Publications by authors named "Olivier G Rousset"

9 Publications

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Deconvolution-based partial volume correction of PET images with parallel level set regularization.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 9;66(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

The partial volume effect (PVE), caused by the limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET), degrades images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Anatomical information provided by magnetic resonance (MR) images has the potential to play an important role in partial volume correction (PVC) methods. Post-reconstruction MR-guided PVC methods typically use segmented MR tissue maps, and further, assume that PET activity distribution is uniform in each region, imposing considerable constraints through anatomical guidance. In this work, we present a post-reconstruction PVC method based on deconvolution with parallel level set (PLS) regularization. We frame the problem as an iterative deconvolution task with PLS regularization that incorporates anatomical information without requiring MR segmentation or assuming uniformity of PET distributions within regions. An efficient algorithm for non-smooth optimization of the objective function (invoking split Bregman framework) is developed so that the proposed method can be feasibly applied to 3D images and produces sharper images compared to PLS method with smooth optimization. The proposed method was evaluated together with several other PVC methods using both realistic simulation experiments based on the BrainWeb phantom as well ashuman data. Our proposed method showed enhanced quantitative performance when realistic MR guidance was provided. Further, the proposed method is able to reduce image noise while preserving structure details onhuman data, and shows the potential to better differentiate amyloid positive and amyloid negative scans. Overall, our results demonstrate promise to provide superior performance in clinical imaging scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac0d8fDOI Listing
July 2021

In vivo hippocampal cornu ammonis 1-3 glutamatergic abnormalities are associated with temporal lobe epilepsy surgery outcomes.

Epilepsia 2021 Jul 31;62(7):1559-1568. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montréal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objective: Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies using [ C]ABP688 show reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) allosteric binding site availability in the epileptogenic hippocampus of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients. However, the link between mGluR5 abnormalities and postsurgical outcomes remains unclear. Here, we test whether reduced PET [ C]ABP688 binding in cornu ammonis (CA) sectors more vulnerable to glutamatergic excitotoxicity relates to surgical outcomes.

Methods: We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [ C]ABP688-PET from 31 unilateral MTLE patients and 30 healthy controls. MRI hippocampal subfields were segmented using FreeSurfer. To respect the lower PET special resolution, MRI-derived anatomical subfields were combined into CA1-3, CA4/dentate gyrus, and Subiculum. Partial volume corrected [ C]ABP688 nondisplaceable binding potential (BP ) values were averaged across each subfield, and Z-scores were calculated. Subfield [ C]ABP688-BP was compared between seizure-free and non-seizure-free patients. In addition, we also assessed subfield volumes and [ F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in each clinical group.

Results: MTLE [ C]ABP688-BP was reduced in ipsilateral (epileptogenic) CA1-3 and CA4/dentate-gyrus (p < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .29-.51) compared to controls, with no difference in Subiculum. [ C]ABP688-BP and subfield volumes were compared between seizure-free (Engel IA, n = 13) and non-seizure-free patients (Engel IC-III, n = 10). In ipsilateral CA1-3 only, [ C]ABP688-BP was lower in seizure-free patients than in non-seizure-free patients (p = .012, 95% CI = 1.46-11.0) independently of volume. A subset analysis of 12 patients with [ C]ABP688-PET+[ F]FDG-PET showed no between-group significant difference in [ F]FDG uptake, whereas CA1-3 [ C]ABP688-BP remained significantly lower in the seven of 12 seizure-free patients (p = .03, 95% CI = -3.13 to -.21).

Significance: Reduced mGluR5 allosteric site availability in hippocampal CA1-3, measured in vivo by [ C]ABP688-PET, is associated with postsurgery seizure freedom independent of atrophy or hypometabolism. Information derived from hippocampal CA1-3 [ C]ABP688-PET is a promising imaging biomarker potentially impactful in surgical decisions for MRI-negative/PET-negative MTLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16952DOI Listing
July 2021

Large-scale mGluR5 network abnormalities linked to epilepsy duration in focal cortical dysplasia.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 29;29:102552. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

To determine the extent of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) network abnormalities associated with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), we performed graph theoretical analysis of [C]ABP688 PET binding potentials (BP), which allows for quantification of mGluR5 availability. Undirected graphs were constructed for the entire cortex in 17 FCD patients and 33 healthy controls using inter-regional similarity of [C]ABP688 BP. We assessed group differences in network integration between healthy controls and the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres of FCD patients. Compared to healthy controls, FCD patients showed reduced network efficiency and reduced small-world connectivity. The mGluR5 network of FCD patients was also less resilient to targeted removal of high centrality nodes, suggesting a less integrated network organization. In highly efficient hub nodes of FCD patients, we observed a significant negative correlation between local efficiency and duration of epilepsy only in the contralateral hemisphere, suggesting that some nodes may be more vulnerable to persistent epileptic activity. Our study provides the first in vivo evidence for a widespread reduction in cortical mGluR5 network integration in FCD patients. In addition, we find that ongoing epileptic activity may alter chemoarchitectural brain organization resulting in reduced efficiency in distant regions that are essential for network integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787952PMC
June 2021

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 5 (mGluR5) Cortical Abnormalities in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Identified In Vivo With [11C]ABP688 Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging.

Cereb Cortex 2016 10;26(11):4170-4179

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4.

Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) abnormalities have been described in tissue resected from epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). To determine if these abnormalities could be identified in vivo, we investigated mGluR5 availability in 10 patients with focal epilepsy and an MRI diagnosis of FCD using positron-emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand [11C]ABP688. Partial volume corrected [11C]ABP688 binding potentials (BPND) were computed using the cerebellum as a reference region. Each patient was compared to homotopic cortical regions in 33 healthy controls using region-of-interest (ROI) and vertex-wise analyses. Reduced [11C]ABP688 BPND in the FCD was seen in 7/10 patients with combined ROI and vertex-wise analyses. Reduced FCD BPND was found in 4/5 operated patients (mean follow-up: 63 months; Engel I), of whom surgical specimens revealed FCD type IIb or IIa, with most balloon cells showing negative or weak mGluR5 immunoreactivity as compared to their respective neuropil and normal neurons at the border of resections. [11C]ABP688 PET shows for the first time in vivo evidence of reduced mGluR5 availability in FCD, indicating focal glutamatergic alterations in malformations of cortical development, which cannot be otherwise clearly demonstrated through resected tissue analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5066831PMC
October 2016

Characterization of age/sex and the regional distribution of mGluR5 availability in the healthy human brain measured by high-resolution [(11)C]ABP688 PET.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2016 Jan 21;43(1):152-162. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Room 786, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada.

Purpose: Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. The radiopharmaceutical [(11)C]ABP688 allows for in vivo quantification of mGluR5 availability using positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we aimed to detail the regional distribution of [(11)C]ABP688 binding potential (BPND) and the existence of age/sex effects in healthy individuals.

Methods: Thirty-one healthy individuals aged 20 to 77 years (men, n = 18, 45.3 ± 18.2 years; females, n = 13, 41.5 ± 19.6 years) underwent imaging with [(11)C]ABP688 using the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT). We developed an advanced partial volume correction (PVC) method using surface-based analysis in order to accurately estimate the regional variation of radioactivity. BPND was calculated using the simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellum as the reference region. Surface-based and volume-based analyses were performed for 39 cortical and subcortical regions of interest per hemisphere.

Results: We found the highest [(11)C]ABP688 BPND in the lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The lowest [(11)C]ABP688 BPND was observed in the pre- and post-central gyri as well as the occipital lobes and the thalami. No sex effect was observed. Associations between age and [(11)C]ABP688 BPND without PVC were observed in the right amygdala and left putamen, but were not significant after multiple comparisons correction.

Conclusions: The present results highlight complexities underlying brain adaptations during the aging process, and support the notion that certain aspects of neurotransmission remain stable during the adult life span.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3167-6DOI Listing
January 2016

Accurate event-driven motion compensation in high-resolution PET incorporating scattered and random events.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2008 Aug;27(8):1018-33

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

With continuing improvements in spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, small patient movements during PET imaging become a significant source of resolution degradation. This work develops and investigates a comprehensive formalism for accurate motion-compensated reconstruction which at the same time is very feasible in the context of high-resolution PET. In particular, this paper proposes an effective method to incorporate presence of scattered and random coincidences in the context of motion (which is similarly applicable to various other motion correction schemes). The overall reconstruction framework takes into consideration missing projection data which are not detected due to motion, and additionally, incorporates information from all detected events, including those which fall outside the field-of-view following motion correction. The proposed approach has been extensively validated using phantom experiments as well as realistic simulations of a new mathematical brain phantom developed in this work, and the results for a dynamic patient study are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2008.917248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920454PMC
August 2008

Design and implementation of an automated partial volume correction in PET: application to dopamine receptor quantification in the normal human striatum.

J Nucl Med 2008 Jul 13;49(7):1097-106. Epub 2008 Jun 13.

Section of High Resolution Brain PET Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

Unlabelled: The considerable effort and potential lack of reproducibility of human-driven PET quantification and partial volume correction (PVC) can be alleviated by use of atlas-based automatic analysis. The present study examined the application of a new algorithm designed to automatically define 3-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) and their effect on dopamine receptor quantification in the normal human brain striatum, both without and with PVC.

Methods: A total of 90 healthy volunteers (age range, 18-46 y) received a single injection of (11)C-raclopride, and automatic segmentation of concomitant structural MR images was performed using a maximum-probability atlas in combination with a trained neural network. For each identified tissue segment considered homogeneous for the tracer (or volumes of interest [VOIs]), an a priori criterion based on minimum axial recovery coefficient (RC(zmin) = 50%, 75%, and 90%) was used to constrain the extent of each ROI.

Results: With ROIs essentially overlapping the entire VOI volume (obtained with RC(zmin) = 50%), the binding potential (BP(ND)) of (11)C-raclopride was found to be around 2.2 for caudate and 2.9 for putamen, an underestimation by 35% and 28%, respectively, according to PVC values. At increased RC(zmin), BP(ND) estimates of (11)C-raclopride were increased by 12% and 21% for caudate and 8% and 15% for putamen when the associated ROIs decreased to around 65% and 43% of total tissue volume (VOI) for caudate and 67% and 31% for putamen. After PVC, we observed relative increases in BP(ND) variance of 12% for caudate and 20% for putamen, whereas estimated BP(ND) values all increased to 3.4 for caudate and 4.0 for putamen, regardless of ROI size. Dopamine receptor concentrations appeared less heterogeneous in the normal human striatum after PVC than they did without PVC: the 25%-30% difference in BP(ND) estimates observed between caudate and putamen remained significant after PVC but was reduced to slightly less than 20%. Furthermore, the results were comparable with those obtained with a manual method currently in use in our laboratory.

Conclusion: The new algorithm allows for traditional PET data extraction and PVC in an entirely automatic fashion, thus avoiding labor-intensive analyses and potential intra- or interobserver variability. This study also offers the first, to our knowledge, large-scale application of PVC to dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor imaging with (11)C-raclopride in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.107.048330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3104499PMC
July 2008

System matrix modelling of externally tracked motion.

Nucl Med Commun 2008 Jun;29(6):574-81

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.

Background And Aim: In high-resolution emission tomography imaging, even small patient movements can considerably degrade image quality. The aim of this work was to develop a general approach to motion-corrected reconstruction of motion-contaminated data in the case of rigid motion (particularly brain imaging) which would be applicable to any PET scanner in the field, without specialized data-acquisition requirements.

Methods: Assuming the ability to externally track subject motion during scanning (e.g., using the Polaris camera), we proposed to incorporate the measured rigid motion information into the system matrix of the expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm. Furthermore, we noted and developed a framework to incorporate the additional effect of motion on modifying the attenuation factors. A new mathematical brain phantom was developed and used along with elaborate combined Simset/GATE simulations to compare the proposed framework with the cases of no motion correction.

Results And Conclusion: Clear qualitative and quantitative improvements were observed when incorporating the proposed framework. The method is very practical to implement for any scanner in the field, not requiring any hardware modifications or access to the list-mode acquisition capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0b013e3282f5d2deDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914313PMC
June 2008

Positron emission tomography--a tool for identifying the effects of alcohol dependence on the brain.

Alcohol Res Health 2003 ;27(2):161-73

Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, John Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

To study alcohol's effects on the structure and function of the brain in living human beings, researchers can use various imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging approach used to study the metabolism and physiology of the brain. PET studies have found that both acute and chronic alcohol ingestion alter blood flow and metabolism in various brain regions, including the frontal lobes and cerebellum. Other analyses focusing on alcohol's effects on brain chemical (i.e., neurotransmitter) systems have found that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption alter the activities of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin. These alterations may contribute to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of alcohol as well as to symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Imaging studies also have demonstrated that some of alcohol's adverse effects on brain function can be reversed by abstinence or alcoholism treatment interventions. In addition, imaging studies may help in the development of new medications for alcoholism treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668888PMC
August 2004