Publications by authors named "Olof S Dallner"

5 Publications

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Dysregulation of a long noncoding RNA reduces leptin leading to a leptin-responsive form of obesity.

Nat Med 2019 03 6;25(3):507-516. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Quantitative changes in leptin concentration lead to alterations in food intake and body weight, but the regulatory mechanisms that control leptin gene expression are poorly understood. Here we report that fat-specific and quantitative leptin expression is controlled by redundant cis elements and trans factors interacting with the proximal promoter together with a long noncoding RNA (lncOb). Diet-induced obese mice lacking lncOb show increased fat mass with reduced plasma leptin levels and lose weight after leptin treatment, whereas control mice do not. Consistent with this finding, large-scale genetic studies of humans reveal a significant association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region of human lncOb with lower plasma leptin levels and obesity. These results show that reduced leptin gene expression can lead to a hypoleptinemic, leptin-responsive form of obesity and provide a framework for elucidating the pathogenic mechanism in the subset of obese patients with low endogenous leptin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0370-1DOI Listing
March 2019

Leptin receptor signaling in T cells is required for Th17 differentiation.

J Immunol 2015 Jun 27;194(11):5253-60. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065;

The hormone leptin plays a key role in energy homeostasis, and the absence of either leptin or its receptor (LepR) leads to severe obesity and metabolic disorders. To avoid indirect effects and to address the cell-intrinsic role of leptin signaling in the immune system, we conditionally targeted LepR in T cells. In contrast with pleiotropic immune disorders reported in obese mice with leptin or LepR deficiency, we found that LepR deficiency in CD4(+) T cells resulted in a selective defect in both autoimmune and protective Th17 responses. Reduced capacity for differentiation toward a Th17 phenotype by lepr-deficient T cells was attributed to reduced activation of the STAT3 and its downstream targets. This study establishes cell-intrinsic roles for LepR signaling in the immune system and suggests that leptin signaling during T cell differentiation plays a crucial role in T cell peripheral effector function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1402996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433844PMC
June 2015

Glucose uptake in brown fat cells is dependent on mTOR complex 2-promoted GLUT1 translocation.

J Cell Biol 2014 Nov;207(3):365-74

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE -0691 Stockholm, Sweden

Brown adipose tissue is the primary site for thermogenesis and can consume, in addition to free fatty acids, a very high amount of glucose from the blood, which can both acutely and chronically affect glucose homeostasis. Here, we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 has a novel role in β3-adrenoceptor-stimulated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue. We show that β3-adrenoceptors stimulate glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue via a signaling pathway that is comprised of two different parts: one part dependent on cAMP-mediated increases in GLUT1 transcription and de novo synthesis of GLUT1 and another part dependent on mTOR complex 2-stimulated translocation of newly synthesized GLUT1 to the plasma membrane, leading to increased glucose uptake. Both parts are essential for β3-adrenoceptor-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, the effect of β3-adrenoceptor on mTOR complex 2 is independent of the classical insulin-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway, highlighting a novel mechanism of mTOR complex 2 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201403080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4226734PMC
November 2014

Improving type 2 diabetes through a distinct adrenergic signaling pathway involving mTORC2 that mediates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

Diabetes 2014 Dec 9;63(12):4115-29. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

There is an increasing worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes that poses major health problems. We have identified a novel physiological system that increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not in white adipocytes. Activation of this system improves glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki rats or mice fed a high-fat diet, which are established models for type 2 diabetes. The pathway involves activation of β2-adrenoceptors that increase cAMP levels and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which phosphorylates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) at S2481. The active mTORC2 causes translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake without the involvement of Akt or AS160. Stimulation of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle after activation of the sympathetic nervous system is likely to be of high physiological relevance because mTORC2 activation was observed at the cellular, tissue, and whole-animal level in rodent and human systems. This signaling pathway provides new opportunities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1860DOI Listing
December 2014

β(2)-Adrenoceptors increase translocation of GLUT4 via GPCR kinase sites in the receptor C-terminal tail.

Br J Pharmacol 2012 Mar;165(5):1442-56

Department of Physiology, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Purpose: β-Adrenoceptor stimulation induces glucose uptake in several insulin-sensitive tissues by poorly understood mechanisms.

Experimental Approach: We used a model system in CHO-K1 cells expressing the human β(2)-adrenoceptor and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to investigate the signalling mechanisms involved.

Key Results: In CHO-K1 cells, there was no response to β-adrenoceptor agonists. The introduction of β(2)-adrenoceptors and GLUT4 into these cells caused increased glucose uptake in response to β-adrenoceptor agonists. GLUT4 translocation occurred in response to insulin and β(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation, although the key insulin signalling intermediate PKB was not phosphorylated in response to β(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation. Truncation of the C-terminus of the β(2)-adrenoceptor at position 349 to remove known phosphorylation sites for GPCR kinases (GRKs) or at position 344 to remove an additional PKA site together with the GRK phosphorylation sites did not significantly affect cAMP accumulation but decreased β(2)-adrenoceptor-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of GRK by transfection of the βARKct construct inhibited β(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation, and overexpression of a kinase-dead GRK2 mutant (GRK2 K220R) also inhibited GLUT4 translocation. Introducing β(2)-adrenoceptors lacking phosphorylation sites for GRK or PKA demonstrated that the GRK sites, but not the PKA sites, were necessary for GLUT4 translocation.

Conclusions And Implications: Glucose uptake in response to activation of β(2)-adrenoceptors involves translocation of GLUT4 in this model system. The mechanism is dependent on the C-terminus of the β(2)-adrenoceptor, requires GRK phosphorylation sites, and involves a signalling pathway distinct from that stimulated by insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01647.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372728PMC
March 2012
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