Publications by authors named "Olivier Mir"

208 Publications

Potential Cytochrome P450-mediated pharmacokinetic interactions between herbs, food, and dietary supplements and cancer treatments.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Apr 27:103342. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM CIC Paris-Est, AP-HP, ICAN, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Department of Pharmacology, F-75013, Paris, France.

Herbs, food and dietary supplements (HFDS), can interact significantly with anticancer drug treatments via cytochrome p450 isoforms (CYP) CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2C8. The objective of this review was to assess the influence of HFDS compounds on these cytochromes. Interactions with CYP activities were searched for 189 herbs and food products, 72 dietary supplements in Web of Knowledge® databases. Analyses were made from 140 of 3,125 clinical trials and 236 of 3,374 in vitro, animal model studies or case reports. 18 trials were found to report direct interactions between 9 HFDS with 8 anticancer drugs. 21 HFDS were found to interact with CYP3A4, a major metabolic pathway for many anticancer drugs. All 261 HFDS were classified for their interaction with the main cytochromes P450 involved in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. We provided an easy-to-use colour-coded table to easily match potential interactions between 261 HFDS and 117 anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2021.103342DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultra-rare sarcomas: A consensus paper from the Connective Tissue Oncology Society community of experts on the incidence threshold and the list of entities.

Cancer 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia-Arrixaca, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.

Background: Among sarcomas, which are rare cancers, many types are exceedingly rare; however, a definition of ultra-rare cancers has not been established. The problem of ultra-rare sarcomas is particularly relevant because they represent unique diseases, and their rarity poses major challenges for diagnosis, understanding disease biology, generating clinical evidence to support new drug development, and achieving formal authorization for novel therapies.

Methods: The Connective Tissue Oncology Society promoted a consensus effort in November 2019 to establish how to define ultra-rare sarcomas through expert consensus and epidemiologic data and to work out a comprehensive list of these diseases. The list of ultra-rare sarcomas was based on the 2020 World Health Organization classification, The incidence rates were estimated using the Information Network on Rare Cancers (RARECARENet) database and NETSARC (the French Sarcoma Network's clinical-pathologic registry). Incidence rates were further validated in collaboration with the Asian cancer registries of Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.

Results: It was agreed that the best criterion for a definition of ultra-rare sarcomas would be incidence. Ultra-rare sarcomas were defined as those with an incidence of approximately ≤1 per 1,000,000, to include those entities whose rarity renders them extremely difficult to conduct well powered, prospective clinical studies. On the basis of this threshold, a list of ultra-rare sarcomas was defined, which comprised 56 soft tissue sarcoma types and 21 bone sarcoma types.

Conclusions: Altogether, the incidence of ultra-rare sarcomas accounts for roughly 20% of all soft tissue and bone sarcomas. This confirms that the challenges inherent in ultra-rare sarcomas affect large numbers of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33618DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic or locally advanced chondrosarcoma: Results of a non-comparative, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, multicentre phase II study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 22;150:108-118. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Medical Oncology Department, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Background: This multi-cohort trial explored the efficacy and safety of regorafenib for patients with advanced sarcomas of bone origin; this report details the cohort of patients with metastatic or locally advanced chondrosarcoma (CS), progressing after prior chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: Patients with CS, progressing despite prior standard therapy, were randomised (2:1) to receive regorafenib or placebo. Patients on placebo could crossover to receive regorafenib after centrally confirmed progressive disease. The primary endpoint was progression-free rate (PFR) at 12 weeks. With one-sided α of 0.05, and 80% power, at least 16/24 progression-free patients at 12 weeks were needed for success (P0 = 50%, P1 = 75%).

Results: From September 2014 to February 2019, 46 patients were included in the CS cohort, and 40 patients were evaluable for efficacy: 16 on placebo and 24 on regorafenib. Thirteen patients (54.2%; 95% CI [35.8%-[) were non-progressive at 12 weeks on regorafenib versus 5 (31.3%; 95% CI [13.2%-[);) on placebo. Median PFS was 19.9 weeks on regorafenib, and 8.0 on placebo. Fourteen placebo patients crossed over to regorafenib after progression. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events on regorafenib included hypertension (12%), asthenia (8%), thrombocytopenia (8%) and diarrhoea (8%). One episode of fatal liver dysfunction occurred on regorafenib.

Conclusion: Although the primary endpoint was not met statistically in this small randomised cohort, there is modest evidence to suggest that regorafenib might slow disease progression in patients with metastatic CS after the failure of prior chemotherapy.

Clinical Trial Registration: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02389244).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.039DOI Listing
April 2021

Cancer during Pregnancy: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Transplacental Transfer of Anticancer Agents.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Poissy Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 78300 Poissy, France.

The occurrence of cancer during pregnancy is observed in 1 in 1000 pregnancies and is expected to increase given the trend of delaying childbearing. While breast cancer is the most common, the incidence of other cancers, such as cervical, ovarian, and lung cancers as well as hemopathies and melanomas, is also increasing. Thus, cancer occurrence in pregnant women raises questions of management during pregnancy and, especially, assessment of the treatment benefit-risk ratio to ensure optimal management for the mother while ensuring the safety of the fetus. Chemotherapy remains a cornerstone of cancer management. If the use of anticancer agents appears possible during pregnancy, while avoiding the first trimester, the extent of placental transfer of different anticancer agents varies considerably thereafter. Furthermore, the significant physiological pharmacokinetic variations observed in pregnant women may have an impact on the placental transfer of anticancer agents. Given the complexity of predicting placental transfer of anticancer agents, preclinical studies are therefore mandatory. The aim of this review was to provide updated data on in vivo and ex vivo transplacental transfer of anticancer agents used in the management of the most common pregnancy-associated cancers to better manage these highly complex cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000411PMC
March 2021

Neoadjuvant Everolimus for Adult Giant Mesenteric Cystic Lymphangioma with mTOR Pathway Activation.

Oncologist 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie Hospital, Paris, France.

Cystic lymphangioma are rare benign vascular or lymphatic tumors, diagnosed mostly in newborns or children, that may become life-threatening because of local invasiveness. Surgical "en-bloc" resection with negative margins is the only curative treatment, but some patients are diagnosed with unresectable tumors. We describe the case of a young adult with giant unresectable mesenteric lymphangioma. Extensive pathological characterization as well as whole exome and transcriptome sequencing enabled us to identify mTOR pathway activation within endothelial tumor cells. The patient was treated with everolimus and experienced major partial response, leading to the surgical resection of the residual lesions. This case highlights the importance of molecular characterization of adult cystic lymphangioma for mTOR pathway activation because multidisciplinary therapeutic approaches, including neoadjuvant everolimus and secondary surgery, can lead to complete cure of this rare condition. KEY POINTS: The case of an adult patient diagnosed with giant unresectable mesenteric cystic lymphangioma, in which activation of the mTOR pathway was documented at both the pathological and transcriptomic levels, is reported. This patient showed major partial response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, which led to the successful resection of residual tumor lesions after 9 months of treatment. This report shows that mTOR targeting should be considered as neoadjuvant treatment in adult large cystic lymphangioma, as it can lead to complete surgery and cure of this rare condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13775DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcomes of Oral Vinorelbine in Progressive Desmoid Fibromatosis-Response.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr;27(7):2120

Department of International Patients Care, Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0041DOI Listing
April 2021

Intercontinental Multidisciplinary Oncology Videoconferencing for Rare and Complex Cancer: An Alternative to Systematic Transfer.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Feb 23:OP2000525. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: To report our experience of intercontinental multidisciplinary oncology videoconferencing between the French mainland and South Pacific to discuss rare and/or complex cancer cases.

Methods: On the first and third Friday of each month, all participants connected between 6:30 am and 8:00 am GMT to discuss using a web conference service.

Results: Between November 2019 and April 2020, 99 cases concerning 78 patients were discussed. Oncology subspecialties required were sarcoma (n = 36), digestive (n = 29), dermatology (n = 5), gynecology (n = 5), breast (n = 5), urology (n = 5), hematology (n = 5), ENT (n = 3), thoracic (n = 3), thyroid (n = 2), and pediatric (n = 1). Median patient age was 58 years, 41 were female (53%), 37 were male (47%), and 43 had a metastatic disease (55%). Following discussion, 16 patients (21%) were transferred to the French mainland. Reasons for transfer were requirement for complex surgery (n = 11) and need for specialized diagnostic biopsy (n = 5). Fifty-six patients were treated locally, with systemic chemotherapy (n = 36), surveillance (n = 8), surgery (n = 8), radiotherapy (n = 3), or endoscopy (n = 1). Direct benefits for patients treated in their local facility included strategy changes (surveillance or surgery contraindication, n = 9), targeted therapy decision (n = 14), immunotherapy decision (n = 9), and diagnostic or metastatic status corrections (n = 4). Six patients are still awaiting decision.

Conclusion: Using real-time intercontinental multidisciplinary oncology videoconferencing to discuss complex or rare cancer cases is reliable and effective for decision making. This concept helped to limit to 21% the need for transfers to the mainland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00525DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effect of Concomitant Proton Pump Inhibitor and Cabozantinib on the Outcomes of Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Oncologist 2021 May 25;26(5):389-396. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Medicine Department, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Introduction: Cabozantinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Cabozantinib is a weak base that exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile in vitro which raises concerns about its bioavailability in patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PPI use has an impact on the efficacy, safety, and residual concentration (Ctrough) of cabozantinib in patients with mRCC.

Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective review of a prospectively collected electronic database of patients with mRCC who received cabozantinib at Gustave Roussy between February 2014 and December 2018. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and the Cox proportional-hazard model for uni- and multivariate analysis. In parallel, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of cabozantinib in a distinct cohort of 50 mRCC patients, in which cabozantinib Ctrough was assayed using a validated tandem mass spectrometry-liquid chromatography method.

Results: We identified 99 patients treated with cabozantinib, including 43 patients being PPI users. With a median follow-up of 30.3 months, PPI users showed similar progression-free survival and overall survival outcomes compared with PPI nonusers. Similarly, the incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the PPI users and nonusers, although PPI users required dose reductions more often. In the independent pharmacokinetic cohort, of whom 21 received PPI concomitantly, Ctrough was similar between the two groups.

Conclusion: In line with the pharmacologic data, the concomitant use of PPI does not significantly impact the efficacy or safety of cabozantinib in patients with mRCC.

Implications For Practice: Drug interactions, especially between targeted therapies and proton pump inhibitors (PPI), were shown to potentially impact the outcomes of cancer patients. Cabozantinib, a current therapeutic standard in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile, which raises concerns about its bioavailability in patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). At the present time, there is no evidence regarding the effect of PPIs on cabozantinib's efficacy and safety in patients with mRCC. This study found that the concomitant use of PPI during cabozantinib treatment in mRCC patients does not appear to impact the residual concentration, efficacy, and safety of cabozantinib in a real-life context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13711DOI Listing
May 2021

Avapritinib in unresectable or metastatic PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Long-term efficacy and safety data from the NAVIGATOR phase I trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Mar 16;145:132-142. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Essen, Sarcoma Center, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: PDGFRA D842V mutations occur in 5-10% of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), and previously approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are inactive against this mutation. Consequently, patients have a poor prognosis. We present an updated analysis of avapritinib efficacy and long-term safety in this patient population.

Methods: NAVIGATOR (NCT02508532), a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation/dose-expansion phase I study, enrolled adult patients with unresectable GISTs. Patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST were a prespecified subgroup within the overall safety population, which included patients who received ≥1 avapritinib dose. Primary end-points were overall response rate (ORR) and avapritinib safety profile. Secondary end-points were clinical benefit rate (CBR), duration of response (DOR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Overall survival (OS) was an exploratory end-point.

Results: Between 7 October 2015 and 9 March 2020, 250 patients enrolled in the safety population; 56 patients were included in the PDGFRA D842V population, 11 were TKI-naïve. At data cut-off, median follow-up was 27.5 months. Safety profile was comparable between the overall safety and PDGFRA D842V populations. In the PDGFRA D842V population, the most frequent adverse events were nausea (38 [68%] patients) and diarrhoea (37 [66%]), and cognitive effects occurred in 32 (57%) patients. The ORR was 91% (51/56 patients). The CBR was 98% (55/56 patients). The median DOR was 27.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.6-not reached [NR]); median PFS was 34.0 months (95% CI: 22.9-NR). Median OS was not reached.

Conclusion: Targeting PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST with avapritinib resulted in an unprecedented, durable clinical benefit, with a manageable safety profile. Avapritinib should be considered as first-line therapy for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Nurse navigators' telemonitoring for cancer patients with COVID-19: a French case study.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Interdisciplinary Cancer Pathways Division (DIOPP), Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: The Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute implemented a patient-reported outcome platform (CAPRI-COVID) for cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to quarantine patients at home while ensuring monitoring of COVID-related symptoms and securing the care pathway. In this study, we described the CAPRI-COVID intervention, evaluated its use, and presented results of the tracking indicators with a focus on the nurse navigators' (NNs) activities and the experience of patients.

Methods: Data of 130 cancer patients with COVID-19 diagnosed from March 23 to June 5, 2020, were collected. Six COVID-related symptoms were monitored daily, either by the patient via the CAPRI mobile application (CAPRI App) or by NNs via telemonitoring. In the cases of worsening or new-onset symptoms, an automated alert was sent to the platform, and NNs could immediately consult an emergency physician for future course of action.

Results: All 130 patients (median age: 59 years; 59.2% female) were monitored during the study period. There were no deaths or admissions to the intensive care unit attributable to COVID-19; 7.8% of patients were hospitalized (excluding scheduled hospitalization), and 17.1% were admitted to the emergency department at least once during the monitoring period. NNs carried out 1412 regular monitoring calls (average of 10.9 calls per patient), while 55% of the patients downloaded the CAPRI App.

Conclusions: Most patients monitored with CAPRI-COVID were quarantined during the first wave of the pandemic. In addition to the CAPRI App, which helped limit phone calls, NNs played an essential role in patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05968-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813165PMC
January 2021

Avapritinib in Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Following at Least Three Prior Lines of Therapy.

Oncologist 2021 04 1;26(4):e639-e649. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) driven by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) mutations develop resistance to available tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments. NAVIGATOR is a two-part, single-arm, dose escalation and expansion study designed to evaluate safety and antineoplastic activity of avapritinib, a selective, potent inhibitor of KIT and PDGFRA, in patients with unresectable or metastatic GIST.

Materials And Methods: Eligible patients were 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed unresectable GIST and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2 and initiated avapritinib at 300 mg or 400 mg once daily. Primary endpoints were safety in patients who initiated avapritinib at 300 mg or 400 mg once daily and overall response rate (ORR) in patients in the safety population with three or more previous lines of TKI therapy.

Results: As of November 16, 2018, in the safety population (n = 204), the most common adverse events (AEs) were nausea (131 [64%]), fatigue (113 [55%]), anemia (102 [50%]), cognitive effects (84 [41%]), and periorbital edema (83 [41%]); 17 (8%) patients discontinued due to treatment-related AEs, most frequently confusion, encephalopathy, and fatigue. ORR in response-evaluable patients with GIST harboring KIT or non-D842V PDGFRA mutations and with at least three prior therapies (n = 103) was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-25). Median duration of response was 10.2 months (95% CI, 7.2-10.2), and median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (95% CI, 2.8-4.6).

Conclusion: Avapritinib has manageable toxicity with meaningful clinical activity as fourth-line or later treatment in some patients with GIST with KIT or PDGFRA mutations.

Implications For Practice: In the NAVIGATOR trial, avapritinib, an inhibitor of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A tyrosine kinases, provided durable responses in a proportion of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) who had received three or more prior therapies. Avapritinib had a tolerable safety profile, with cognitive adverse events manageable with dose interruptions and modification in most cases. These findings indicate that avapritinib can elicit durable treatment responses in some patients with heavily pretreated GIST, for whom limited treatment options exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018324PMC
April 2021

Chronic Plasma Exposure to Kinase Inhibitors in Patients with Oncogene-Addicted Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 14;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Cancer Medicine Department, Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Kinase inhibitors (KI) have dramatically improved the outcome of treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which harbors an oncogene addiction. This study assesses KI plasma levels and their clinical relevance in patients chronically exposed to KIs. Plasma samples were collected in NSCLC patients receiving erlotinib, gefitinib, osimertinib, crizotinib, or dabrafenib (with or without trametinib) for at least three months between November 2013 and February 2019 in a single institution. KI drug concentrations were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and compared to published data defining optimal plasma concentration. The main outcome was the rate of samples with suboptimal KI plasma concentrations. Secondary outcomes included its impact on mutation emergence in patients receiving a first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) KI. Fifty-one samples were available from 41 patients with advanced NSCLC harboring driver genetic alterations, including , v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (), anaplastic lymphoma kinase () or ROS proto-oncogene 1 (), and who had an available evaluation of chronic KI plasma exposure. Suboptimal plasma concentrations were observed in 51% (26/51) of cases. In -mutant cases failing first-generation KIs, exon 20 p.T790M mutation emergence was detected in 31% (4/13) of samples in optimal vs. none in suboptimal concentration (0/5). Suboptimal plasma concentrations of KIs are frequent in advanced NSCLC patients treated with a KI for at least three months and might contribute to treatment failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764991PMC
December 2020

Assessing Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers of Regorafenib Response in Patients with Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma: REGOSARC Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 12;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Direction of Research and Innovation, Centre Oscar Lambret, 59000 Lille, France.

Regorafenib significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in pretreated patients with advanced non-adipocytic sarcoma (HR = 0.46; < 0.001) in a placebo-controlled, randomized, phase-II trial (NCT01900743). Thus, here, we assessed the prevalence of 57 biomarkers and their prognostic and predictive values for PFS and overall survival (OS). We analyzed 134/182 patients included in this trial, treated with regorafenib ( = 71, 53%) or placebo ( = 63, 47%). Mutational analyses were performed via full coding sequence analysis for 10 genes, and mutation hotspot panel for 50 genes (four genes in common). H19 was studied with RNA in-situ hybridization. The prognostic and predictive biomarkers' values were studied only for biomarkers found positive/mutated in at least 10 patients. Overall, 25 out of 57 studied biomarkers, including five out of seven genes involved in angiogenesis, were found mutated/positive in at least one patient, of which 23 biomarkers had low prevalence (fewer than eight out of 134 patients), contrasting with H19 ( = 24, 18%), and TP53 ( = 35, 26%). However, in multivariable models of PFS and OS, including treatment effects and interactions, no significant prognostic or predictive values of the tested biomarkers were observed. Though several promising biomarkers were found to be positive/mutated, none of them were identified as viable predictive and prognostic biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763753PMC
December 2020

Is there a role for immune checkpoint inhibitors in selected rare subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma?

Immunotherapy 2021 Feb 9;13(2):91-93. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/imt-2020-0301DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcomes of patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) treated with multi-kinase inhibitors other than imatinib as first-line treatment.

ESMO Open 2020 11;5(6):e001082

Sarcoma Group, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Imatinib is the standard first-line therapy in metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). Investigational multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs) such as nilotinib, dasatinib or masitinib have been tested as first-line therapies in phase II/III studies. This might theoretically result either in increased survival or in early emergence of resistance to approved MKIs.

Methods: To assess whether using MKIs other than imatinib in first line decreases imatinib efficacy in second line for patients with GIST, a retrospective chart review was performed from 2005 to 2011 in two French tertiary centres of patients with GIST who received investigational MKIs (in phase II/III trials) as first-line treatment, followed by imatinib as second line.

Results: Of 46 patients, (55% women, median age 55 years (range 24-81)), 22 (47%) had a exon 11 mutation, 1 a exon 9 mutation (2%), 1 a mutation (2%). Out of 46 patients, 21 (46%) received masitinib, 17 (37%) received dasatinib and 8 (17%) received nilotinib as first-line treatment with a median progression-free survival of 18.0 months (95% CI: 8.5 to 25.5). Median time to imatinib failure was 19.7 months (95% CI: 13.5 to 29.0). Median time to second relapse was 48.7 months (95% CI: 31.2 to 72.0). Median overall survival from time of initial metastasis diagnosis was 5.7 years (95% CI: 4.5 to 7.4).

Conclusions: Patients with GIST who received investigational MKIs as first-line treatment and imatinib as second line had a time to second relapse longer than that observed historically with imatinib in first line, suggesting that using MKIs other than imatinib in first line does not decrease the efficacy of subsequent treatment lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-001082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703411PMC
November 2020

Efficacy and safety of oral metronomic etoposide in adult patients with metastatic osteosarcoma.

Cancer Med 2021 01 25;10(1):230-236. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Ambulatory Cancer Care, Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.

Therapeutic options in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are limited and effective systemic treatments are needed in this setting. The aim of this case series was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of oral metronomic etoposide in adult patients with progressive metastatic osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic records of patients treated with oral metronomic etoposide (25 mg thrice daily, 3 weeks out of 4) from December 2002 to December 2018 at Gustave Roussy (Villejuif, France). The primary endpoint was progression-free rate (PFR) at 4 months; secondary endpoints were: best response (according to RECIST v1.1), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. With a median follow-up of 9.8 months, 37 patients were eligible for this analysis: 68% males, median age 42 (range: 21-75), 19% with synchronous metastases, 92% with lung metastases, median PS: 1 (range: 0-3). Median number of previous treatment lines in the metastatic setting was 1 (range: 0-4). Progression-free rate at 4 months was 40.3% (95% CI: 24.5-56.2). Best response was partial response in 11% and stable disease in 35% of patients (disease control rate: 46%). Median PFS was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.5-4.7) and median OS was 9.8 months (95% CI: 5.1-12.3). Toxicity profile was acceptable, with 13% grade 3 haematological toxicities (anaemia and neutropenia), without any grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity. In our experience, oral metronomic etoposide demonstrated effective palliation along with acceptable toxicity in patients with progressive metastatic osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826485PMC
January 2021

Postoperative Outcome of Surgery with Pancreatic Resection for Retroperitoneal Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Results of a Retrospective Bicentric Analysis on 50 Consecutive Patients.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, 114, rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif, France.

Backgrounds: Multivisceral resection is the standard treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) during which pancreas resection may be necessary.

Methods: All consecutive patients operated for RPS with pancreatectomy in 2 expert centers between 1993 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Fifty patients (median age: 57 years, IQR: [46-65]) with a primary (n = 33) or recurrent (n = 17) RPS underwent surgery requiring pancreas resection (distal pancreatectomy (DP) (n = 43), pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) (n = 5), central pancreatectomy (n = 1), and atypical resection (n = 1)). Severe postoperative morbidity (Clavien-Dindo III-IV) was observed in 14 patients (28%), and 7 of them (14%) required reoperation for anastomotic bowel leakage (n = 5), gastric volvulus (n = 1), or hemorrhage (n = 1). Pancreas-related complications occurred in 25 patients (50%): 10 postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) (grade A (n = 12), grade B (n = 6), grade C (n = 1)), 13 delayed gastric emptying (grade A (n = 8), grade B (n = 4), grade C (n = 1)), 1 hemorrhage (grade C). Postoperative mortality was 4% (n = 2), all following PD, caused by a massive intraoperative air embolism and by a multiple organ failure after anastomotic leakage. Pathological analysis confirmed pancreatic involvement in 17 (34%) specimens. Microscopically complete resection (R0) was achieved in 22 (44%) patients. After a follow-up of 60 months, 36 patients (75%) were still alive, among whom 27 without recurrence (56%).

Conclusion: Pancreatic resection during RPS surgery is associated with significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. PD should be avoided whenever possible while other procedures seemed achievable without excessive morbidity and with long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-020-04882-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Multikinase inhibitor-induced liver injury in patients with cancer: A review for clinicians.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jan 21;157:103127. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Faculté de Médecine Paris-Saclay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-94276, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; INSERM U996, DHU Hepatinov, Labex LERMIT, F-92140, Clamart, France; Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie et Nutrition, Hôpital Antoine-Béclère, AP-HP, Université Paris-Saclay, F-92140, Clamart, France.

Background: Multikinase inhibitors (MKI) are targeted molecular agents that have revolutionized cancer management. However, there is a paucity of data concerning MKI-related liver injury risk and clinical guidelines for the management of liver toxicity in patients receiving MKI for cancer are scarce.

Design: We conducted a PubMed search of articles in English published from January 2000 to December 2018 related to hepatotoxicity of the 29 FDA-approved MKIs at doses used in clinical practice. The search terms were the international non-proprietary name of each agent cross-referenced with «hepatotoxicity», «hepatitis», «hepatic adverse event», or «liver failure», and «phase II clinical trial», «phase III clinical trial», or «case report».

Results: Following this search, 140 relevant studies and 99 case reports were considered. Although asymptomatic elevation of aminotransferase levels has been frequently observed in MKI clinical trials, clinically significant hepatotoxicity is a rare event. In most cases, the interval between treatment initiation and the onset of liver injury is between one week and two months. Liver toxicity is often hepatocellular and less frequently mixed. Life-threatening MKI-induced hepatic injury has been described, involving fulminant liver failure or death. Starting from existing data, a description of MKI-related liver events, grading of hepatotoxicity risk, and recommendations for management are also given for various MKI molecules.

Conclusion: All MKIs can potentially cause liver injury, which is sometimes irreversible. As there is still no strategy available to prevent MKI-related hepatotoxicity, early detection remains crucial. The surveillance of liver function during treatment may help in the early detection of hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, the exclusion of potential causes of hepatic injury is essential to avoid unnecessary MKI withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.103127DOI Listing
January 2021

Tazemetostat in advanced epithelioid sarcoma with loss of INI1/SMARCB1: an international, open-label, phase 2 basket study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 11 6;21(11):1423-1432. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare and aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma subtype. Over 90% of tumours have lost INI1 expression, leading to oncogenic dependence on the transcriptional repressor EZH2. In this study, we report the clinical activity and safety of tazemetostat, an oral selective EZH2 inhibitor, in patients with epithelioid sarcoma.

Methods: In this open-label, phase 2 basket study, patients were enrolled from 32 hospitals and clinics in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Taiwan, the USA, and the UK into seven cohorts of patients with different INI1-negative solid tumours or synovial sarcoma. Patients eligible for the epithelioid sarcoma cohort (cohort 5) were aged 16 years or older with histologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic epithelioid sarcoma; documented loss of INI1 expression by immunohistochemical analysis or biallelic SMARCB1 (the gene that encodes INI1) alterations, or both; and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2. Patients received 800 mg tazemetostat orally twice per day in continuous 28-day cycles until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate measured according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary endpoints were duration of response, disease control rate at 32 weeks, progression-free survival, overall survival, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses (primary results reported elsewhere). Time to response was also assessed as an exploratory endpoint. Activity and safety were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (ie, patients who received one or more doses of tazemetostat). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02601950, and is ongoing.

Findings: Between Dec 22, 2015, and July 7, 2017, 62 patients with epithelioid sarcoma were enrolled in the study and deemed eligible for inclusion in this cohort. All 62 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Nine (15% [95% CI 7-26]) of 62 patients had an objective response at data cutoff (Sept 17, 2018). At a median follow-up of 13·8 months (IQR 7·8-19·0), median duration of response was not reached (95% CI 9·2-not estimable). 16 (26% [95% CI 16-39]) patients had disease control at 32 weeks. Median time to response was 3·9 months (IQR 1·9-7·4). Median progression-free survival was 5·5 months (95% CI 3·4-5·9), and median overall survival was 19·0 months (11·0-not estimable). Grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events included anaemia (four [6%]) and weight loss (two [3%]). Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in two patients (one seizure and one haemoptysis). There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Tazemetostat was well tolerated and showed clinical activity in this cohort of patients with advanced epithelioid sarcoma characterised by loss of INI1/SMARCB1. Tazemetostat has the potential to improve outcomes in patients with advanced epithelioid sarcoma. A phase 1b/3 trial of tazemetostat plus doxorubicin in the front-line setting is currently underway (NCT04204941).

Funding: Epizyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30451-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Long-term Outcomes of Oral Vinorelbine in Advanced, Progressive Desmoid Fibromatosis and Influence of Mutational Status.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 1;26(23):6277-6283. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of International Patients Care, Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute, Villejuif, Paris, France.

Purpose: Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) are locally aggressive neoplasms, with a need for effective systemic treatment in case of progression to avoid the short- and long-term complications of local treatments.

Experimental Design: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of adult patients with DF treated with oral vinorelbine (90 mg once weekly) at Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute (Villejuif, Paris, France). Only patients with documented progressive disease according to RECIST v1.1 for more than 3 months (±2 weeks) before treatment initiation were included.

Results: From 2009 to 2019, 90 out of 438 patients with DF were eligible for this analysis. Vinorelbine was given alone in 56 patients (62%), or concomitantly with endocrine therapy in 34 patients, for a median duration of 6.7 months. A partial response was observed in 29% and stable disease in another 57%. With a median follow-up of 52.4 months, the median time to treatment failure (TTF) was not reached. Progression-free rates at 6 and 12 months were 88.7% and 77.5%, respectively. Concomitant endocrine therapy was associated with longer TTF in women [HR, 2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-4.37; = 0.03). Among 64 patients with documented mutational status, p.S45F or p.S45P mutations were associated with longer TTF compared with p.T41A or wild-type tumors (HR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.23-6.27; = 0.04). Toxicity profile was favorable, without grade 3-4 toxicity, except for one grade 3 neutropenia.

Conclusions: Oral vinorelbine is an effective, affordable, and well-tolerated regimen in patients with advanced, progressive DF. Prolonged activity was observed in patients with tumors harboring p.S45F or p.S45P mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1847DOI Listing
December 2020

New dosing nomogram and population pharmacokinetic model for young and very young children receiving busulfan for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 10 24;67(10):e28603. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Département de Biologie et Pathologie Médicale, Service de Pharmacologie, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Busulfan (Bu) is the cornerstone of conditioning regimens prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, widely used in both adults and children for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Despite an intravenous formulation, interindividual variability (IIV) remains high and optimal exposure difficult to achieve, especially in neonates and infants.

Procedure: To ensure both efficacy and safety, we set up in 2005 an observational study designed for children not fully assessed during the drug registration procedure. From a large cohort of 540 patients, we developed a Bu population pharmacokinetic model based on body weight (BW) and maturation concepts to reduce IIV and optimize exposure. A new dosing nomogram was evaluated to better fit the population pharmacokinetic model.

Results: Bu clearance IIV was significantly decreased from 61.3% (covariate-free model) to 28.6% when combining BW and maturation function. Median Bu area under the curve (AUC) was 1179 µmol/L × min compared to 1025 with the EMA dosing nomogram for children <9 kg. The target AUC was reached for each BW strata, significantly increasing the percentages of patients achieving reaching the targeted AUC as compared to FDA schedule.

Conclusion: This new model made it possible to propose a novel dosing nomogram that better considered children below 16 kg of BW and allowed better initial exposure as compared to existing dosing schedules. This nomogram, which would be easy to use to determine an optimal dosing schedule in daily practice, will need to be validated in clinical routine. Therapeutic drug monitoring remains strongly advisable for small children and those with specific diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28603DOI Listing
October 2020

Endometriosis.

N Engl J Med 2020 07;383(2):193-194

Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2013221DOI Listing
July 2020

Avapritinib in advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (NAVIGATOR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 07;21(7):935-946

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Targeting of KIT and PDGFRA with imatinib revolutionised treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumour; however, PDGFRA Asp842Val (D842V)-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumour is highly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of avapritinib, a novel KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor that potently inhibits PDGFRA D842V, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, including patients with KIT and PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (NAVIGATOR).

Methods: NAVIGATOR is a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion, phase 1 study done at 17 sites across nine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and with adequate end-organ function were eligible to participate. The dose-escalation part of the study included patients with unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The dose-expansion part of the study included patients with an unresectable PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour regardless of previous therapy or gastrointestinal stromal tumour with other mutations that either progressed on imatinib and one or more tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or only received imatinib previously. On the basis of enrolment trends, ongoing review of study data, and evolving knowledge regarding the gastrointestinal stromal tumour treatment paradigm, it was decided by the sponsor's medical director together with the investigators that patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations would be analysed separately; the results from this group of patients is reported in this Article. Oral avapritinib was administered once daily in the dose-escalation part (starting dose of 30 mg, with increasing dose levels once daily in continuous 28-day cycles until the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase 2 dose was determined; in the dose-expansion part, the starting dose was the maximum tolerated dose from the dose-escalation part). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, and safety in the dose-escalation part, and overall response and safety in the dose-expansion part. Safety was assessed in all patients from the dose-escalation part and all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the dose-expansion part, and activity was assessed in all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour who received avapritinib and who had at least one target lesion and at least one post-baseline disease assessment by central radiology. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02508532.

Findings: Between Oct 26, 2015, and Nov 16, 2018 (data cutoff), 46 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation part, including 20 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and 36 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour were enrolled in the dose-expansion part. At data cutoff (Nov 16, 2018), 38 (46%) of 82 patients in the safety population (median follow-up of 19·1 months [IQR 9·2-25·5]) and 37 (66%) of the 56 patients in the PDGFRA D842V population (median follow-up of 15·9 months [IQR 9·2-24·9]) remained on treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 300 mg. In the safety population (patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour from the dose-escalation and dose-expansion parts, all doses), treatment-related grade 3-4 events occurred in 47 (57%) of 82 patients, the most common being anaemia (14 [17%]); there were no treatment-related deaths. In the PDGFRA D842V-mutant population, 49 (88%; 95% CI 76-95) of 56 patients had an overall response, with five (9%) complete responses and 44 (79%) partial responses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at doses of 30-400 mg per day. At 600 mg, two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 2 hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and memory impairment in patient 1, and grade 2 hyperbilirubinaemia in patient 2).

Interpretation: Avapritinib has a manageable safety profile and has preliminary antitumour activity in patients with advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30269-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Targeting CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase) amplification in liposarcoma: A comprehensive review.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2020 Sep 18;153:103029. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

French Sarcoma Group, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

Well-differentiated/dedifferentiated (WD/DD) liposarcomas, the most common form of liposarcomas, constitute up to 20 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. Several oncogenes are thought to be involved in liposarcoma pathogenesis, mainly MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2. While MDM2 inhibitors are now tested in clinical trials, a second actionable and promising target appears to be cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), which is amplified in up to 90 % of well differentiated or dedifferentiated (WD/DD) liposarcoma. With the paucity of available therapeutic options, the inhibition of CDK4 represent a potential therapeutic option. In this paper, we review the role of CDK4/6 inhibitors in targeting the commonly identified CDK4 amplification in WD/DD liposarcoma, with an emphasis on the published and currently ongoing trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.103029DOI Listing
September 2020

The Activity of Chemotherapy in Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors: A Multicenter, European Retrospective Case Series Analysis.

Oncologist 2020 11 12;25(11):e1777-e1784. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: This study aimed to review the activity of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) treated at nine European sarcoma reference centers.

Materials And Methods: Patients of any age, with histologically proven IMT, treated with anthracycline-based methotrexate plus/minus vinorelbine/vinblastine (MTX-V) or other chemotherapeutic regimens between 1996 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed at the local level by an expert pathologist. Response was retrospectively assessed by local investigators by RECIST v1.1. Progression-free survival (PFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were computed by Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Thirty-eight patients were included. Twenty-five patients (8 localized, 17 advanced disease) received an anthracycline-based regimen; 21 were evaluable for response. Overall response rate (ORR) was 10/21 (47.6%). At a 70.8-month median follow-up (FU), median RFS and median OS were not reached (NR) in patients with localized disease; median PFS and median OS were 6.3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.9-13.4) and 21.2 (IQR: 7.7-40.7) months in patients with advanced disease. Thirteen patients received MTX-V (4 localized, 9 advanced disease), all evaluable for response. ORR was 7/13 (53.8%). At a 56.6-month median FU, median RFS and median OS were 42.5 (IQR: 12.9-61.2) months and NR (no death events) in patients with localized disease, and NR (IQR: 24.9 to NR) and 83.4 months (IQR: 83.4 to NR) in patients with advanced disease. In the "other-regimens group," responses were seen in 3/4 patients treated with oral cyclophosphamide and 1/2 with docetaxel/gemcitabine.

Conclusion: Anthracycline-based and MTX-V regimens are very effective in IMT, with a similar ORR in both groups. MTX-V achieved a prolonged disease control. Responses were also seen with oral cyclophosphamide and docetaxel/gemcitabine, but few patients were treated with these schedules.

Implications For Practice: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an ultrarare sarcoma with known sensitivity to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors in ALK-fused cases, although ALK inhibitors are not licensed in the disease. The current knowledge on the activity of cytotoxic chemotherapy is limited. This multi-institutional retrospective study on pediatric and adult patients with IMT shows that cytotoxic chemotherapy, and in particular anthracycline-based and methotrexate plus/minus vinorelbine/vinblastine regimens, represents a treatment option and can be considered in IMT patients irrespectively from ALK status. This study provides a benchmark for future studies on new medical therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648357PMC
November 2020

Activity and safety of the multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumour after treatment with imatinib and sunitinib: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase II trial 1317 'CaboGIST'.

Eur J Cancer 2020 07 26;134:62-74. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is commonly treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but most patients ultimately develop secondary resistance. Cabozantinib, a multi-targeted TKI inhibitor, has activity in patient-derived GIST mouse xenograft models and can overcome compensatory MET signalling occurring on TKI treatment. European Organisation for Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1317 'CaboGIST' assessed the safety and activity of cabozantinib in patients with GIST who had progressed on imatinib and sunitinib.

Methods: In this multi-center, open label, single arm phase II study, eligible GIST patients received oral cabozantinib (60 mg) once daily. Primary end-point was the progression-free survival rate at 12 weeks assessed by the local investigator per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours 1·1. If at least 21 of the first 41 eligible and evaluable patients were progression-free at week 12, the activity of cabozantinib was sufficient to warrant further exploration according to the A'Hern one-stage study design.

Findings: A total of 50 eligible patients started treatment between 02/2017 and 08/2018, including four (8%) still continuing cabozantinib at clinical cut-off (09/2019). The number of 3-weekly treatment cycles ranged from 1 to 30. Among the first 41 eligible and evaluable patients, 24 were progression-free at week 12 (58·5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42·0-74·0%). Among all 50 patients, 30 were progression-free at week 12 (60%, 95% CI 45-74%). Seven patients achieved a partial response (14%, 95% CI 6-27%), and 34 had stable disease (68%, 95% CI 53-80%) as best response. Progression was seen in eight patients (16%, 95% CI 7-29%), and one was not evaluable. Disease control was achieved in 41 patients (82%, 95% CI 69-91%). Median progression-free survival was 5·5 months (95% CI 3·6-6·9). The most common adverse events were diarrhoea (76%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (60%), fatigue (50%), hypertension (42%), weight loss (40%) and oral mucositis (30%), with 32 (64%) patients requiring dose reductions, 27 (54%) having treatment interruptions and no cabozantinib-related deaths observed.

Interpretation: EORTC 1317 met its primary end-point, with 24/41 patients being progression-free at week 12 of treatment. The objective response was 14% with an encouraging disease control rate of 82%. Results of this trial confirm preclinical findings and warrant further exploration of cabozantinib in GIST.

Clinical Trial Numbers: EORTC 1317, NCT02216578, EudraCT 2014-000501-13.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.04.021DOI Listing
July 2020

How to Design a Remote Patient Monitoring System? A French Case Study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 19;20(1):434. Epub 2020 May 19.

Capri program, Research Division, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Remote Patient Monitoring Systems (RPMS) based on e-health, Nurse Navigators (NNs) and patient engagement can improve patient follow-up and have a positive impact on quality of care (by limiting adverse events) and costs (by reducing readmissions). However, the extent of this impact depends on effective implementation which is often restricted. This is partly due to the lack of attention paid to the RPMS design phase prior to implementation. The content of the RPMS can be carefully designed at this stage and various obstacles anticipated. Our aim was to report on an RPMS design case to provide insights into the methodology required in order to manage this phase.

Methods: This study was carried out at Gustave Roussy, a comprehensive cancer centre, in France. A multidisciplinary team coordinated the CAPRI RPMS design process (2013-2015) that later produced positive outcomes. Data were collected during eight studies conducted according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework. This project was approved by the French National Data Protection Authorities.

Results: Based on the study results, the multidisciplinary team defined strategies for resolving obstacles prior to the implementation of CAPRI. Consequently, the final CAPRI design includes a web app with two interfaces (patient and health care professionals) and two NNs. The NNs provide regular follow-up via telephone or email to manage patients' symptoms and toxicity, treatment compliance and care packages. Patients contact the NNs via a secure messaging system. Eighty clinical decision support tools enable NNs to prioritise and decide on the course of action to be taken.

Conclusion: In our experience, the RPMS design process and, more generally, that of any complex intervention programme, is an important phase that requires a sound methodological basis. This study is also consistent with the notion that an RPMS is more than a technological innovation. This is indeed an organizational innovation, and principles identified during the design phase can help in the effective use of a RPMS (e.g. locating NNs if possible within the care organization; recruiting NNs with clinical and managerial skills; defining algorithms for clinical decision support tools for assessment, but also for patient decision and orientation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05293-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236289PMC
May 2020

Phase I Study of the Mutant IDH1 Inhibitor Ivosidenib: Safety and Clinical Activity in Patients With Advanced Chondrosarcoma.

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 24;38(15):1693-1701. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Purpose: Surgery is the primary therapy for localized chondrosarcoma; for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease, no known effective systemic therapy exists. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes occur in up to 65% of chondrosarcomas, resulting in accumulation of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Ivosidenib (AG-120) is a selective inhibitor of mutant IDH1 approved in the United States for specific cases of acute myeloid leukemia. We report outcomes of patients with advanced chondrosarcoma in an ongoing study exploring ivosidenib treatment.

Patients And Methods: This phase I multicenter open-label dose-escalation and expansion study of ivosidenib monotherapy enrolled patients with mutant advanced solid tumors, including chondrosarcoma. Ivosidenib was administered orally (100 mg twice daily to 1,200 mg once daily) in continuous 28-day cycles. Responses were assessed every other cycle using RECIST (version 1.1).

Results: Twenty-one patients (escalation, n = 12; expansion, n = 9) with advanced chondrosarcoma received ivosidenib (women, n = 8; median age, 55 years; range, 30-88 years; 11 had received prior systemic therapy). Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were mostly grade 1 or 2. Twelve patients experienced grade ≥ 3 AEs; only one event was judged treatment related (hypophosphatemia, n = 1). Plasma 2-HG levels decreased substantially in all patients (range, 14%-94.2%), to levels seen in healthy individuals. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months (95% CI, 1.9 to 7.4 months); the PFS rate at 6 months was 39.5%. Eleven (52%) of 21 patients experienced stable disease.

Conclusion: In patients with chondrosarcoma, ivosidenib showed minimal toxicity, substantial 2-HG reduction, and durable disease control. Future studies of ivosidenib monotherapy or rational combination approaches should be considered in patients with advanced mutant chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238491PMC
May 2020

Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies used in oncology: what's new?

Eur J Cancer 2020 03 20;128:103-106. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Department of Pharmacology, Villejuif, F-94805, France; University Paris-Saclay, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chatenay-Malabry, F-92290, France. Electronic address:

Monoclonal antibodies in oncology, used as targeted molecular therapy, linked to cytotoxic compound or directed against immune checkpoints, feature complex PKs essentially determined by their physicochemical characteristics. The increasing number of studies shows the existence of Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships for many of them. Although more studies, especially conducted in early clinical phases, are needed, existing studies highlight the need to integrate PK data for monoclonal antibodies in all phases of their development and the therapeutic management of patients with cancer. The current challenge is to identify non-responders as soon as possible. The use of monoclonal antibody dosage to determine the patient's PK profile and, as a result, the disease activity profile could therefore be an early predictive marker to help physicians optimise the strategy to be pursued, including dose adjustment, prolongation of the dose interval or even discontinuation of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.01.004DOI Listing
March 2020