Publications by authors named "Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Contraceptive and biochemical effect of juice extract of Allium cepa, Allium sativum, and their combination in Canton S fruit flies.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jun 18:e13821. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria.

This study determines the contraceptive activity of Allium sativa (Garlic) and Allium cepa (Onion) juices on reproductive output and development of Drosophila melanogaster. The fruit flies were divided and grouped into 5, group A serves as the control, group B serves as the onion group, group C serves as the garlic group, group D serves as the onion + garlic group, while group E serves as the standard contraceptive group. Biochemical parameters measured were superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, mating test, and negative geotaxis. There was a significant reduction in the levels of MDA in onion, garlic, onion + garlic groups when compared with the control, in contrast, a significant increase was observed in SOD, CAT, and GST activities. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in nitric oxide levels in garlic, onion + garlic extract with a corresponding increase in the standard contraceptive group. There was a significant reduction in the concentration of TC and HMG-CoA in garlic and standard contraceptive groups when compared with the control while triglyceride revealed a considerable increase in the garlic group when compared with the control. The mating test showed there was a considerable reduction in the onion, garlic, onion + garlic, and standard contraceptive when compared with the control. Taken together, Allium sativum proved to serve as a better contraceptive in D. melanogaster as a possible effective option for contraceptives, which is further, supported by their strong antioxidant activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: A. cepa and A. sativum are sources of dietary phytocompounds with proven antioxidant activities. The contraceptive activity of A. cepa and A. sativum juice extract was investigated. The results showed that A. cepa and A. sativum and their combination prove to serve as a better effective option for contraceptives in D. melanogaster. The observed results could provide the potential application of A. cepa and A. sativum as an alternative therapy for contraceptives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13821DOI Listing
June 2021

Ameliorating activity of polyphenolic-rich extracts of L. leaves on pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Phytomedicine, Natural Products, Drug and Biochemical Toxicology Group, Landmark University, Omu Aran, PMB 1001, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Objectives: To assess the ameliorative activity of polyphenolic-rich extracts of leaves on β-cell dysfunction in type-II diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents; α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions and qualitative analysis of the bioactive compounds of the polyphenolic-rich extract of leaves were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and the rats were orally given bound phenolic (BPE) and free phenolic extracts (FPE) of (B.R) leaves at 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w once daily for 14 days. Biochemical analyses were executed for evaluation of serum insulin, serum lipid profile concentrations, liver enzymes activities.

Results: The extracts demonstrated antioxidant potentials and enzymes inhibitory activities in dose dependent manner; and several bioactive compounds as revealed by GC-MS. BPE and FPE considerably (p<0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, improved serum insulin levels, ameliorated the concentration of serum lipid profiles and improved liver antioxidant activities. Additionally, BPE and FPE expressively decreased alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities along with levels of bilirubin and urea when compare to diabetic control rats.

Conclusions: Data acquired exhibited the ability of BPE and FPE to improve pancreatic beta-cell in streptozotocin-induced rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0304DOI Listing
May 2021

Exploring the potentials of some compounds from Garcinia kola seeds towards identification of novel PDE-5 inhibitors in erectile dysfunction therapy.

Andrologia 2021 May 4:e14092. Epub 2021 May 4.

Phytomedicine, Natural Products, Drug and Biochemical Toxicology Group, Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, Omu Aran, Nigeria.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the main challenges occurring among men worldwide, and is characterised by trouble getting or keeping steady erection during sexual intercourse. Various drugs like sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) are freely available in the pharmacies, though normally associated with several adverse. This study was designed to assess the molecular relations obtainable between catechin, garcinal, garcinoic acid and d-tocotrienol compounds isolated from Garcinia kola and targeted receptor linked to ED. These processes include the molecular docking of catechin, garcinal, garcinoic acid, d-tocotrienol, and sildenafil to receptor: PDE-5 via AutoDock Vina. Following the docking of catechin, garcinal, garcinoic acid and d-tocotrienol with the PDE-5-receptor protein, we observed that all are protein inhibitors with garcinoic acid showing better binding affinity -10.0 kcal/mol with PDE-5 receptor relevant to ED. Hence, the results provided insights into the development of garcinoic acid as a replacement for present ED management, with further analysis worth considering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.14092DOI Listing
May 2021

Deciphering the Interactions of Bioactive Compounds in Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants against Alzheimer's Diseases via Pharmacophore Modeling, Auto-QSAR, and Molecular Docking Approaches.

Molecules 2021 Apr 1;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, AlBeheira 22511, Egypt.

Neurodegenerative diseases, for example Alzheimer's, are perceived as driven by hereditary, cellular, and multifaceted biochemical actions. Numerous plant products, for example flavonoids, are documented in studies for having the ability to pass the blood-brain barrier and moderate the development of such illnesses. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) has achieved importance in the drug discovery world; innovative developments in the aspects of structure identification and characterization, bio-computational science, and molecular biology have added to the preparation of new medications towards these ailments. In this study we evaluated nine flavonoid compounds identified from three medicinal plants, namely , and for their inhibitory role on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, using pharmacophore modeling, auto-QSAR prediction, and molecular studies, in comparison with standard drugs. The results indicated that the pharmacophore models produced from structures of AChE, BChE and MAO could identify the active compounds, with a recuperation rate of the actives found near 100% in the complete ranked decoy database. Moreso, the robustness of the virtual screening method was accessed by well-established methods including enrichment factor (EF), receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Boltzmann-enhanced discrimination of receiver operating characteristic (BEDROC), and area under accumulation curve (AUAC). Most notably, the compounds' pIC values were predicted by a machine learning-based model generated by the AutoQSAR algorithm. The generated model was validated to affirm its predictive model. The best models achieved for AChE, BChE and MAO were models kpls_radial_17 (R = 0.86 and Q = 0.73), pls_38 (R = 0.77 and Q = 0.72), kpls_desc_44 (R = 0.81 and Q = 0.81) and these externally validated models were utilized to predict the bioactivities of the lead compounds. The binding affinity results of the ligands against the three selected targets revealed that luteolin displayed the highest affinity score of -9.60 kcal/mol, closely followed by apigenin and ellagic acid with docking scores of -9.60 and -9.53 kcal/mol, respectively. The least binding affinity was attained by gallic acid (-6.30 kcal/mol). The docking scores of our standards were -10.40 and -7.93 kcal/mol for donepezil and galanthamine, respectively. The toxicity prediction revealed that none of the flavonoids presented toxicity and they all had good absorption parameters for the analyzed targets. Hence, these compounds can be considered as likely leads for drug improvement against the same.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037217PMC
April 2021

Oral administration of marijuana produces alterations in serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A gene () and electrolyte imbalances in brain of male Wistar rats.

Mol Biol Res Commun 2021 Mar;10(1):5-11

Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria.

The gene expression of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A (receptor 3A:) as well as the concentration of electrolytes in male Wistar rats after administration of graded doses of marijuana extract was investigated. Twelve groups (3 control and 9 test groups) of 6 animals each were daily exposed to 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg b.w doses of petroleum ether extract of marijuana for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The expressions of the gene were obtained using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) while electrolytes concentrations were determined. An upregulation of over 90% was observed in the expression of after exposure to the highest dose throughout the exposure period. There was significant increase in the plasma potassium concentration at all doses while there was a decrease in the brain only at 50 mg/kg dose throughout the exposure period. Sodium concentration in the brain was not affected by the doses over the period of exposure but plasma concentration decreased significantly. All the doses of marijuana extract significantly increased calcium concentration in the brain after prolonged exposure but the plasma concentration remained unchanged. This suggests that different doses of marijuana extract alter the expression of serotonin receptor and electrolyte concentrations over a period of time with possible neurological consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22099/mbrc.2020.38601.1557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936388PMC
March 2021

Deciphering the interaction of puerarin with cancer macromolecules: An investigation.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Sep 14:1-12. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Science and Innovation/Mintek Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Biolabels Node, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa.

The worldwide expanding increment in cancer pervasiveness is disturbing and this disease ranks among the main causes of mortality in both developing and developed countries. Unfortunately, available treatment options come with serious side effects and do not guarantee complete success. Although numerous models have been proposed for the development of better therapeutic agent, however the exact mechanism are still poorly understood. This then calls for continued research aimed at developing new drugs as an alternative or adjuvant anticancer agents. Here we have identified five vital proteins (CDK-2, Bcl-2, CDK-6, VEGFR, and IGF-1R) that aid tumor growth and we inhibited the activity of these proteins with Puerarin. Puerarin is an isoflavonoid C-glycosides used as a therapeutic agent against various human ailments. Our findings revealed that Puerarin fulfilled Veber's rule. Added to this, CDK-6 and Bcl-2 had better glide scores for puerarin than the control (doxorubicin) and molecular simulation showed the stability of the complexes. These findings suggest that inhibiting CDK-6 and Bcl-2 with Puerarin could prove more effective in the management of cancer than doxorubicin. Overall, this study provides a new direction that could facilitate rational drug design for cancer.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1819425DOI Listing
September 2020

Biological Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Pharmacokinetics of Some spp. and Capsaicinoids.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 22;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt.

Pepper originated from the genus, which is recognized as one of the most predominant and globally distributed genera of the Solanaceae family. It is a diverse genus, consisting of more than 31 different species including five domesticated species, , , , , and Pepper is the most widely used spice in the world and is highly valued due to its pungency and unique flavor. Pepper is a good source of provitamin A; vitamins E and C; carotenoids; and phenolic compounds such as capsaicinoids, luteolin, and quercetin. All of these compounds are associated with their antioxidant as well as other biological activities. Interestingly, fruits have been used as food additives in the treatment of toothache, parasitic infections, coughs, wound healing, sore throat, and rheumatism. Moreover, it possesses antimicrobial, antiseptic, anticancer, counterirritant, appetite stimulator, antioxidant, and immunomodulator activities. Capsaicin and creams are accessible in numerous ways and have been utilized in HIV-linked neuropathy and intractable pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432674PMC
July 2020

leaf extract modulates hyperglycaemia, inhibits redox imbalance and inflammation in alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Jun 12;19(1):469-481. Epub 2020 May 12.

Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology Group, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: leaf is used traditionally to treat diabetes and other diseases. The present study aimed to provide the modulatory effect of on hyperglycemia, inhibitory effect of redox imbalance and inflammation in alloxan-induced nephropathy in Wistar rats.

Methods: Alloxan monohydrate was used to induce diabetes by an intraperitoneal injection of (150 mg/kg). Three diabetic groups were administered aqueous leaf extract of at 6.36, 12.72 and 25.44 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) respectively; a group was administered with metformin (5 mg/kg BW), while the other two were served as positive and negative control. Thereafter, fasting blood glucose, antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, interleukin 2 and 6 were determined.

Results: leaf significantly ( < 0.05) reduced the alloxan-induced increases in blood glucose, MDA, interleukin 2 and interleukin 6 level and increased the alloxan-induced decreases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reduced and glutathione transferase activity. All these changes compared with those of metformin-treated diabetic rats.

Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that modulates glucose homeostasis as well as inhibiting redox imbalance and inflammation in diabetic rats, which may be attributed to the effects of its phytochemical constituents such as saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. It also indicated that inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and redox imbalance are likely mechanisms by which leaf exert its antidiabetic action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00533-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270381PMC
June 2020

Investigation of the In Vitro Antioxidant Potential Of Polyphenolic-Rich Extract of Lam Stem Bark and Its Antidiabetic Activity In Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

J Evid Based Integr Med 2020 Jan-Dec;25:2515690X20916123

University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa.

Lam (Moraceae) stem bark has been used locally in managing diabetes mellitus with sparse scientific information. This study investigates the in vitro antioxidant potential of polyphenolic-rich extract of stem bark as well as its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were used with the induction of diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) and were orally administered 400 mg/kg free and bound phenols of stem bark. The animals were sacrificed on the 28th day of the experiment using the cervical dislocation method; antihyperglycemia and anti-inflammatory parameters were subsequently assessed. The polyphenolic extracts demonstrated antioxidant potentials (such as hydrogen peroxide and diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), as well as strong inhibitory activity against amylase and glucosidase. There was a significant ( < .05) increase in glycogen, insulin concentration, pancreatic β-cell scores (HOMA-β), antioxidant enzymes and hexokinase activities, as well as glucose transporter concentration in diabetic animals administered the extracts and metformin. Also, a significant ( < .05) reduction in fasting blood glucose, lipid peroxidation, glucose-6-phosphatase, and all anti-inflammatory parameters were observed in diabetic rats administered the extracts and metformin. The extracts demonstrated antidiabetic potential, which may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2515690X20916123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238450PMC
April 2021

Gongronema latifolium Benth. leaf extract attenuates diabetes-induced neuropathy via inhibition of cognitive, oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Sep 8;100(12):4504-4511. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Phytomedicine and Nutraceutical Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Background: Gongronema latifolium (G. latifolium) Benth. leaves are traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM) and other diseases in Nigeria and West Africa. This study was performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of aqueous extract of G. latifolium leaf against DM. Antidiabetic activity of G. latifolium extracts (6.36, 12.72 and 25.44 mg kg , i.p.) was determined in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose level and oxidative stress markers catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. Cognitive biomarkers acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), dopamine (DOPA), serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) were measured in the brain of controls and of G. latifolium-treated diabetic rats.

Results: Administration of G. latifolium leaf extract to diabetic rats significantly restored the alterations in the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). The MDA and NO levels were significantly reduced with an improvement in CAT, SOD, and GPx activity in the kidneys and brains of diabetic rats treated with G. latifolium. Gongronema latifolium also significantly decreased the levels of AChE, BChE, DOPA, serotonin, epinephrine, and nor-epinephrine in diabetic rats. G. latifolium effectively ameliorated COX-2 in diabetic rats.

Conclusion: This study showed that leaf extract of G. latifolium improved antioxidant defense against oxidative stress. It displays a neuroprotective effect resulting in the modulation of brain neurotransmitters, which could be considered as a promising treatment therapy. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10491DOI Listing
September 2020

In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory activities of polyphenolic-rich extracts of Syzygium cumini (Linn) Skeels leaf on two important enzymes relevant to type II diabetes mellitus.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Mar;33(2):523-529

Biotechnology and Structural Biochemistry (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Zululand, Kwa Dlangezwa, South Africa.

In this study, the effect of free and bound polyphenolic-rich extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn) Skeels leaf on antioxidant as well as α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were determined using in vitro model. Polyphenolic-rich extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn) Skeels leaf was prepared accordingly and the capability of the extract to inhibit antioxidants as typified by ferric reducing power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) among other free radicals scavenging abilities were quantified spectrophotometrically, added to this, the activities of (α-amylase and α-glucosidase were also assessed. The bound phenolic extract exhibited more in vitro antioxidant properties as represented by their high radicals scavenging ability in all the free radicals evaluated. Also, the polyphenolic-rich extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with bound phenolics showing significant (p<0.05) increase in a dose-dependent manner than free phenolics. Therefore, this study suggests the use of Syzygium cumini leaf as a nutraceutical in the management/ control of type II diabetes mellitus patients.
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March 2020

In vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties of the n-butanol fraction of Senna podocarpa (Guill. and Perr.) leaf.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Dec 25;31(1). Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Nutraceutical and Phytomedicine Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Programme, Department of Chemical Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Background This study evaluates the antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory properties of the n-butanol fraction of Senna podocarpa leaves on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, arginase, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Methods The total phenol and flavonoids, iron (Fe) chelation, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging were used to determine the antioxidant activity, and the inhibitory activities of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, AChE, BChE, tyrosinase, arginase, PDE-5 and ACE were also assessed. Results The n-butanol fraction of S. podocarpa shows high total phenol and total flavonoid contents. The n-butanol fraction of S. podocarpa leaves also chelates Fe2+ and ABTS radicals. The n-butanol fraction of S. podocarpa leaves also inhibited α-glucosidase, α-amylase, AChE, BChE, tyrosinase, arginase, PDE-5, and ACE at the concentration tested. Chromatographic analysis displayed the presence of β-elemene, phytol and caryophyllene oxide chrysophanol, 3-oxo-methyl ester, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, rhein, emodin, and α-copaene. Conclusions Hence, the n-butanol fraction of S. podocarpa leaves demonstrates encouraging feat in controlling and/or managing cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer's disease and also hypertension, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and hyperpigmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0123DOI Listing
December 2019

Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I. M. Johnst leaf extract prevents oxidative hepatic injury and improves muscle glucose uptake ex vivo.

J Food Biochem 2019 12 1;43(12):e13065. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Phytomedicine and Nutraceutical Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Total phenol, total flavonoid, and ameliorative potentials of aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in Fe -induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue and muscle glucose uptake using ex vivo models were assessed. These were carried out using standard procedures. The results revealed that the extract showed the presence of total phenol and total flavonoid, as well as free radicals scavenging abilities in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the aqueous leaf extract of C. aconitifolius enhanced Fe -induced oxidative injury in hepatic tissue by considerably reducing the concentration of lipid peroxidation, with improvement in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extract enhanced glucose uptake in psoas muscle. It can be deduced from this study that the extract might be beneficial to people with diabetes mellitus. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius displayed the presence of total phenol and total flavonoid, as well as an increase in free radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner. The plant extract also improved Fe -induced oxidative injury in hepatic tissue by decreasing lipid peroxidation concentration, improved the activities of catalase as well as superoxide dismutase, with enhancement in glucose uptake of psoas muscle in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13065DOI Listing
December 2019

Spondias mombim L. (Anacardiaceae): Chemical fingerprints, inhibitory activities, and molecular docking on key enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction and Alzheimer's diseases.

J Food Biochem 2019 03 20;43(3):e12772. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Phytomedicine, and Biomedical Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Due to the exceptional wide range in biochemical activities of natural plant products, Spondias mombim L. are attaining a new height because they present great prospects for drug advancement. This research was designed to analyze the pharmaceutical properties of S. mombim L. ethyl acetate fraction (SMEAF) on key enzymes relevant to erectile and cognitive dysfunction. SMEAF inhibitory activities of the specified enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. Chemical profile of SMEAF were assessed by HPLC/MS analysis. Thereafter, molecular docking of the studied enzymes with chlorogenic acid, lutein, and zeaxanthin were carried out using PATCHDOCK. SMEAF had remarkable enzyme inhibitory effects against phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), cholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A (MAO), ecto-5' nucleotidase (E-NTDase), tyrosinase, and stimulated sodium-potassium ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activities. HPLC/MS analysis revealed that phenolics and carotenoids were major components in these fraction notably, chlorogenic acid, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Our results suggested that SMEAF could be explored as phytopharmaceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Spondias mombim L. are cooked as green vegetable with enormous medicinal value probably due to its polyphenols with potent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the leaves could also be useful for therapeutic purposes against erectile dysfunction and central nervous system disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12772DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of Glyphaea brevis twigs extract on cell viability, apoptosis induction and mitochondrial membrane potential in TM3 Leydig cells.

Andrologia 2019 Aug 15;51(7):e13312. Epub 2019 May 15.

Phytomedicine, Reproductive and Biochemical Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Glyphaea brevis twigs (Spreng) Monach. (GBT) are used by local herb healers to manage male sexual fertility disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of G. brevis twigs on TM3 Leydig cells. GBT was extracted using methanol solvent, and Leydig cells were exposed to the respective concentrations of GBT extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 μg/ml) for 24 and 72 hr respectively. Parameters evaluated include cell morphology, viability (MTT assay), mitochondrial membrane potential (TMRE dye), apoptosis (Annexin V Alexa Fluor 488 binding) and RT-qPCR analyses of the mRNA expression. Results revealed that GBT had no cytotoxic effect on cell viability and the cell morphology. GBT also revealed a considerable elevation (p < 0.05) in fluorescence intensity, accompanied by intact mitochondria in TM3 Leydig cells. Furthermore, GBT resulted in the reduction of necrotic and apoptotic cells. The mRNA StAR was upregulated markedly with the effect prominent at 100 μg/ml. This study showed that GBT might be useful for managing male infertility ailments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13312DOI Listing
August 2019

Ocimum gratissimum Linn. Leaves reduce the key enzymes activities relevant to erectile dysfunction in isolated penile and testicular tissues of rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Mar 19;19(1):71. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Biotechnology and Structural Biology (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, 3886, South Africa.

Background: Ocimum gratissimum L. is a medicinal plant widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions with the leaf decoction usually taken in folk medicine to enhance erectile performance in men although the probable mechanism of actions remains undetermined. This study examined the inhibitory potentials of Ocimum gratissimum leaves on some key enzymes associated with erectile dysfunction in penile and testicular tissues of the rat.

Methods: Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract (1:10 w/v) of O. gratissimum leaves on the activities of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, angiotensin I -converting enzyme (ACE), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in penile and testicular tissues were assessed. Also, the extract was investigated for ferric reducing antioxidant property(FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging abilities.

Results: The extract showed higher PDE-5 (IC = 43.19 μg/mL), ACE (IC = 44.23 μg/mL), AChE (IC = 55.51 μg/mL) and arginase (IC = 46.12 μg/mL) inhibitory activity in the penile tissue than PDE-5 (IC = 44.67 μg/mL), ACE (IC = 53.99 μg/mL), AChE (IC = 60.03 μg/mL) and arginase (IC = 49.12 μg/mL) inhibitory activity in the testicular tissue homogenate. Furthermore, the extract scavenged free radicals and in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: The enzyme activities displayed might be associated with the bioactive compounds present in the extract which could possibly explain its use in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2481-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425690PMC
March 2019

Neuromodulatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract in rats with lead-induced oxidative stress.

J Integr Med 2019 Mar 5;17(2):125-131. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti 360001, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240003, Nigeria.

Objective: This study investigated the ameliorative potential of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract against lead-induced brain damage in rats.

Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Lead-acetate toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) in Groups B-E. Group A (control) and Group B (lead-acetate) were left untreated; vitamin C (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to Group C; ethyl acetate fraction from Z. officinale extract (200 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to Group D and E by oral gavage once daily for 7 days. Changes in the content of some key marker enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), epinephrine, dopamine, Na/K-ATPase, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum.

Results: Exposure to lead acetate resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activities of BChE, AChE, Na/K-ATPase, SOD, CAT and GPx with a corresponding increase in the levels of MDA, xanthine oxidase, epinephrine, dopamine and MAO relative to the control group. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of Z. officinale fraction and by the standard drug, vitamin C.

Conclusion: These results suggest that ethyl acetate fraction of Z. officinale extract attenuates lead-induced brain damage and might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in lead poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of Zingiber officinale on some biochemical parameters and cytogenic analysis in lead-induced toxicity in experimental rats.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2019 May 15;29(4):255-262. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

b Department of Biochemistry, Phytomedicine Research Laboratories , Afe Babalola University , Ado-Ekiti , Nigeria.

Exposure to toxic elements is greatly unavoidable in our daily activities due to several routes of coming in contact with these elements. Thus lead (Pb), is one of the major causes of health hazard in human. In this study, evaluation of Zingiber officinale as mitigating measure against Pb induced biochemical and cytogenic toxicity in albino rats was investigated. Experimental rats were grouped into five with five animals per group, group I serves as control and groups 2-5 were induced intraperitoneal with lead acetate dissolved in distilled water at 3 mg/kg body weight whereas group 3-5 were orally administered with 200 mg/kg vitamin C, 200 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg of Z. officinale, respectively for 7 d. The obtained results show that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid peroxidation, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) and catalase (CAT) were reduced progressively in Pb alone induced rats. Hematological parameters showed a progressive reduction (p < 0.05) in lead acetate alone rats. There were significant changes in micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) frequency, and oxidative damages in the bone marrow cells from lead acetate alone induced rats, although, mitotic index scores in these cells were reduced gradually (p < 0.05). The altered parameters were significantly reversed toward the levels observed in normal control rats administered with vitamin C and aqueous extract of Z. officinale. Hence, these results suggest that Z. officinale roots might contain therapeutic potential that can ameliorate the hazard effect of lead acetate poison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2018.1558321DOI Listing
May 2019

Structure-Based Docking Studies of GLUT4 Towards Exploring Selected Phytochemicals from Solanum xanthocarpum as a Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Cancer.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2019 ;16(4):406-416

Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, PMB 5454, Ado- Ekiti 360001, Nigeria.

Background: In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the global burden of cancer which has been associated with several factors including environmental influence, aging, diet, infectious agents, hormonal imbalance and chronic inflammation, among others. Cancerous cells utilize more glucose for its proliferation and survival than normal cells. Thus, the regulation of glucose consumption of cancerous cells through the inhibition of glucose transporter-4-protein (GLUT4) encoded by solute carrier family-2-member-4-gene (Slc2a4) by selected phytochemicals from Solanum xanthocarpum may serve as a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cancer.

Methods: The seven identified potential inhibitors of GLUT4 from Solanum xanthocarpum were retrieved from PubChem database. Examination of their drug-likeness, toxicity prediction and molecular docking studies of these compounds with GLUT4 were carried out using online tools such as Molinspiration, PreADMET V.2.0 and Patchdock server.

Results: The findings revealed that, five out of the seven compounds fulfil oral drugability of Lipinski's rule of five (RO5) while two slightly meet the criteria of RO5. Conversely, five of the compounds are predicted to be mutagen while the remaining two are predicted to be safe for the body. Additionally, stigmasterol glucoside has higher binding-affinity (7590) with GLUT4 when compared to doxorubicin (6600) the control.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that stigmasterol glucoside from Solanum xanthocarpum could be a promising therapeutic agent with better therapeutic efficacy than doxorubicin in the treatment of cancer via the inhibition of GLUT4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163815666180801152110DOI Listing
August 2020

Inhibitory Effects of Solvent-Partitioned Fractions of Two Nigerian Herbs ( Linn. and L.) on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 May 26;7(6). Epub 2018 May 26.

Biotechnology and Structural Biology (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa.

Therapies directed towards controlling hyperglycemia, the hallmark of type-2 diabetes mellitus, go a long way in managing diabetes and its related complications. Reducing glucose level through the inhibition of the relevant carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes is one among many routes in the management of diabetes. This study investigates the enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties of solvent-partitioned fractions of and leaves; which are used extensively in the treatment of diabetic patients locally. The leaves of and were extracted with methanol and fractionated to obtain -hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), -butanol (BF), and aqueous (AF) fractions successively. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of fractions of and leaves were investigated while the antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed using iron chelating and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging assay. Our findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of leaves contained a considerably higher ( < 0.05) amount of total phenolic, flavonoids, metal ion, and ABTS radical scavenging activity than the ethyl acetate fractions of . Furthermore, the ethyl acetate fraction of had a considerably higher ( < 0.05) inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase (IC = 25.11 ± 0.01 μg mL), and α-amylase (IC = 24.04 ± 0.12 μg mL) activities than the fraction. Hence, the inhibitory activities of and leaves suggest that they are a potential source of orally active antidiabetic agents and could be employed to formulate new plant-based pharmaceutical and nutraceutical drugs to improve human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025479PMC
May 2018

HPLC-DAD fingerprinting analysis, antioxidant activities of (Hemsl.) A. Gray leaves and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease.

Toxicol Rep 2018 15;5:585-592. Epub 2018 May 15.

Biotechnology and Structural Biology (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, 3886, South Africa.

(Hemsl.) A. Gray leaves have long been used to manage neurodegenerative diseases without scientific basis. This study characterized the phenolic constituents, evaluated the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from leaves used as traditional medicine in Africa and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease. The extract was rich in phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and -coumaric acid) and flavonoids (apigenin) and had 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging abilities (IC = 41.05 μg. mL), 2,2-Azino-bis3-ethylbenthiazoline-6sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability (IC = 33.51 μg. mL), iron chelation (IC = 38.50 μg. mL), reducing power (Fe- Fe) (7.34 AAEmg/100 g), inhibited acetylcholinesterase (IC = 39.27 μg mL) and butyrylcholinesterase (IC = 35.01 μg mL) activities. These results reveal the leaf as a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977871PMC
May 2018

Aqueous extract of Linn. roots potentially attenuates arsenic induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats.

J Tradit Complement Med 2018 Apr 9;8(2):324-334. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

In Africa, the fruit, leaf, seed and roots of Linn. are generally used to treat a variety of diseases such as malaria, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the protective potentials of aqueous extract of roots on arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats. Rats were induced intraperitoneal with sodium arsenate (dissolved in distilled water at 3 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days and the animals were administered simultaneously with 200 mg/kg body weight vitamin C, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of the Linn. root aqueous extract once daily for three weeks. Results obtained reveals that activities of plasma 8-OHdG, serum lipids concentration, atherogenic index (AI), coronary artery index (CRI), aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin levels were elevated significantly ( < 0.05) and catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, plasma hematological profile were progressively reduced ( < 0.05) in arsenic-alone exposed rats. Significant increase in the quantity of chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN) frequency, oxidative damages in the bone marrow cells from arsenic alone rats was observed. Though, mitotic index scores in these cells were progressively reduced (p < 0.05). In animals administered with aqueous extract of roots and vitamin C, the altered parameters were significantly recovered towards the levels observed in normal control rats. These results suggest that aqueous roots preparations might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in arsenic poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5934704PMC
April 2018

Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

Adv Pharm Bull 2018 Mar 18;8(1):141-147. Epub 2018 Mar 18.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Industrial Chemistry Programme, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2018.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5899783PMC
March 2018

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis, antioxidant properties, and inhibition of cholinergic enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) of phenolic extracts from Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill bark.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Mar;29(2):217-224

Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.

Background: Irvingia gabonensis stem bark is a medicinal plant used in most parts of Africa to manage a number of ailments including neurodegenerative diseases that occur without scientific basis. This work characterized the phenolic composition, evaluated the cholinergic enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and butyrylcholinesterase, BChE) inhibition, and assessed the antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from I. gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill bark.

Methods: Total phenol and flavonoids content was evaluated in addition to antioxidant activity as shown by Fe2+ chelation, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability. Inhibitory activities on AChE and BChE were evaluated.

Results: The extract was found to be rich in phenolic acid (ellagic acid) and flavonoids (quercetrin, kaempferol, and apigenin). The phenolic extracts displayed DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50=19.98 μg/mL), ABTS radical scavenging ability (IC50=18.25 μg/mL), iron chelation (IC50=113.10 μg/mL), and reducing power (Fe3+ to Fe2+) (5.94 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g). Extracts of I. gabonensis inhibited AChE (IC50=32.90 μg/mL) and BChE (IC50=41.50 μg/mL) activities in concentration-dependent manner.

Conclusions: Hence, possible mechanism through which the stem bark executes their anti-Alzheimer's disease activity might be by inhibiting cholinesterase activities in addition to suppressing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2017-0063DOI Listing
March 2018

Modulatory Effect of Methanol Extract of Piper guineense in CCl₄-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 08 24;14(9). Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Biotechnology and Structural Biology (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa.

This study seeks to investigate the possible protective role of the methanol extract of seeds against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering oral doses of CCl₄ (1.2 g/kg bw) three times a week for three weeks. Group 1 (Control) and Group 2 (CCl₄) were left untreated; (PG; 400 mg/kg bw) was administered to Group 3 (T₁) by oral gavage for 14 days prior to the administration of CCl₄ and simultaneously with CCl₄; PG (400 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 4 (T₂); and Livolin forte (20 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 5 (T₃), the standard drug group. The administration of CCl₄ induces histopathological alteration in the liver, with concomitant increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, there was decrease in non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione S-transferase), superoxide dismutase, and catalase. An elevation in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels was noticed along with decreased levels of serum total protein. Treatment with PG 400 mg/kg bw exhibited excellent modulatory activity with respect to the different parameters studied by reversing all the above-mentioned biochemical changes significantly in the experimental animals. These results suggest that PG offered protection comparable to that of Livolin forte with better efficacy when pre-treated with 400 mg/kg bw 14 days prior to CCl₄-exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615492PMC
August 2017

Ameliorative potential of Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig bark against pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2017 Mar 17;14(3). Epub 2017 Mar 17.

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Background In West Africa, the fruit, seed, leaf and stem of Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig are commonly used as remedy against a variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the ameliorative potential of B. sapida K.D. Koenig stem bark ethanol extract against pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (65 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days, and orally administered with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight), 50-150 mg/kg body weight of B. sapida stem bark ethanol extract once daily for 21 days. Results The blood glucose levels of rats induced with alloxan were significantly and gradually reduced (p<0.05) in B. sapida stem bark ethanol extract treated animals at the dose of 50-150 mg/kg body weight, and in glibenclamide-treated animals. The significant increase in the lipid peroxidation (malonaldehyde), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) and decrease in serum insulin, pancreatic β-cell scores as well as antioxidant marker enzymes in untreated diabetic rats compared to normal control rats were reversed by the B. sapida stem bark ethanol extract and glibenclamide. Similarly, histopathological changes in the pancreas were also reversed by the extract and glibenclamide. However, these effects were most prominent in the animals treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of B. sapida bark. Conclusions These findings indicate that B. sapida stem bark possess anti-hyperglycemic activity and exhibits ameliorative potential in managing diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2016-0145DOI Listing
March 2017

Cardioprotective and Antioxidant Influence of Aqueous Extracts from Sesamum indicum Seeds on Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Wistar Rats.

Pharmacogn Mag 2016 May 11;12(Suppl 2):S170-4. Epub 2016 May 11.

Biotechnology and Structural Biochemistry Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Republic of South Africa.

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic diseases of the heart as a result of indiscriminate exposure to cardiotoxic heavy metals. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts from Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) in Wistar rats.

Materials And Methods: Daily administration of Cd (200 mg/L Cd as CdCl2) in the animals' main drinking water for 21 days led to oxidative stress. Thereafter, the ameliorative effects were assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activities.

Results: Treatment with SI extract elicited notable reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as concomitant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. SI extract also reversed the elevations witnessed in serum aminotransferase activities, LPO level, and ameliorated enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant status in the heart of Cd-exposed rats.

Conclusion: Thus, SI appears to be an attractive candidate with potential for the novel treatment of cardiotoxicity and management of oxidative stress arising from Cd exposure.

Summary: Cadmium (200 mg/L) exposure in drinking water caused pronounced oxidative stress and cardiac tissue damage in animal modelAqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant reversal effect in all biochemical parameters measured such as extent of lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activitiesAqueous extract of SI seeds possess antioxidant and cardioprotective potential in a dose-dependent manner, thus conferring protection against oxidative stress induced by cadmium. Abbreviation used: SI: Sesamum indicum, Cd: Cadmium, CdCl2: Cadmium chloride, LPO: Lipid peroxidation, TBA: Thiobarbituric acid, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALP: Alkaline phosphatise, TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, HDL-C: Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SD: Standard deviation, GSH: Glutathione, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, CAT: Catalase, GST: Glutathione-S-transferase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.182155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4883075PMC
May 2016

Protective effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2014 Dec 4;7(4):208-14. Epub 2015 Mar 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Cadmium has been considered a risk factor for humans as it accumulates in body tissues, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and reproductive organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. The study was performed on twenty (20) male rats divided into four groups: control group, cadmium group (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), cadmium + extract (200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) and cadmium + extract (400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage). Changes in the kidney biochemical markers, namely glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine were determined in serum. Histological examinations were monitored. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of IG extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with the untreated cadmium rats. Yet the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) when the cadmium animals treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract were compared with the cadmium control. Furthermore, histological alterations in the kidney were observed in cadmium untreated rats and these were ameliorated in cadmium treated rats by co-administration of IG extract. IG showed apparent protective and curative effect on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/intox-2014-0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4436210PMC
December 2014