Publications by authors named "Olivier Levy"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficient 5-OP-RU-Induced Enrichment of Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells in the Murine Lung Does Not Enhance Control of Aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

Infect Immun 2020 12 15;89(1). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA

Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T cell subset in mammals that recognize microbial vitamin B metabolites presented by the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)-related molecule, MR1. Emerging data suggest that MAIT cells may be an attractive target for vaccine-induced protection against bacterial infections because of their rapid cytotoxic responses at mucosal services to a widely conserved bacterial ligand. In this study, we tested whether a MAIT cell priming strategy could protect against aerosol infection in mice. Intranasal costimulation with the lipopeptide Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/6 agonist, Pam2Cys (P2C), and the synthetic MR1 ligand, 5-OP-RU, resulted in robust expansion of MAIT cells in the lung. Although MAIT cell priming significantly enhanced MAIT cell activation and expansion early after challenge, these MAIT cells did not restrict bacterial load. MAIT cells were depleted by the onset of the adaptive immune response, with decreased detection of granzyme B and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) MAIT cells relative to that in uninfected P2C/5-OP-RU-treated mice. Decreasing the infectious inoculum, varying the time between priming and aerosol infection, and testing MAIT cell priming in nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2)-deficient mice all failed to reveal an effect of P2C/5-OP-RU-induced MAIT cells on control. We conclude that intranasal MAIT cell priming in mice induces early MAIT cell activation and expansion after exposure, without attenuating growth, suggesting that MAIT cell enrichment in the lung is not sufficient to control infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00524-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927919PMC
December 2020

TOX is a critical regulator of tumour-specific T cell differentiation.

Nature 2019 07 17;571(7764):270-274. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Tumour-specific CD8 T cell dysfunction is a differentiation state that is distinct from the functional effector or memory T cell states. Here we identify the nuclear factor TOX as a crucial regulator of the differentiation of tumour-specific T (TST) cells. We show that TOX is highly expressed in dysfunctional TST cells from tumours and in exhausted T cells during chronic viral infection. Expression of TOX is driven by chronic T cell receptor stimulation and NFAT activation. Ectopic expression of TOX in effector T cells in vitro induced a transcriptional program associated with T cell exhaustion. Conversely, deletion of Tox in TST cells in tumours abrogated the exhaustion program: Tox-deleted TST cells did not upregulate genes for inhibitory receptors (such as Pdcd1, Entpd1, Havcr2, Cd244 and Tigit), the chromatin of which remained largely inaccessible, and retained high expression of transcription factors such as TCF-1. Despite their normal, 'non-exhausted' immunophenotype, Tox-deleted TST cells remained dysfunctional, which suggests that the regulation of expression of inhibitory receptors is uncoupled from the loss of effector function. Notably, although Tox-deleted CD8 T cells differentiated normally to effector and memory states in response to acute infection, Tox-deleted TST cells failed to persist in tumours. We hypothesize that the TOX-induced exhaustion program serves to prevent the overstimulation of T cells and activation-induced cell death in settings of chronic antigen stimulation such as cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1324-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698992PMC
July 2019

Complement Factor H Inhibits CD47-Mediated Resolution of Inflammation.

Immunity 2017 02;46(2):261-272

Institut de la Vision, 17 rue Moreau, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Variants of the CFH gene, encoding complement factor H (CFH), show strong association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness. Here, we used murine models of AMD to examine the contribution of CFH to disease etiology. Cfh deletion protected the mice from the pathogenic subretinal accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) that characterize AMD and showed accelerated resolution of inflammation. MP persistence arose secondary to binding of CFH to CD11b, which obstructed the homeostatic elimination of MPs from the subretinal space mediated by thrombospsondin-1 (TSP-1) activation of CD47. The AMD-associated CFH(H402) variant markedly increased this inhibitory effect on microglial cells, supporting a causal link to disease etiology. This mechanism is not restricted to the eye, as similar results were observed in a model of acute sterile peritonitis. Pharmacological activation of CD47 accelerated resolution of both subretinal and peritoneal inflammation, with implications for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2017.01.006DOI Listing
February 2017

APOE Isoforms Control Pathogenic Subretinal Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

J Neurosci 2015 Oct;35(40):13568-76

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U 968, Paris, F-75012, France, Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 06, Unité Mixte de Recherche S 968, Institut de la Vision, Paris, F-75012, France, CNRS, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7210, Paris, F-75012, France,

Unlabelled: Contrary to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the APOE2 allele increases and the APOE4 allele reduces the risk to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared with the most common APOE3 allele. The underlying mechanism for this association with AMD and the reason for the puzzling difference with AD are unknown. We previously demonstrated that pathogenic subretinal mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) accumulate in Cx3cr1-deficient mice due to the overexpression of APOE, interleukin-6, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). We here show using targeted replacement mice expressing the human APOE isoforms (TRE2, TRE3, and TRE4) that MPs of TRE2 mice express increased levels of APOE, interleukin-6, and CCL2 and develop subretinal MP accumulation, photoreceptor degeneration, and exaggerated choroidal neovascularization similar to AMD. Pharmacological inhibition of the cytokine induction inhibited the pathogenic subretinal inflammation. In the context of APOE-dependent subretinal inflammation in Cx3cr1(GFP/GFP) mice, the APOE4 allele led to diminished APOE and CCL2 levels and protected Cx3cr1(GFP/GFP) mice against harmful subretinal MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1(GFP/GFP)TRE3 mice. Our study shows that pathogenic subretinal inflammation is APOE isoform-dependent and provides the rationale for the previously unexplained implication of the APOE2 isoform as a risk factor and the APOE4 isoform as a protective factor in AMD pathogenesis.

Significance Statement: The understanding of how genetic predisposing factors, which play a major role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), participate in its pathogenesis is an important clue to decipher the pathomechanism and develop efficient therapies. In this study, we used transgenic, targeted replacement mice that carry the three human APOE isoform-defining sequences at the mouse APOE chromosomal location and express the human APOE isoforms. Our study is the first to show how APOE2 provokes and APOE4 inhibits the cardinal AMD features, inflammation, degeneration, and exaggerated neovascularization. Our findings reflect the clinical association of the genetic predisposition that was recently confirmed in a major pooled analysis. They emphasize the role of APOE in inflammation and inflammation in AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2468-15.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6605380PMC
October 2015

Upregulation of P2RX7 in Cx3cr1-Deficient Mononuclear Phagocytes Leads to Increased Interleukin-1β Secretion and Photoreceptor Neurodegeneration.

J Neurosci 2015 May;35(18):6987-96

INSERM, U 968, Paris F-75012, France, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR S 968, Institut de la Vision, Paris, F-75012, France, CNRS, UMR 7210, Paris, F-75012, France,

Photoreceptor degeneration in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with an infiltration and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We have previously shown that Cx3cr1-deficient mice develop age- and stress- related subretinal accumulation of MPs, which is associated with photoreceptor degeneration. Cx3cr1-deficient MPs have been shown to increase neuronal apoptosis through IL-1β in neuroinflammation of the brain. The reason for increased IL-1β secretion from Cx3cr1-deficient MPs, and whether IL-1β is responsible for increased photoreceptor apoptosis in Cx3cr1-deficient mice, has not been elucidated. Here we show that Cx3cr1-deficient MPs express increased surface P2X7 receptor (P2RX7), which stimulates IL-1β maturation and secretion. P2RX7 and IL-1β inhibition efficiently blunted Cx3cr1-MP-dependent photoreceptor apoptosis in a monocyte/retina coculture system and in light-induced subretinal inflammation of Cx3cr1-deficient mice in vivo. Our results provide an explanation for increased CX3CR1-dependent IL-1β secretion and suggest that IL-1β or P2RX7 inhibition can help inhibit the inflammation-associated photoreceptor cell loss in late AMD, including geographic atrophy, for which no efficient treatment currently exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3955-14.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6605270PMC
May 2015

Apolipoprotein E promotes subretinal mononuclear phagocyte survival and chronic inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

EMBO Mol Med 2015 Feb;7(2):211-26

INSERM, Paris, France UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR_S 968 Institut de la Vision, Paris, France Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts INSERM-DHOS CIC 503, Paris, France

Physiologically, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses immunosuppressive signals such as FAS ligand (FASL), which prevents the accumulation of leukocytes in the subretinal space. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a breakdown of the subretinal immunosuppressive environment and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We show that subretinal MPs in AMD patients accumulate on the RPE and express high levels of APOE. MPs of Cx3cr1(-/-) mice that develop MP accumulation on the RPE, photoreceptor degeneration, and increased choroidal neovascularization similarly express high levels of APOE. ApoE deletion in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice prevents pathogenic age- and stress-induced subretinal MP accumulation. We demonstrate that increased APOE levels induce IL-6 in MPs via the activation of the TLR2-CD14-dependent innate immunity receptor cluster. IL-6 in turn represses RPE FasL expression and prolongs subretinal MP survival. This mechanism may account, in part, for the MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice. Our results underline the inflammatory role of APOE in sterile inflammation in the immunosuppressive subretinal space. They provide rationale for the implication of IL-6 in AMD and open avenues toward therapies inhibiting pathogenic chronic inflammation in late AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201404524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4328649PMC
February 2015

CCR2(+) monocytes infiltrate atrophic lesions in age-related macular disease and mediate photoreceptor degeneration in experimental subretinal inflammation in Cx3cr1 deficient mice.

EMBO Mol Med 2013 11 21;5(11):1775-93. Epub 2013 Oct 21.

Inserm, U 968, Paris, France; UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France; Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, INSERM-DHOS CIC 503, Paris, France; Hôtel Dieu, Service d'Ophtalmologie, Centre de Recherche Ophtalmologique, Paris, France.

Atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the subretinal accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). Their role in promoting or inhibiting retinal degeneration is unknown. We here show that atrophic AMD is associated with increased intraocular CCL2 levels and subretinal CCR2(+) inflammatory monocyte infiltration in patients. Using age- and light-induced subretinal inflammation and photoreceptor degeneration in Cx3cr1 knockout mice, we show that subretinal Cx3cr1 deficient MPs overexpress CCL2 and that both the genetic deletion of CCL2 or CCR2 and the pharmacological inhibition of CCR2 prevent inflammatory monocyte recruitment, MP accumulation and photoreceptor degeneration in vivo. Our study shows that contrary to CCR2 and CCL2, CX3CR1 is constitutively expressed in the retina where it represses the expression of CCL2 and the recruitment of neurotoxic inflammatory CCR2(+) monocytes. CCL2/CCR2 inhibition might represent a powerful tool for controlling inflammation and neurodegeneration in AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/emmm.201302692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840491PMC
November 2013

Delta-like 4 inhibits choroidal neovascularization despite opposing effects on vascular endothelium and macrophages.

Angiogenesis 2012 Dec 7;15(4):609-22. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, UMR S 872, 75006, Paris, France.

Inflammatory neovascularization, such as choroidal neovascularization (CNV), occur in the presence of Notch expressing macrophages. DLL4s anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells (EC) has been widely recognized, but its influence on Notch signaling on macrophages and its overall effect in inflammatory neovascularization is not well understood. We identified macrophages and ECs as the main Notch 1 and Notch 4 expressing cells in CNV. A soluble fraction spanning Ser28-Pro525 of the murine extracellular DLL4 domain (sDLL4/28-525) activated the Notch pathway, as it induces Notch target genes in macrophages and ECs and inhibited EC proliferation and vascular sprouting in aortic rings. In contrast, sDLL4/28-525 increased pro-angiogenic VEGF, and IL-1β expression in macrophages responsible for increased vascular sprouting observed in aortic rings incubated in conditioned media from sDLL4/28-525 stimulated macrophages. In vivo, Dll4(+/-) mice developed significantly more CNV and sDLL4/28-525 injections inhibited CNV in Dll4(+/-) CD1 mice. Similarly, sDLL4/28-525 inhibited CNV in C57Bl6 and its effect was reversed by a γ-secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch signaling. The inhibition occurred despite increased VEGF, IL-1β expression in infiltrating inflammatory macrophages in sDLL4/28-525 treated mice and might be due to direct inhibition of EC proliferation in laser-induced CNV as demonstrated by EdU labelling in vivo. In conclusion, Notch activation on macrophages and ECs leads to opposing effects in inflammatory neovascularization in situations such as CNV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-012-9290-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3496480PMC
December 2012

Interleukin-1β inhibition prevents choroidal neovascularization and does not exacerbate photoreceptor degeneration.

Am J Pathol 2011 May;178(5):2416-23

INSERM, UMR S 872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β has been shown to promote angiogenesis. It can have a neurotoxic or neuroprotective effect. Here, we have studied the expression of IL-1β in vivo and the effect of the IL-1 receptor antagonist on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and retinal degeneration (RD). IL-1β expression significantly increased after laser injury (real time PCR) in C57BL/6 mice, in the C57BL/6 Cx3cr1(-/-) model of age-related macular degeneration (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay), and in albino Wistar rats and albino BALB Cx3cr1(+/+) and Cx3cr1(-/-) mice (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) after light injury. IL-1β was localized to Ly6G-positive, Iba1-negative infiltrating neutrophils in laser-induced CNV as determined by IHC. IL-1 receptor antagonist treatment significantly inhibited CNV but did not affect Iba1-positive macrophage recruitment to the injury site. IL-1β significantly increased endothelial cell outgrowth in aortic ring assay independently of vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting a direct effect of IL-1β on choroidal endothelial cell proliferation. Inhibition of IL-1β in light- and laser-induced RD models did not alter photoreceptor degeneration in Wistar rats, C57BL/6 mice, or RD-prone Cx3cr1(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that IL-1β inhibition might represent a valuable and safe alternative to inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor in the control of CNV in the context of concomitant photoreceptor degeneration as observed in age-related macular degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081145PMC
May 2011
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