Publications by authors named "Olivier Pichon"

56 Publications

Structural abnormalities of chromosome 8 and fetoplacental discrepancy: A second case report and review of fetal phenotype of 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jan 26;64(1):104118. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093, Nantes, France; Université de Nantes, CNRS, INSERM, l'institut du thorax, 44000, Nantes, France.

We described a new second case of fetoplacental discrepancy involving first trimester prenatal detection of mosaic isochromosome i (8) (q10). A 32-year-old woman underwent chorionic villous sampling because of increased fetal nuchal translucency. Analysis of direct chromosome preparations was performed by R-banding and FISH using subtelomeric, centromeric and whole chromosome painting probes for chromosome 8 showing the presence of an isochromosome 8q with a complex, female mosaic karyotype: mos 46,XX,i (8) (q10)[13]/46,XX,del (8) (p23)[10]. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured CVS showed an interstitial duplication with concomitant terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 8: 46,XX,der (8)del (8) (p23)dup (8) (p?)[18]. Array-CGH analysis from cultured trophoblasts and fetal tissues revealed a 6.69 Mb terminal deletion in 8p23.3p23.1 associated with a 31.49 Mb duplication in 8p23.1p11.1. FISH analysis confirmed the 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome. Moreover, polymorphic DNA marker analysis demonstrated that the derivative chromosome 8 was of maternal origin. FISH analysis of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes showed that the mother also carried a cryptic paracentric inversion inv (8) (p23). Our report contributes to expand the fetal phenotype of 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome and also provides further insight into the underlying mechanism of this rare genomic disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104118DOI Listing
January 2021

RLIM Is a Candidate Dosage-Sensitive Gene for Individuals with Varying Duplications of Xq13, Intellectual Disability, and Distinct Facial Features.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 12 6;107(6):1157-1169. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Genetics of Learning Disability Service, Waratah, NSW 2298, Australia.

Interpretation of the significance of maternally inherited X chromosome variants in males with neurocognitive phenotypes continues to present a challenge to clinical geneticists and diagnostic laboratories. Here we report 14 males from 9 families with duplications at the Xq13.2-q13.3 locus with a common facial phenotype, intellectual disability (ID), distinctive behavioral features, and a seizure disorder in two cases. All tested carrier mothers had normal intelligence. The duplication arose de novo in three mothers where grandparental testing was possible. In one family the duplication segregated with ID across three generations. RLIM is the only gene common to our duplications. However, flanking genes duplicated in some but not all the affected individuals included the brain-expressed genes NEXMIF, SLC16A2, and the long non-coding RNA gene FTX. The contribution of the RLIM-flanking genes to the phenotypes of individuals with different size duplications has not been fully resolved. Missense variants in RLIM have recently been identified to cause X-linked ID in males, with heterozygous females typically having normal intelligence and highly skewed X chromosome inactivation. We detected consistent and significant increase of RLIM mRNA and protein levels in cells derived from seven affected males from five families with the duplication. Subsequent analysis of MDM2, one of the targets of the RLIM E3 ligase activity, showed consistent downregulation in cells from the affected males. All the carrier mothers displayed normal RLIM mRNA levels and had highly skewed X chromosome inactivation. We propose that duplications at Xq13.2-13.3 including RLIM cause a recognizable but mild neurocognitive phenotype in hemizygous males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820564PMC
December 2020

ALSV-Based Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Apple Tree (Malus × domestica L.).

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2172:183-197

EA2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Université de Tours, Tours, France.

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a fast and efficient tool to investigate gene function in plant as an alternative to knock down/out transgenic lines, especially in plant species difficult to transform and challenging to regenerate such as perennial woody plants. In apple tree, a VIGS vector has been previously developed based on the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) and an efficient inoculation method has been optimized using biolistics. This report described detailed step-by-step procedure to design and silence a gene of interest (GOI) in apple tree tissues using the ALSV-based vector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0751-0_14DOI Listing
March 2021

Whole genome copy number analysis in search of new prognostic biomarkers in first line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. A study by the LYSA group.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Oct 25;38(4):446-455. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) CCND1/IGH translocation. This lymphoma is however extremely heterogeneous in terms of molecular alterations. Moreover, the course of the disease can vary greatly between indolent forms with slow progression and aggressive conditions rapidly pejorative. The identification of early markers allowing to predict individual patients outcome has however been unsuccessful so far. The LyMa trial treated homogeneously a cohort of young MCL patients. This appeared as a good opportunity to search for biomarkers of response to therapy. DNA extracted from diagnostic paraffin-embedded lymph node biopsies from 100 patients with newly diagnosed MCL, homogeneously treated in this prospective clinical trial, were investigated for copy number alterations and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity using the Oncoscan SNP-array scanning the whole genome. An independent confirmatory cohort was used to strengthen the possibly relevant anomalies observed. Here we describe the recurrent anomalies identified with this technique. Deletions of 17p(TP53) and 9p(CDKN2A) were more frequent in refractory or early relapsing patients (10%), but had no significant impact in univariate analysis on progression-free (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Regardless of the presence of TP53 or CDKN2A deletions, gains in 7p22 (8,5%) were associated with better PFS in univariate but not in multivariate analysis including MCL International Prognostic Index and treatment. Gains of 11q(CCDN1), suggesting gains of the CCND1/IGH fusion, were associated with worse OS and PFS in univariate and multivariate analyses. This worse prognosis impact was confirmed by FISH in an independent confirmatory cohort. This work, using a whole genome approach, confirms the broad genomic landscape of MCL and shows that gains of the CCND1/IGH fusion can be considered as a new prognostic structural variant. Genomic abnormalities of prognostic impact could be useful to strengthen or de-escalate treatment schedules or choosing targeted therapies or CART-cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2750DOI Listing
October 2020

De Novo SOX6 Variants Cause a Neurodevelopmental Syndrome Associated with ADHD, Craniosynostosis, and Osteochondromas.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 06 21;106(6):830-845. Epub 2020 May 21.

Roberts Individualized Medical Genetics Center, Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

SOX6 belongs to a family of 20 SRY-related HMG-box-containing (SOX) genes that encode transcription factors controlling cell fate and differentiation in many developmental and adult processes. For SOX6, these processes include, but are not limited to, neurogenesis and skeletogenesis. Variants in half of the SOX genes have been shown to cause severe developmental and adult syndromes, referred to as SOXopathies. We here provide evidence that SOX6 variants also cause a SOXopathy. Using clinical and genetic data, we identify 19 individuals harboring various types of SOX6 alterations and exhibiting developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; the individuals are from 17 unrelated families. Additional, inconstant features include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, mild facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, and multiple osteochondromas. All variants are heterozygous. Fourteen are de novo, one is inherited from a mosaic father, and four offspring from two families have a paternally inherited variant. Intragenic microdeletions, balanced structural rearrangements, frameshifts, and nonsense variants are predicted to inactivate the SOX6 variant allele. Four missense variants occur in residues and protein regions highly conserved evolutionarily. These variants are not detected in the gnomAD control cohort, and the amino acid substitutions are predicted to be damaging. Two of these variants are located in the HMG domain and abolish SOX6 transcriptional activity in vitro. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations are found. Taken together, these findings concur that SOX6 haploinsufficiency leads to a neurodevelopmental SOXopathy that often includes ADHD and abnormal skeletal and other features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273536PMC
June 2020

Primrose syndrome: a phenotypic comparison of patients with a ZBTB20 missense variant versus a 3q13.31 microdeletion including ZBTB20.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 08 18;28(8):1044-1055. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Unité de Génétique Chromosomique ou Cytogénétique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Primrose syndrome is characterized by variable intellectual deficiency, behavior disorders, facial features with macrocephaly, and a progressive phenotype with hearing loss and ectopic calcifications, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. In 2014, ZBTB20 variants were identified as responsible for this syndrome. Indeed, ZBTB20 plays an important role in cognition, memory, learning processes, and has a transcription repressive effect on numerous genes. A more severe phenotype was discussed in patients with missense single nucleotide variants than in those with large deletions. Here, we report on the clinical and molecular results of 14 patients: 6 carrying ZBTB20 missense SNVs, 1 carrying an early truncating indel, and 7 carrying 3q13.31 deletions, recruited through the AnDDI-Rares network. We compared their phenotypes and reviewed the data of the literature, in order to establish more powerful phenotype-genotype correlations. All 57 patients presented mild-to-severe ID and/or a psychomotor delay. Facial features were similar with macrocephaly, prominent forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis, and large ears. Hearing loss was far more frequent in patients with missense SNVs (p = 0.002), ectopic calcification, progressive muscular wasting, and contractures were observed only in patients with missense SNVs (p nonsignificant). Corpus callosum dysgenesis (p = 0.00004), hypothyroidism (p = 0.047), and diabetes were also more frequent in this group. However, the median age was 9.4 years in patients with deletions and truncating variant compared with 15.1 years in those with missense SNVs. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine whether the phenotype of patients with deletions is also progressive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0582-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382504PMC
August 2020

Pseudodicentric Chromosome Originating from Autosomes 9 and 21 in a Male Patient with Oligozoospermia.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2019 20;159(4):201-207. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Genetic factors are responsible for 15% of male infertility conditions. Numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies (related to the Y chromosome or to the autosomes) are validated genetic factors leading to spermatogenic quantitative defects with a frequency depending on the severity of the phenotype. The most frequent structural chromosomal rearrangements of autosomes are translocations and inversions, whereas dicentric chromosomes involving autosomes are rare. We report a man bearing a pseudodicentric chromosome (9;21) and presenting with oligozoospermia. Extensive cytogenetic analyses were necessary to determine the precise nature of the derivative chromosome and to discount the presence of interstitial telomeric sequences. Defects in spermatogenesis and abnormal segregation at meiosis for existing spermatozoa are proposed and are the likely cause of the reproductive phenotype of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504820DOI Listing
March 2020

RPL13 Variants Cause Spondyloepimetaphyseal Dysplasia with Severe Short Stature.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 11 17;105(5):1040-1047. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

INSERM U1149/ERL 8252, Inflammation Research Center, 75018 Paris, France; AP-HP, Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital R. Debré, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75019 Paris, France.

Variants in genes encoding ribosomal proteins have thus far been associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a rare inherited bone marrow failure, and isolated congenital asplenia. Here, we report one de novo missense variant and three de novo splice variants in RPL13, which encodes ribosomal protein RPL13 (also called eL13), in four unrelated individuals with a rare bone dysplasia causing severe short stature. The three splice variants (c.477+1G>T, c.477+1G>A, and c.477+2 T>C) result in partial intron retention, which leads to an 18-amino acid insertion. In contrast to observations from Diamond-Blackfan anemia, we detected no evidence of significant pre-rRNA processing disturbance in cells derived from two affected individuals. Consistently, we showed that the insertion-containing protein is stably expressed and incorporated into 60S subunits similar to the wild-type protein. Erythroid proliferation in culture and ribosome profile on sucrose gradient are modified, suggesting a change in translation dynamics. We also provide evidence that RPL13 is present at high levels in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in mouse growth plates. Taken together, we show that the identified RPL13 variants cause a human ribosomopathy defined by a rare skeletal dysplasia, and we highlight the role of this ribosomal protein in bone development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849359PMC
November 2019

Improved gene co-expression network quality through expression dataset down-sampling and network aggregation.

Sci Rep 2019 10 8;9(1):14431. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

EA2106 BBV, Université de Tours, Tours, 37200, France.

Large-scale gene co-expression networks are an effective methodology to analyze sets of co-expressed genes and discover new gene functions or associations. Distances between genes are estimated according to their expression profiles and are visualized in networks that may be further partitioned to reveal communities of co-expressed genes. Creating expression profiles is now eased by the large amounts of publicly available expression data (microarrays and RNA-seq). Although many distance calculation methods have been intensively compared and reviewed in the past, it is unclear how to proceed when many samples reflecting a wide range of different conditions are available. Should as many samples as possible be integrated into network construction or be partitioned into smaller sets of more related samples? Previous studies have indicated a saturation in network performances to capture known associations once a certain number of samples is included in distance calculations. Here, we examined the influence of sample size on co-expression network construction using microarray and RNA-seq expression data from three plant species. We tested different down-sampling methods and compared network performances in recovering known gene associations to networks obtained from full datasets. We further examined how aggregating networks may help increase this performance by testing six aggregation methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50885-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783424PMC
October 2019

Fryns type mesomelic dysplasia of the upper limbs caused by inverted duplications of the HOXD gene cluster.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 03 7;28(3):324-332. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Service de Génétique, Hôpital Bretonneau, CHU, Tours, France.

The HoxD cluster is critical for vertebrate limb development. Enhancers located in both the telomeric and centromeric gene deserts flanking the cluster regulate the transcription of HoxD genes. In rare patients, duplications, balanced translocations or inversions misregulating HOXD genes are responsible for mesomelic dysplasia of the upper and lower limbs. By aCGH, whole-genome mate-pair sequencing, long-range PCR and fiber fluorescent in situ hybridization, we studied patients from two families displaying mesomelic dysplasia limited to the upper limbs. We identified microduplications including the HOXD cluster and showed that microduplications were in an inverted orientation and inserted between the HOXD cluster and the telomeric enhancers. Our results highlight the existence of an autosomal dominant condition consisting of isolated ulnar dysplasia caused by microduplications inserted between the HOXD cluster and the telomeric enhancers. The duplications likely disconnect the HOXD9 to HOXD11 genes from their regulatory sequences. This presumptive loss-of-function may have contributed to the phenotype. In both cases, however, these rearrangements brought HOXD13 closer to telomeric enhancers, suggesting that the alterations derive from the dominant-negative effect of this digit-specific protein when ectopically expressed during the early development of forearms, through the disruption of topologically associating domain structure at the HOXD locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0522-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028936PMC
March 2020

Risk estimation of uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 or 15 in a fetus with a parent carrying a non-homologous Robertsonian translocation. Should we still perform prenatal diagnosis?

Prenat Diagn 2019 10 19;39(11):986-992. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Centre de Génétique Chromosomique, GH de l'Institut Catholique de Lille-Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Lille, France.

Objective: Uniparental disomy (UPD) testing is currently recommended during pregnancy in fetuses carrying a balanced Robertsonian translocation (ROB) involving chromosome 14 or 15, both chromosomes containing imprinted genes. The overall risk that such a fetus presents a UPD has been previously estimated to be around ~0.6-0.8%. However, because UPD are rare events and this estimate has been calculated from a number of studies of limited size, we have reevaluated the risk of UPD in fetuses for whom one of the parents was known to carry a nonhomologous ROB (NHROB).

Method: We focused our multicentric study on NHROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15. A total of 1747 UPD testing were performed in fetuses during pregnancy for the presence of UPD(14) and/or UPD(15).

Result: All fetuses were negative except one with a UPD(14) associated with a maternally inherited rob(13;14).

Conclusion: Considering these data, the risk of UPD following prenatal diagnosis of an inherited ROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15 could be estimated to be around 0.06%, far less than the previous estimation. Importantly, the risk of miscarriage following an invasive prenatal sampling is higher than the risk of UPD. Therefore, we do not recommend prenatal testing for UPD for these pregnancies and parents should be reassured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5518DOI Listing
October 2019

Correction: Variants in MED12L, encoding a subunit of the Mediator kinase module, are responsible for intellectual disability associated with transcriptional defect.

Genet Med 2019 11;21(11):2663

CHU Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, Nantes, France.

In the Acknowledgements section of the paper the authors neglected to mention that the study was supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) UM1HG007301 (S.H., M.L.T.). In addition, the award of MD was associated with the authors Michelle L. Thompson and Susan Hiatt instead of PhD. The PDF and HTML versions of the Article have been modified accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0590-2DOI Listing
November 2019

Identification of mobile retrocopies during genetic testing: Consequences for routine diagnosis.

Hum Mutat 2019 11 12;40(11):1993-2000. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Genetics Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Human retrocopies, that is messenger RNA transcripts benefitting from the long interspersed element 1 machinery for retrotransposition, may have specific consequences for genomic testing. Next genetration sequencing (NGS) techniques allow the detection of such mobile elements but they may be misinterpreted as genomic duplications or be totally overlooked. We report eight observations of retrocopies detected during diagnostic NGS analyses of targeted gene panels, exome, or genome sequencing. For seven cases, while an exons-only copy number gain was called, read alignment inspection revealed a depth of coverage shift at every exon-intron junction where indels were also systematically called. Moreover, aberrant chimeric read pairs spanned entire introns or were paired with another locus for terminal exons. The 8th retrocopy was present in the reference genome and thus showed a normal NGS profile. We emphasize the existence of retrocopies and strategies to accurately detect them at a glance during genetic testing and discuss pitfalls for genetic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23845DOI Listing
November 2019

Variants in MED12L, encoding a subunit of the mediator kinase module, are responsible for intellectual disability associated with transcriptional defect.

Genet Med 2019 12 3;21(12):2713-2722. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

CHU Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, Nantes, France.

Purpose: Mediator is a multiprotein complex that allows the transfer of genetic information from DNA binding proteins to the RNA polymerase II during transcription initiation. MED12L is a subunit of the kinase module, which is one of the four subcomplexes of the mediator complex. Other subunits of the kinase module have been already implicated in intellectual disability, namely MED12, MED13L, MED13, and CDK19.

Methods: We describe an international cohort of seven affected individuals harboring variants involving MED12L identified by array CGH, exome or genome sequencing.

Results: All affected individuals presented with intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, including speech impairment. Other features included autism spectrum disorder, aggressive behavior, corpus callosum abnormality, and mild facial morphological features. Three individuals had a MED12L deletion or duplication. The other four individuals harbored single-nucleotide variants (one nonsense, one frameshift, and two splicing variants). Functional analysis confirmed a moderate and significant alteration of RNA synthesis in two individuals.

Conclusion: Overall data suggest that MED12L haploinsufficiency is responsible for intellectual disability and transcriptional defect. Our findings confirm that the integrity of this kinase module is a critical factor for neurological development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0557-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243155PMC
December 2019

11q24.2q24.3 microdeletion in two families presenting features of Jacobsen syndrome, without intellectual disability: Role of FLI1, ETS1, and SENCR long noncoding RNA.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 06 19;179(6):993-1000. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU Nantes, France.

This report presents two families with interstitial 11q24.2q24.3 deletion, associated with malformations, hematologic features, and typical facial dysmorphism, observed in Jacobsen syndrome (JS), except for intellectual disability (ID). The smallest 700 Kb deletion contains only two genes: FLI1 and ETS1, and a long noncoding RNA, SENCR, narrowing the minimal critical region for some features of JS. Consistent with recent literature, it adds supplemental data to confirm the crucial role of FLI1 and ETS1 in JS, namely FLI1 in thrombocytopenia and ETS1 in cardiopathy and immune deficiency. It also supports that combined ETS1 and FLI1 haploinsufficiency explains dysmorphic features, notably ears, and nose anomalies. Moreover, it raises the possibility that SENCR, a long noncoding RNA, could be responsible for limb defects, because of its early role in endothelial cell commitment and function. Considering ID and autism spectrum disorder, which are some of the main features of JS, a participation of ETS1, FLI1, or SENCR cannot be excluded. But, considering the normal neurodevelopment of our patients, their role would be either minor or with an important variability in penetrance. Furthermore, according to literature, ARHGAP32 and KIRREL3 seem to be the strongest candidate genes in the 11q24 region for other Jacobsen patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61113DOI Listing
June 2019

Complex Compound Inheritance of Lethal Lung Developmental Disorders Due to Disruption of the TBX-FGF Pathway.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 02 10;104(2):213-228. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France; Inserm, CNRS, Univ Nantes, l'institut du thorax, 44000 Nantes, France.

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369446PMC
February 2019

A de novo 2q37.2 deletion encompassing AGAP1 and SH3BP4 in a patient with autism and intellectual disability.

Eur J Med Genet 2019 Dec 22;62(12):103586. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

CHU Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, Nantes, France; INSERM, UMR 1238, Bone Sarcoma and Remodeling of Calcified Tissue, Nantes, France.

Autism spectrum disorders are complex neurodevelopmental syndromes characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Further identification of causal genes may help in better understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disorder, thus improving the patients' management. To date, abnormal synaptogenesis is thought to be one of the major underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders. Here, using oligoarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified a de novo deletion at 2q37.2 locus spanning 1 Mb and encompassing AGAP1 and SH3BP4, in a boy with autism and intellectual disability. Both genes have been described as being involved in endosomal trafficking, and AGAP1 in particular has been shown to be expressed in the developing brain and to play a role in dendritic spine formation and synapse function, making it a potential causative gene to our patient's phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.11.020DOI Listing
December 2019

Setting-up a fast and reliable cytokinin biosensor based on a plant histidine kinase receptor expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Biotechnol 2019 Jan 20;289:103-111. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

EA 2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Université de Tours, F-37200 Tours, France. Electronic address:

Cytokinins (CK) have been extensively studied for their roles in plant development. Recently, they also appeared to ensure crucial functions in the pathogenicity of some bacterial and fungal plant pathogens. Thus, identifying cytokinin-producing pathogens is a prerequisite to gain a better understanding of their role in pathogenicity. Taking advantage of the cytokinin perception properties of Malus domestica CHASE Histidine Kinase receptor 2 (MdCHK2), we thereby developed a selective and highly sensitive yeast biosensor for the application of cytokinin detection in bacterial samples. The biosensor is based on the mutated sln1Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing MdCHK2. The biosensor does not require any extraction or purification steps of biological samples, enabling cytokinin analysis directly from crude bacterial supernatants. For the first time, the production of cytokinin was shown in the well-known plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia amylovora and was also revealed in human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Importantly, this biosensor was shown to be an efficient tool for unraveling certain steps in cytokinin biosynthesis by micro-organisms since this it was successfully used to unveil the role of ygdH22, a LOG-like gene, that is probably involved in cytokinin biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. Overall, we demonstrated that our biosensor displays several advantages including time- and cost-effectiveness by allowing a rapid and specific detection of cytokinins in bacterial supernatants These results also support its scalability to high-throughput formats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.11.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Genome-wide identification and biochemical characterization of the UGT88F subfamily in Malus x domestica Borkh.

Phytochemistry 2019 Jan 3;157:135-144. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

EA2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Université de Tours, F-37200, Tours, France. Electronic address:

The UDP-glycosyltransferase UGT88F subfamily has been described first in Malus x domestica with the characterization of UGT88F1. Up to now UGT88F1 was one of the most active UGT glycosylating dihydrochalcones in vitro. The involvement of UGT88F1 in phloridzin (phloretin 2'-O-glucoside) synthesis, the main apple tree dihydrochalcone, was further confirmed in planta. Since the characterization of UGT88F1, this new UGT subfamily has been poorly studied probably because it seemed restricted to Maloideae. In the present study, we investigate the apple tree genome to identify and biochemically characterize the whole UGT88F subfamily. The apple tree genome contains five full-length UGT88F genes out of which three newly identified members (UGT88F6, UGT88F7 and UGT88F8) and a pseudogene. These genes are organized into two genomic clusters resulting from the recent global genomic duplication event in the apple tree. We show that recombinant UGT88F8 protein specifically glycosylates phloretin in the 2'OH position to synthetize phloridzin in vitro and was therefore named UDP-glucose: phloretin 2'-O-glycosyltransferase. The Km values of UGT88F8 are 7.72 μM and 10.84 μM for phloretin and UDP-glucose respectively and are in the same range as UGT88F1 catalytic parameters thus constituting two isoforms. Co-expression patterns of both UGT88F1 and UGT88F8 argue for a redundant function in phloridzin biosynthesis in planta. Contrastingly, recombinant UGT88F6 protein is able to glycosylate in vitro a wide range of flavonoids including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, chalcones and dihydrochalcones, although flavonols are the preferred substrates, e.g. Km value for kaempferol is 2.1 μM. Depending on the flavonoid, glycosylation occurs at least on the 3-OH and 7-OH positions. Therefore UGT88F6 corresponds to an UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3/7-O-glycosyltransferase. Finally, a molecular modeling study highlights a very high substitution rate of residues in the acceptor binding pocket between UGT88F8 and UGT88F6 which is responsible for the enzymes divergence in substrate and regiospecificity, despite an overall high protein homology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.10.019DOI Listing
January 2019

Rare variants in the genetic background modulate cognitive and developmental phenotypes in individuals carrying disease-associated variants.

Genet Med 2019 04 7;21(4):816-825. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

CHU Nantes, Medical genetics department, Nantes, France.

Purpose: To assess the contribution of rare variants in the genetic background toward variability of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in individuals with rare copy-number variants (CNVs) and gene-disruptive variants.

Methods: We analyzed quantitative clinical information, exome sequencing, and microarray data from 757 probands and 233 parents and siblings who carry disease-associated variants.

Results: The number of rare likely deleterious variants in functionally intolerant genes ("other hits") correlated with expression of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in probands with 16p12.1 deletion (n=23, p=0.004) and in autism probands carrying gene-disruptive variants (n=184, p=0.03) compared with their carrier family members. Probands with 16p12.1 deletion and a strong family history presented more severe clinical features (p=0.04) and higher burden of other hits compared with those with mild/no family history (p=0.001). The number of other hits also correlated with severity of cognitive impairment in probands carrying pathogenic CNVs (n=53) or de novo pathogenic variants in disease genes (n=290), and negatively correlated with head size among 80 probands with 16p11.2 deletion. These co-occurring hits involved known disease-associated genes such as SETD5, AUTS2, and NRXN1, and were enriched for cellular and developmental processes.

Conclusion: Accurate genetic diagnosis of complex disorders will require complete evaluation of the genetic background even after a candidate disease-associated variant is identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0266-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405313PMC
April 2019

Ranking genome-wide correlation measurements improves microarray and RNA-seq based global and targeted co-expression networks.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 18;8(1):10885. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Université de Tours, EA2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies végétales, Tours, 37200, France.

Co-expression networks are essential tools to infer biological associations between gene products and predict gene annotation. Global networks can be analyzed at the transcriptome-wide scale or after querying them with a set of guide genes to capture the transcriptional landscape of a given pathway in a process named Pathway Level Coexpression (PLC). A critical step in network construction remains the definition of gene co-expression. In the present work, we compared how Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC), Spearman Correlation Coefficient (SCC), their respective ranked values (Highest Reciprocal Rank (HRR)), Mutual Information (MI) and Partial Correlations (PC) performed on global networks and PLCs. This evaluation was conducted on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using microarray and differently pre-processed RNA-seq datasets. We particularly evaluated how dataset × distance measurement combinations performed in 5 PLCs corresponding to 4 well described plant metabolic pathways (phenylpropanoid, carbohydrate, fatty acid and terpene metabolisms) and the cytokinin signaling pathway. Our present work highlights how PCC ranked with HRR is better suited for global network construction and PLC with microarray and RNA-seq data than other distance methods, especially to cluster genes in partitions similar to biological subpathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29077-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052111PMC
July 2018

Familial autosomal dominant severe ankyloglossia with tooth abnormalities.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 07 28;176(7):1614-1617. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Ankyloglossia is a congenital oral anomaly characterized by the presence of a hypertrophic and short lingual frenulum. Mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor TBX22 have been involved in isolated ankyloglossia and X-linked cleft palate. The knockout of Lgr5 in mice results in ankyloglossia. Here, we report a five-generation family including patients with severe ankyloglossia and missing lower central incisors. Two members of this family also exhibited congenital anorectal malformations. In this report, male-to-male transmission was in favor of an autosomal dominant inheritance, which allowed us to exclude the X-linked TBX22 gene. Linkage analysis using short tandem repeat markers located in the vicinity of LGR5 excluded this gene as a potential candidate. These results indicate genetic heterogeneity for ankyloglossia. Further investigations with additional families are required in order to identify novel candidate genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38690DOI Listing
July 2018

Comparison of Tumor- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Patients with High-Grade Osteosarcoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 1;19(3). Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Laboratoire d'étude des sarcomes osseux et remodelage des tissus calcifiés, INSERM UMR 1238, Université de Nantes, PhyOS, 44034 Nantes CEDEX 1, France.

Osteosarcoma (OS) is suspected to originate from dysfunctional mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC). We sought to identify OS-derived cells (OSDC) with potential cancer stem cell (CSC) properties by comparing OSDC to MSC derived from bone marrow of patients. This study included in vitro characterization with sphere forming assays, differentiation assays, cytogenetic analysis, and in vivo investigations of their tumorigenicity and tumor supportive capacities. Primary cell lines were isolated from nine high-grade OS samples. All primary cell lines demonstrated stromal cell characteristics. Compared to MSC, OSDC presented a higher ability to form sphere clones, indicating a potential CSC phenotype, and were more efficient at differentiation towards osteoblasts. None of the OSDC displayed the complex chromosome rearrangements typical of high grade OS and none of them induced tumors in immunodeficient mice. However, two OSDC demonstrated focused genomic abnormalities. Three out of seven, and six out of seven OSDC showed a supportive role on local tumor development, and on metastatic progression to the lungs, respectively, when co-injected with OS cells in nude mice. The observation of OS-associated stromal cells with rare genetic abnormalities and with the capacity to sustain tumor progression may have implications for future tumor treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877568PMC
March 2018

A framework to identify contributing genes in patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome.

NPJ Genom Med 2017 23;2:32. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Genetics Unit, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the gene. is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-017-0035-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5677962PMC
October 2017

CHASE-Containing Histidine Kinase Receptors in Apple Tree: From a Common Receptor Structure to Divergent Cytokinin Binding Properties and Specific Functions.

Front Plant Sci 2017 20;8:1614. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

EA 2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Université François-RabelaisTours, France.

Cytokinin signaling is a key regulatory pathway of many aspects in plant development and environmental stresses. Herein, we initiated the identification and functional characterization of the five CHASE-containing histidine kinases (CHK) in the economically important species. These cytokinin receptors named MdCHK2, MdCHK3a/MdCHK3b, and MdCHK4a/MdCHK4b by homology with AHK clearly displayed three distinct profiles. The three groups exhibited architectural variations, especially in the N-terminal part including the cytokinin sensing domain. Using a yeast complementation assay, we showed that MdCHK2 perceives a broad spectrum of cytokinins with a substantial sensitivity whereas both MdCHK4 homologs exhibit a narrow spectrum. Both MdCHK3 homologs perceived some cytokinins but surprisingly they exhibited a basal constitutive activity. Interaction studies revealed that MdCHK2, MdCHK4a, and MdCHK4b homodimerized whereas MdCHK3a and MdCHK3b did not. Finally, qPCR analysis and bioinformatics approach pointed out contrasted expression patterns among the three MdCHK groups as well as distinct sets of co-expressed genes. Our study characterized for the first time the five cytokinin receptors in apple tree and provided a framework for their further functional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5611679PMC
September 2017

Sex chromosome aneuploidies and copy-number variants: a further explanation for neurodevelopmental prognosis variability?

Eur J Hum Genet 2017 08 14;25(8):930-934. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

Sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) is a group of conditions in which individuals have an abnormal number of sex chromosomes. SCA, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, XYY syndrome, and Triple X syndrome are associated with a large range of neurological outcome. Another genetic event such as another cytogenetic abnormality may explain a part of this variable expressivity. In this study, we have recruited fourteen patients with intellectual disability or developmental delay carrying SCA associated with a copy-number variant (CNV). In our cohort (four patients 47,XXY, four patients 47,XXX, and six patients 47,XYY), seven patients were carrying a pathogenic CNV, two a likely pathogenic CNV and five a variant of uncertain significance. Our analysis suggests that CNV might be considered as an additional independent genetic factor for intellectual disability and developmental delay for patients with SCA and neurodevelopmental disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2017.93DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567159PMC
August 2017

Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

Planta 2017 Jul 27;246(1):45-60. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

EA2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Tours, France.

Main Conclusion: The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2681-0DOI Listing
July 2017

Folivory elicits a strong defense reaction in Catharanthus roseus: metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal distinct local and systemic responses.

Sci Rep 2017 01 17;7:40453. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Université François-Rabelais de Tours, EA2106 "Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales", Tours, France.

Plants deploy distinct secondary metabolisms to cope with environment pressure and to face bio-aggressors notably through the production of biologically active alkaloids. This metabolism-type is particularly elaborated in Catharanthus roseus that synthesizes more than a hundred different monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). While the characterization of their biosynthetic pathway now reaches completion, still little is known about the role of MIAs during biotic attacks. As a consequence, we developed a new plant/herbivore interaction system by challenging C. roseus leaves with Manduca sexta larvae. Transcriptomic and metabolic analyses demonstrated that C. roseus respond to folivory by both local and systemic processes relying on the activation of specific gene sets and biosynthesis of distinct MIAs following jasmonate production. While a huge local accumulation of strictosidine was monitored in attacked leaves that could repel caterpillars through its protein reticulation properties, newly developed leaves displayed an increased biosynthesis of the toxic strictosidine-derived MIAs, vindoline and catharanthine, produced by up-regulation of MIA biosynthetic genes. In this context, leaf consumption resulted in a rapid death of caterpillars that could be linked to the MIA dimerization observed in intestinal tracts. Furthermore, this study also highlights the overall transcriptomic control of the plant defense processes occurring during herbivory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep40453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240345PMC
January 2017

Mandibular dysostosis without microphthalmia caused by OTX2 deletion.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 09 5;170(9):2466-70. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Service de Génétique Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Mutations in OTX2 are mostly identified in patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia with variable severity. The OTX2 homeobox gene plays a crucial role in craniofacial morphogenesis during early embryo development. We report for the first time a patient with a mandibular dysostosis caused by a 120 kb deletion including the entire coding sequence of OTX2, identified by array CGH. No ocular malformations were identified after extended ophthalmologic examination. Our data refine the clinical spectrum associated with OTX2 mutations and suggests that OTX2 haploinsufficiency should be considered as a possible cause for isolated mandibular dysostosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37837DOI Listing
September 2016