKSVPRI-NH ), was studied to elucidate its molecular structure. N-termini deletions and mutations of conserved amino acids in the ligand revealed the critical residues for the receptor activation. The solution structure of AgETH1 using 2D H- H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and nuclear overhauser effect (NOE) derived constraints revealed a short alpha helix between residues 3S and 11S. The NMR solution structure of AgETH1 will be of significant assistance for designing a new class of insecticidal compounds that acts on the AgETH receptor aiming for in silico docking studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.13004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9273798PMC
January 2022

Successful Ayurvedic Management of Dermatophytosis-A case report.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2022 Jan-Mar;13(1):100491. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Drug Development, Gwalior, M.P, India.

Fungal infections are quite common in day-to-day practice. The available conventional treatments include various topical and systemic anti-pruritic and anti-fungal agents which are associated with high rates of treatment failure and adverse effects. Fungal infections manifest a great challenge to clinicians due to higher rate of recurrences and if not treated early, can lead to the development of more extensive diseases. In Ayurveda, this condition has resemblance with Dadru kustha. The characteristics of Dadrukustha are circumscribed erythematous, scaly plaques due to dematophytes infection. It is a type of Kshudra kushta, tridosaja vyadhi with dominance of pitta and kaphadosha, having characteristic features such as presence of utsannamandal (elevated circular skin lesion), kandu (itching), raga (erythyma), and pidaka (eruptions). In this case report, a 62-year old male patient suffering from tinea corporis on and off for one year was treated effectively with Ayurvedic medicines. Significant changes were observed in the skin lesion and in the patient symptoms after 42 days of regular treatment. Post-treatment follow-up after 1 month did not reveal any signs of recurrences of lesions. Ayurvedic medicines offer an effective approach to manage tinea corporis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2021.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8728070PMC
December 2021

Diabetes Mellitus during the Pandemic Covid-19: Prevalence, Pathophysiology, Mechanism, and Management: An updated overview.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2022 ;18(3):e120721194712

Department of Pharmacognosy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2457-11451, KSA.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most frequently reported comorbidities in patients tainted with the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With a high pervasiveness of diabetes mellitus, there is an urgency to understand the special aspects of COVID-19 in hyperglycemic patients. Diabetic patients are at higher risk than the general population of viral or bacterial infections, thus require special attention since diabetes is linked with severe, critical, and lethal modes of COVID-19.

Objective: The objective of this study was to focus on epidemiology, pathophysiology, mechanism, and management of DM with COVID-19.

Methods: The search was carried out on databases portals such as Pubmed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords, i.e., COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, diabetes, covid-19, etc. Result: DM and COVID-19 disease conditions can impact each other in terms of clinical progression and outcome. Available laboratory/clinical observations suggest that hyperglycemia-induced immune dysfunction, inflated lactate grades, and cytokines storm may play critical roles in the seriousness of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes; however, the exact mechanisms linking diabetes and COVID-19 remain to be further clarified.

Conclusion: Standards to constrain the disease spread at the individual and community level are the key to extenuate the speedily rising pandemic, while definitive treatment, like plasma therapy, chemoprophylaxis, or vaccine for COVID-19, has yet to be discovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399817666210712160651DOI Listing
May 2022

Selective Formation of Mononuclear Palladium and Acetonitrile-Bridged Dinuclear Palladium Complexes Containing a Chiral Tridentate Ligand.

Inorg Chem 2022 Jan 20;61(1):32-36. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.

From the chiral Schiff base tridentate ligand , unusual acetonitrile-bridged dinuclear palladium complex and organopalladium complex were synthesized selectively by using acetonitrile and ethanol, respectively. The chiral tridentate Schiff base ligand was bound to the palladium metal center with different chelation modes ([ONO] for and [CNO] for ). Complex constitutes the first example of dinuclear metal complexes connected only by a bridging acetonitrile, in which an exceptionally short C≡N bond distance [0.945(12) Å] of bridged acetonitrile was observed. To study the influence of a phenyl group attached to an imine, the phenyl-free ligand was prepared and used. In that case, an acetonitrile bridge was not observed. Theoretical calculation studies supporting the formation of and are favored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c03391DOI Listing
January 2022

Resonant X-ray photo-oxidation of light-harvesting iron (II/III) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 12;11(1):22144. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Lund Institute of Advanced Neutron and X-ray Science, IDEON Building: Delta 5, Scheelevägen 19, 223 70, Lund, Sweden.

Two photoactive iron N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where btz is 3,3'-dimethyl-1,1'-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4'-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, have been investigated by Resonant Photoelectron Spectroscopy (RPES). Tuning the incident X-ray photon energy to match core-valence excitations provides a site specific probe of the electronic structure properties and ligand-field interactions, as well as information about the resonantly photo-oxidised final states. Comparing measurements of the Fe centre and the surrounding ligands demonstrate strong mixing of the Fe [Formula: see text] levels with occupied ligand [Formula: see text] orbitals but weak mixing with the corresponding unoccupied ligand orbitals. This highlights the importance of [Formula: see text]-accepting and -donating considerations in ligand design strategies for photofunctional iron carbene complexes. Spin-propensity is also observed as a final-state effect in the RPES measurements of the open-shell [Formula: see text] complex. Vibronic coupling is evident in both complexes, where the energy dispersion hints at a vibrationally hot final state. The results demonstrate the significant impact of the iron oxidation state on the frontier electronic structure and highlights the differences between the emerging class of [Formula: see text] photosensitizers from those of more traditional [Formula: see text] complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-01509-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8590020PMC
November 2021

Drying kinetics and economic analysis of bitter gourd flakes drying inside hybrid greenhouse dryer.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.

In this study, a heat storage-based hybrid greenhouse dryer has been developed and analysed for drying bitter gourd flakes under the climatic condition of Ranchi, India. Proposed heat storage-based hybrid greenhouse dryer consists of a solar air heater with a 2.12-m area, greenhouse dryer and DC fan to induce and force the air. The significant objective of the present study is to analyse the drying efficiency, drying kinetics, property analysis, economic analysis, embodied energy and CO mitigation of the hybrid greenhouse dryer for drying of bitter gourd flakes. An experiment was performed simultaneously on proposed system and open sun drying for the proper comparative analysis. Moisture contents reduced from 88.14 to 10.14% in 6 h in proposed dryer and 88.14 to 11.01% in 15 h for open system. Thus, significant drying time is reduced in proposed system by 8 h as compared to open system. Environmental impact analysis shows that the energy payback time was found to be 0.4907 years only. Cost of the proposed system dryer is 22664.30 INR. The total embodied energy is found 1591.07 kWh and earned carbon credit ranges from 16844.76 to 67379.05 INR, while CO mitigation was 46.28 tonnes for 35 years of expected lifetime. Seven standard mathematical models for drying of bitter gourd flakes were studied. Ahmad and Prakash model was found to be the best as compared to other models. The metal contents of dried bitter gourd flakes were also examined. Bitter gourd dried in proposed dryers possesses superior metal content as compared to open systems. Impact analysis demonstrates that the hybrid greenhouse dryer is more suitable for reducing post-harvest loss with environmental sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17044-xDOI Listing
November 2021

Genetic polymorphism of microsatellite loci in MHC class II exon 2 gene and its association with endoparasitic infestation, predominantly in Salem black goat.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Nov 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Directorate of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, Chennai, TN, India.

MHC gene is highly polymorphic and plays central molecule in immune system in recognition of pathogens and parasites. The present study examined the variability of MHC class II DRB exon 2 gene using microsatellite analysis, and its association with infestation in Salem Black goat population. Animals were naturally exposed to mixed infestation of endoparasites, predominantly . Pooled fecal coproculture and larval identification showed predominant presence of haemonchus (L3) larva. Fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) were used as indicator traits. All the three studied loci, , , and , were polymorphic having three, four, and four alleles and four, eight, and nine genotypes, respectively. The loci showed low to moderate values of polymorphic information content. The mean fecal egg count estimates were 477.12 ± 34.14 eggs per gram of feces and the mean PCV values were within the normal range; however, they showed negative correlation with FEC values. All the three microsatellite loci and the effect of genotypes on indicator traits were found to be statistically significant ( ≤ 0.05). The present study will be helpful in selection and breeding of goats for Haemonchosis resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1998088DOI Listing
November 2021

Seroprevalence of Immunoglobulin-G Antibody Among Confirm Cases of COVID-19.

Cureus 2021 Sep 14;13(9):e17956. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Community Medicine, Nathiba Hargovandas Lakhmichand (NHL) Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad, IND.

Background Sero-surveillance to find the presence of IgG antibodies among COVID-19 cases helps in the better understanding of the immune response after COVID-19 infection. Objectives To estimate seropositivity among confirmed COVID-19 cases and to correlate the seropositivity with various factors affecting seropositivity. Methods Population-based sero-surveillance among COVID-19 cases was carried out during the second half of August 2020 in Ahmedabad using the COVID KAVACH, Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) Antibody Detection Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Seropositivity among cases was measured and compared with various other factors to understand the immunity status among COVID-19 cases. Results With 1073 positive for IgG antibodies from 1720 samples, the seropositivity among COVID-19 cases is 62.38% [95%CI 60.07-64.64%]. The difference in seropositivity based on gender was statistically not significant (Z=0.26, P=0.79). Children have the highest seropositivity (94.44%) and from young adults, to the elderly, the proportion of positivity among cases shows an increasing trend. Time gap analysis from the date of diagnosis shows that the proportion of cases with IgG antibodies increases gradually reaching its peak at around 10 weeks (third month) and then declines gradually. Conclusion Seropositivity among COVID-19 cases is 62.38%. The proportion of cases with IgG antibodies reaches its peak at around 10 weeks (third month) after diagnosis and then declines gradually. This fall indicates that the detected antibodies may not be long-lasting and may become undetectable/absent over a period of time. The reason for seronegative results in COVID-19 cases needs further in-depth scientific research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515500PMC
September 2021

Anticancer Potential of Naringenin, Biosynthesis, Molecular Target, and Structural Perspectives.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2022 ;22(5):758-769

Goel Institute of Pharmaceutical and Sciences, Faizabad Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Numerous novel medicinal agents isolated from plant sources were used as indigenous remedies for the management and treatment of various types of cancer diseases. Naringenin is a naturally occurring flavanone glycoside, and aglycone (genin) moiety of naringin, predominantly found in citrus and grapefruits, has emerged as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of a variety of diseases. A number of scientific papers have been published on naringenin describing its detailed studies and its therapeutic application in different diseases. The current study highlights a comprehensive study on naringenin concerning its biosynthesis, molecular targets/pathways involved in carcinogenesis, mechanism of actions (MOAs), and structure-activity relationships (SARs), and patents granted have been highlighted. Naringenin and its derivatives have great anti-cancer activity due to their inhibitory potential against diverse targets, namely ABCG2/P-gp/BCRP, 5a-reductase, 17- bhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, aromatase, proteasome, HDAC/Situin-1, VEGF, VEGFR-2 kinase, MMP-2/9, JAK/STAT signaling pathways, CDC25B, tubulin, topoisomerase-II, cathepsin-K, Wnt, NF-kB, B-Raf and mTOR, etc. With the in-depth knowledge of molecular targets, structural intuition, and SARs, the current study may be beneficial to design more potent, safe, effective, and economic anti-cancer naringenin. This has been concluded that naringenin is a promising natural product for the management and therapy of cancer. Further evolution for pharmacological importance, clinical research, and trials are required to manifest its therapeutic action on metabolic syndrome in the human community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557521666210913112733DOI Listing
April 2022

Ethanolic extract of Pyrus pashia buch ham ex. D. Don (Kainth): A bioaccessible source of polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 11;282:114628. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru, Karnataka, 570020, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201002, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Pyrus pashia Buch ham ex. D. Don (Kainth) fruit from the Himalayan region is traditionally consumed by native people in the form of decoctions for various clinical conditions including inflammatory diseases. However, scientific studies on the biofunctional properties of Kainth fruits are still scarce.

Aim Of The Study: The study is aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Kainth fruit extracts using in vitro and in vivo inflammation models.

Material And Methods: Free, esterified and bound fractions from the Kainth ethanolic extracts were prepared for determining the anti-inflammatory effect. The levels of 5-LOX and COX-2 were determined in vitro. The protein levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α & IL-10) were quantitated by ELISA method in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW macrophages. Also, the anti-inflammatory potential of the Kainth fruit extracts was determined using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The bioaccessibility of Kainth fruit extracts was measured using a simulated in vitro digestion system (salivary, gastric and intestinal).

Results: The Kainth fruit extracts were partially purified to yield free, esterified and bound phenolics. Free and bound phenolics of Kainth fruits inhibited 5-Lipoxygenase, Cyclooxygenase-2 activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α) expression in vitro. Also, oral administration of these extracts to the carrageenan-injected mice showed an anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing the pro-inflammatory cytokines and reducing the cellular infiltration in paw tissues. Also, both the extracts showed better bioavailability and bioaccessibility in in vitro and in vivo studies.

Conclusions: The results indicated that free and bound phenolics from Kainth fruits that are rich in catechin, epicatechin, arbutin and chlorogenic acid exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and could potentially be used to treat inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114628DOI Listing
January 2022

Effect of heat processing on phenolics and their possible transformation in low-sugar high-moisture (LSHM) fruit products from Kainth (Pyrus pashia Buch.-ham ex D. Don) fruit.

Food Chem 2022 Feb 1;370:130988. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysuru 570020, Karnataka, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201002, India. Electronic address:

LSHM fruit products were developed using 40% Kainth fruit juice (KJ40) and 10% pomace (KP10). The percentage of fruit juice and pomace was optimized based on the sensory analysis. The effect of heat processing on the nutritional and neutraceuticals parameters was studied. The product KJ40 was rich in free phenolics, while in KP10, it was bound phenolics. Both the products had good retention of phenolics, vitamins, minerals during processing and were microbiologically safe for up to six months. UPLC-ESI-HRMS was used for the identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds. Arbutin and catechin were the most stable phenolics during processing and storage. A slight change in catechin and chlorogenic acid contents was observed, which might be transformed or degraded. Tentatively, three unknown compounds were also identified using non-targeted analysis (Marker View Software, AB Sciex). Both products might offer health benefits as rich in phenolics and dietary fiber (≥5%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130988DOI Listing
February 2022

Effect of siRNA targeting dengue virus genes on replication of dengue virus: an in vitro experimental study.

Virusdisease 2021 Sep 28;32(3):518-525. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh India.

Dengue is a notorious viral infection, which affects a large segment of world populations in absence of vaccines and anti-viral treatment. The current study evaluates role of effective siRNA in dengue virus replication. Eight siRNA were synthesized against five different genes (Capsid, CprM, NS1, NS3 and NS5) of all serotypes of dengue virus. All serotype of DV were transfected with all synthesized siRNA in vitro, using BHK-21 cell lines. Culture fluid from test and control was tested by Real time PCR for CT value comparison in siRNA treated cell line (test) and untreated cell line (controls). Percent knockdown (%KD) was calculated by ∆∆C methods to know the difference in test and control CT value. It was found that siRNA targeted against capsid gene worked best and showed inhibition of all four DV serotypes. DV-1, DV-2, DV-3 and DV-4 showed 93.8%, 99.3%, 87.5% and 93.8% knock down (%KD) respectively by siRNA targeted against capsid gene. Additionally, Si2 (target CprM gene 60-899) and Si 6 (target NS1 gene 3007-3025) were also showing inhibition of replication. Most serotypes of DV (with few exceptions) were not inhibited by siRNA targeted against NS-1, NS-3, and NS-5 genes. Animal studies using siRNAs are warranted to establish their therapeutic role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-021-00700-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397848PMC
September 2021
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