Publications by authors named "Oluwamayokun Oshinowo"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Platelet heterogeneity enhances blood clot volumetric contraction: An example of asynchrono-mechanical amplification.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 23;274:120828. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA, 30332-0405, USA. Electronic address:

Physiological processes such as blood clotting and wound healing as well as pathologies such as fibroses and musculoskeletal contractures, all involve biological materials composed of a contracting cellular population within a fibrous matrix, yet how the microscale interactions among the cells and the matrix lead to the resultant emergent behavior at the macroscale tissue level remains poorly understood. Platelets, the anucleate cell fragments that do not divide nor synthesize extracellular matrix, represent an ideal model to study such systems. During blood clot contraction, microscopic platelets actively pull fibers to shrink the macroscale clot to less than 10% of its initial volume. We discovered that platelets utilize a new emergent behavior, asynchrono-mechanical amplification, to enhanced volumetric material contraction and to magnify contractile forces. This behavior is triggered by the heterogeneity in the timing of a population of actuators. This result indicates that cell heterogeneity, often attributed to stochastic cell-to-cell variability, can carry an essential biophysical function, thereby highlighting the importance of considering 4 dimensions (space + time) in cell-matrix biomaterials. This concept of amplification via heterogeneity can be harnessed to increase mechanical efficiency in diverse systems including implantable biomaterials, swarm robotics, and active polymer composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184644PMC
July 2021

Getting a good view: imaging of platelets under flow.

Platelets 2020 Jul 28;31(5):570-579. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University , Atlanta, GA, USA.

As the anucleate cells responsible for hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are exposed to a myriad of biophysical and biochemical stimuli within vasculature and heterogeneous blood clots. Highly controlled, reductionist imaging studies have been instrumental in providing a detailed and quantitative understanding of platelet biology and behavior, and have helped elucidate some surprising functions of platelets. In this review, we highlight the tools and approaches that enable visualization of platelets in conjunction with precise control over the local biofluidic and biochemical microenvironment. We also discuss next generation tools that add further control over microenvironment cell stiffness or enable visualization of the interactions between platelets and endothelial cells. Throughout the review, we include pragmatic knowledge on imaging systems, experimental conditions, and approaches that have proved to be useful to our imaging studies of platelets under flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2020.1732320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332395PMC
July 2020

Feeling the Force: Measurements of Platelet Contraction and Their Diagnostic Implications.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2019 Apr 19;45(3):285-296. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

In addition to the classical biological and biochemical framework, blood clots can also be considered as active biomaterials composed of dynamically contracting platelets, nascent polymeric fibrin that functions as a matrix scaffold, and entrapped blood cells. As platelets sense, rearrange, and apply forces to the surrounding microenvironment, they dramatically change the material properties of the nascent clot, increasing its stiffness by an order of magnitude. Hence, the mechanical properties of blood clots are intricately tied to the forces applied by individual platelets. Research has also shown that the pathophysiological changes in clot mechanical properties are associated with bleeding and clotting disorders, cancer, stroke, ischemic heart disease, and more. By approaching the study of hemostasis and thrombosis from a biophysical and mechanical perspective, important insights have been made into how the mechanics of clotting and the forces applied by platelets are linked to various diseases. This review will familiarize the reader with a mechanics framework that is contextualized with relevant biology. The review also includes a discussion of relevant tools used to study platelet forces either directly or indirectly, and finally, concludes with a summary of potential links between clotting forces and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284283PMC
April 2019