Publications by authors named "Olivier Chazouillères"

132 Publications

Predictive Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis B Using Structural Equation Modeling: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 27:101713. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Digestive Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, INSERM U1065-8, Nice, France.

Background & Aims: The factors predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in chronic hepatitis B need to be precisely known to improve its detection. We identified pathways and individual predictive factors associated with HCC in the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER cohort.

Methods: The study analyzed HBV-infected patients recruited at 32 French expert hepatology centers from August 6, 2012, to December 31, 2015. We excluded patients with chronic HCV, HDV and a history of HCC, decompensated cirrhosis or liver transplantation. Structural equation models were developed to characterize the causal pathways leading to HCC occurrence. The association between clinical characteristics (age, gender, body-mass index, liver fibrosis, alcohol consumption, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alpha-fetoprotein, HBV DNA levels, antiviral therapy) and incident HCC was quantified.

Results: Among the 4,489 patients included, 33 patients reported incident HCC. The median follow-up was 45.2 months. Age (β = 0.18 by decade, 95% CI 0.14-0.23), male gender (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.18-0.29), metabolic syndrome (β = 0.28, 95% CI 0.22-0.33), alcohol consumption (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.05-0.14) and HBV DNA (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.17-0.34) had a significant and direct effect on the occurrence of advanced liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis (β = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.87) predicted, in turn, the occurrence of HCC.

Conclusions: Liver fibrosis mediates the effects of age, gender, alcohol, metabolic syndrome and HBV DNA on the occurrence of HCC. Elderly men with chronic hepatitis B, risky alcohol use, advanced liver fibrosis, metabolic syndrome and high HBV DNA levels should be monitored closely to detect the development of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101713DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of bezafibrate with transplant-free survival in patients with primary biliary cholangitis.

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis (MIVB-H), Saint-Antoine Hospital, European Reference (ERN) Network Rare-Liver, Saint-Antoine Research Center (CRSA), Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Beneficial effect of bezafibrate (BZF) on symptoms and biochemical features of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) with incomplete response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been reported but long-term efficacy on survival remains unknown. In Japan, BZF has been used as a de facto second-line therapy for PBC since 2000. Herein, we compared the survival rates between patients treated with and those without BZF in a large nationwide Japanese PBC cohort.

Methods: All consecutively-registered patients of this cohort who started UDCA therapy from 2000 onwards and had a follow-up ≥ 1 year were included. Association between BZF exposure and mortality or need for liver transplantation (LT) was assessed using time-dependent, multivariable-and propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Clinical benefit was quantified using the number needed to treat (NNT).

Results: Of 3908 eligible patients, 3162 (81%) received UDCA only and 746 (19%) UDCA and BZF over 17360 and 3932 patient-years, respectively. During follow-up, 183 deaths (89 liver-related) and 21 L T were registered. Exposure to combination therapy was associated with a significant decrease in all-cause and liver-related mortality or need for LT (adjusted hazard ratios: 0.3253, 95% CI 0.1936 - 0.5466 and 0.2748, 95% CI 0.1336 - 0.5655, respectively; p<0.001 for both). This association was consistent across various risk groups at baseline. The NNTs with combination therapy to prevent one additional death or LT in 5, 10, and 15 years were 29 (95% CI 22 - 46), 14 (10 - 22), and 8 (6 - 15), respectively.

Conclusions: In a large retrospective cohort study of treatment effects in patients with PBC, the addition of BZF to UDCA was associated with improved prognosis.

Lay Summary: The long-term efficacy of bezafibrate (BZF) on liver transplantation (LT) - free survival of patients with PBC with an incomplete response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) remains to be determined. In this Japanese nationwide retrospective cohort study, the use of UDCA-BZF combination therapy, compared to UDCA alone, was associated with lower risk in all-cause and liver-related mortality or need for LT. These results indicate that BZF is so far the only drug in PBC to have demonstrated efficacy in improving symptoms, biochemical markers, and long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.04.010DOI Listing
April 2021

Combination of fibrates with obeticholic acid is able to normalise biochemical liver tests in patients with difficult-to-treat primary biliary cholangitis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 May 25;53(10):1138-1146. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Paris, France.

Background: Obeticholic acid (OCA) and fibrates are second-line therapies for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA).

Aim: To know whether OCA and fibrates, administered together in combination with UDCA, have additive beneficial effects in patients with difficult-to-treat PBC.

Methods: PBC patients treated for ≥3 months with UDCA, OCA and fibrates (bezafibrate or fenofibrate) due to failure of either second-line therapy were included in a multicentre, uncontrolled retrospective cohort study. Changes in biochemical liver tests and pruritus were analysed using a generalised linear mixed-effect model.

Results: Among 58 patients included, half received OCA as second-line and fibrates as third-line therapy (Group OCA-Fibrate), while the other half had the inverse therapeutic sequence (Group Fibrate-OCA). The mean duration of triple therapy was 11 months (range 3-26). Compared to dual therapy, triple therapy was associated with a significant gain in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reduction: 22% per first year (95% CI 12%-31%), an effect that was stronger in OCA-Fibrate than in Fibrate-OCA group. Triple therapy was associated with a 3.4 (95% CI 1.4-8.2) odds ratio (OR) of reaching normal ALP and with a significant decrease in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin. The ORs of achieving the Paris-2 and Toronto criteria of adequate biochemical response were 6.8 (95% CI 2.8-16.7) and 9.2 (95% CI 3.4-25.1) respectively. Finally, triple therapy significantly improved pruritus in OCA-Fibrate but not in Fibrate-OCA group.

Conclusions: Triple therapy with UDCA, OCA and fibrates is able to normalise biochemical liver tests and improve pruritus in patients with difficult-to-treat PBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16336DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk factors of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation: a French national study on 11004 adult patients.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 11;45(4):101514. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Hôpital Jean Minjoz, Service d'Hépatologie et Soins Intensifs Digestifs, Besançon, France.

Background: After liver transplantation (LT),de novo malignancies are one of the leading causes of late mortality. The aim of the present retrospective study was to identify the risk factors of de novo malignancies in a large cohort of LT recipients in France, using Fine and Gray competing risks regression analysis.

Methods: The study population consisted in 11004 adults transplanted between 2000 and 2013, who had no history of pre-transplant malignancy, except primary liver tumor. A Cox model adapted to the identification of prognostic factors (competitive risks) was used.

Results: From the entire cohort, one (or more)de novo malignancy was reported in 1480 L T recipients (13.45%). The probability to develop a de novo malignancy after LT was 2.07% at 1 year, 13.30% at 5 years, and 28.01% at 10 years. Of the known reported malignancies, the most common malignancies were hematological malignancy (22.36%), non-melanoma skin cancer (19.53%) and lung cancer (12.36%). According to Fine and Gray competing risks regression multivariate analysis, were significant risk factors for post-LT de novo malignancy: recipient age (Subdistribution Hazard Ratio (SHR) = 1.03 95%CI 1.03-1.04), male gender (SHR = 1.45 95%CI 1.27-1.67), non-living donor (SHR = 1.67 95%CI 1.14-2.38), a first LT (SHR = 1.35 95%CI 1.09-1.69) and the type of initial liver disease (alcohol-related liver disease (SHR = 1.63 95%CI 1.22-2.17), primary sclerosing cholangitis (SHR = 1.98 95%CI 1.34-2.91), and primary liver tumor (SHR = 1.88 95%CI 1.41-2.54)). Initial immunosuppressive regimen had no significant impact.

Conclusion: The present study confirms that LT recipient characteristics are associated with the risk ofde novo malignancy and this underlines the need for personalized screening in order to improve survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.07.019DOI Listing
March 2021

Low-phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis syndrome: Prevalence, clinical features, and comorbidities.

JHEP Rep 2021 Apr 6;3(2):100201. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis, ERN RARE-LIVER, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background & Aims: Low-phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome, a rare genetic form of intrahepatic cholelithiasis in adults, is still poorly understood. We report the results of the largest-ever case-control study of patients with LPAC syndrome aiming to assess the prevalence, clinical features, and comorbidities of the disease.

Methods: We included all LPAC cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2016 in 11 French centres. Controls consisted of all patients who underwent a cholecystectomy for common gallstone disease in a single non-academic centre over 1 year. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical features associated with LPAC syndrome across several patient strata with increasing levels of diagnostic confidence. The ratio between the incident cases of LPAC syndrome and the total number of cholecystectomies for gallstones was used to assess the relative prevalence of the disease.

Results: In this study, 308 cases and 206 controls were included. LPAC syndrome accounted for 0.5-1.9% of all patients admitted with symptomatic gallstone disease. Age at first symptoms <40 years, absence of overweight, persistence of symptoms after cholecystectomy, intrahepatic micro- or macrolithiasis, common bile duct (CBD) lithiasis, and no history of cholecystitis were independently associated with LPAC diagnosis. ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 4 () variants, present in 46% of cases, were associated with CBD lithiasis, chronic elevation of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and personal or family history of hepato-biliary cancer.

Conclusions: In this case-control study, LPAC syndrome accounted for approximately 1% of symptomatic cholelithiasis in adults. In addition to pre-established diagnostic criteria, normal weight, CBD lithiasis, and no history of cholecystitis were significantly associated with the syndrome. gene variations in patients with LPAC were associated with CBD lithiasis, chronic cholestasis, and a personal or family history of hepato-biliary cancer.

Lay Summary: In the largest case-control study ever conducted in patients with LPAC syndrome, a rare genetic form of intrahepatic cholelithiasis in young adults, LPAC syndrome was found in approximately 1% of all patients admitted to the hospital for symptomatic gallstones and, in addition to the pre-established characteristics of the syndrome (age at first symptoms <40 years, recurrence of symptoms after cholecystectomy, and/or imaging evidence of intrahepatic microlithiasis), was associated with lower BMI, higher prevalence of common bile duct stones, and lower incidence of acute cholecystitis. gene variants, which were detected in about half of cases, were associated with common bile duct stones and a personal or family history of hepato-biliary cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2020.100201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848766PMC
April 2021

Early liver transplantation for corticosteroid non-responders with acute severe autoimmune hepatitis: The SURFASA score.

J Hepatol 2021 Jan 24. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

CHRU Lille, Hôpital Claude Huriez, Service des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, Lille, France.

Background & Aims: In acute severe autoimmune hepatitis (AS-AIH), the optimal timing for liver transplantation (LT) remains controversial. The objectives of this study were to determine early predictive factors for a non-response to corticosteroids and to propose a score to identify patients in whom LT is urgently indicated.

Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study (2009-2016). A diagnosis of AS-AIH was based on: i) Definite or probable AIH based on the simplified IAIHG score; ii) international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5 and/or bilirubin >200 μmol/L; iii) No previous history of AIH; iv) Histologically proven AIH. A treatment response was defined as LT-free survival at 90 days. The evolution of variables from corticosteroid initiation (day-D0) to D3 was estimated from: Δ%3 = (D3-D0)/D0.

Results: A total of 128 patients were included, with a median age of 52 (39-62) years; 72% were female. Overall survival reached 88%. One hundred and fifteen (90%) patients received corticosteroids, with a LT-free survival rate of 66% at 90 days. Under multivariate analysis, D0-INR (odds ratio [OR] 6.85; 95% CI 2.23-21.06; p <0.001), Δ%3-INR ≥0.1% (OR 6.97; 95% CI 1.59-30.46; p <0.01) and Δ%3-bilirubin ≥-8% (OR 5.14; 95% CI 1.09-24.28; p <0.04) were predictive of a non-response. The SURFASA score: -6.80+1.92∗(D0-INR)+1.94∗(Δ%3-INR)+1.64∗(Δ%3-bilirubin), created by combining these variables, was highly predictive of LT or death (AUC = 0.93) (88% specificity; 84% sensitivity) with a cut-off point of <-0.9. Below this cut-off, the chance of responding was 75%. With a score higher than 1.75, the risk of dying or being transplanted was between 85% and 100%.

Conclusion: In patients with AS-AIH, INR at the introduction of corticosteroids and the evolution of INR and bilirubin are predictive of LT or death. Within 3 days of initiating corticosteroids, the SURFASA score can identify non-responders who require a referral for LT. This score needs to be validated in a prospective cohort.

Lay Summary: The management of patients with acute severe autoimmune hepatitis is highly challenging, particularly regarding their early referral for liver transplantation. We found that international normalized ratio at the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and the evolution of international normalized ratio and bilirubin values after 3 days of therapy were highly predictive of liver transplantation or death. We are thus proposing a score that combines these variables and identifies patients in whom liver transplantation is urgently required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.12.033DOI Listing
January 2021

Assessment of hepatic steatosis by controlled attenuation parameter using the M and XL probes: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 03 16;6(3):185-198. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Hepatology Department, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: Diagnostic tools for liver disease can now include estimation of the grade of hepatic steatosis (S0 to S3). Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for assessing hepatic steatosis that has become available for patients who are obese (FibroScan XL probe), but a consensus has not yet been reached regarding cutoffs and its diagnostic performance. We aimed to assess diagnostic properties and identify relevant covariates with use of an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Methods: We did an individual patient data meta-analysis, in which we searched PubMed and Web of Science for studies published from database inception until April 30, 2019. Studies reporting original biopsy-controlled data of CAP for non-invasive grading of steatosis were eligible. Probe recommendation was based on automated selection, manual assessment of skin-to-liver-capsule distance, and a body-mass index (BMI) criterion. Receiver operating characteristic methods and mixed models were used to assess diagnostic properties and covariates. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were analysed separately because they are the predominant patient group when using the XL probe. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018099284.

Findings: 16 studies reported histology-controlled CAP including the XL probe, and individual data from 13 papers and 2346 patients were included. Patients with a mean age of 46·5 years (SD 14·5) were recruited from 20 centres in nine countries. 2283 patients had data for BMI; 673 (29%) were normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m), 530 (23%) were overweight (BMI ≥25 to <30 kg/m), and 1080 (47%) were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m). 1277 (54%) patients had NAFLD, 474 (20%) had viral hepatitis, 285 (12%) had alcohol-associated liver disease, and 310 (13%) had other liver disease aetiologies. The XL probe was recommended in 1050 patients, 930 (89%) of whom had NAFLD; among the patients with NAFLD, the areas under the curve were 0·819 (95% CI 0·769-0·869) for S0 versus S1 to S3 and 0·754 (0·720-0·787) for S0 to S1 versus S2 to S3. CAP values were independently affected by aetiology, diabetes, BMI, aspartate aminotransferase, and sex. Optimal cutoffs differed substantially across aetiologies. Risk of bias according to QUADAS-2 was low.

Interpretation: CAP cutoffs varied according to cause, and can effectively recognise significant steatosis in patients with viral hepatitis. CAP cannot grade steatosis in patients with NAFLD adequately, but its value in a NAFLD screening setting needs to be studied, ideally with methods beyond the traditional histological reference standard.

Funding: The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Echosens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30357-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Simplified care-pathway selection for nonspecialist practice: the GLOBAL Primary Biliary Cholangitis Study Group Age, Bilirubin, Alkaline phosphatase risk assessment tool.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Toronto Centre for Liver Disease, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Opportunity to redefine the care journeys for those living with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) includes facilitating access to enhanced (PBC-dedicated) programmes by nonspecialist risk 'flagging' of patients.

Objective: To develop a nonexpert PBC stratification tool to help care pathway choices (standard vs. enhanced) choices in PBC.

Methods: We included ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients with PBC from the Global PBC Study Group. The performance of baseline and 1-year clinical markers with transplant-free survival was assessed to develop the 'ABA' tool using Age (A), Bilirubin (B), and Alkaline phosphatase (A). Added value of fibrosis estimation was assessed.

Results: 'ABA' classification mapped three risk groups (n = 2226): low [Age > 50 years, bilirubin ≤ 1 × ULN, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 3 × ULN], high (Age ≤ 50 years, bilirubin > 1 × ULN, ALP > 3 × ULN), and intermediate (other). Transplant-free survival at 10 years in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89, 77, and 59% at baseline and 86, 76, and 40% at 1 year, respectively. We propose that high-risk patients at baseline be directly triaged to enhanced (PBC-dedicated) care and the remaining be reassessed at 1 year. Modelling showed after 1 year 46% patients were proposed to enhanced care and 54% to standard care. The 'ABA' mapped pathways facilitated identification of patients at risk based on a young age, as compared to traditional liver biochemical stratification. In patients proposed to standard care, estimated fibrosis stage had ongoing prognostic value.

Conclusion: Nonspecialist use of the 'ABA' risk tool could prioritize care journey choices for patients with PBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002029DOI Listing
December 2020

Management of primary biliary cholangitis: results from a large real-life observational study in France and Belgium.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis, French Network for Rare Liver Diseases in Adults and Children (FILFOIE), European Reference Network Rare-Liver, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background And Aims: To assess the characteristics, care, treatment response, and outcomes of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients recently followed-up by hepato-gastroenterologists in various French and Belgian healthcare settings.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with PBC who recently visited 79 hepato-gastroenterologists in France and Belgium. Data were collected at the time of diagnosis and at last visit and were compared according to biochemical response (BR) to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (BR), using Paris I-II criteria, and clinical outcomes.

Results: A total of 436 patients (mean age at diagnosis 57 years, 88% females, median follow-up 5.2 years) were included. Liver biopsy, transient elastography, or none of these two procedures were performed at baseline in 216 (50%), 194 (45%), and 107 (25%) patients, respectively. Late-stage disease (histological stage III or IV, or transient elastography ≥9.6 kPa, or bilirubin >17 µM and albumin <35 g/L, or platelets <150.000/µl, or unequivocal signs of portal hypertension or cirrhosis) was reported in 37% of patients. UDCA was taken by 95% of patients (27% had suboptimal dosage). Inadequate BR was observed in 37% of patients. Clinicians overestimated disease control. Liver-related complications occurred in 9% of patients. Bilirubin and albumin independently predicted inadequate BR; advanced disease stage and inadequate BR independently predicted complications.

Conclusions: Recently followed-up French and Belgian patients with PBC had homogeneous management. Late stage at diagnosis and inadequate BR were reported in around 40% of patients. Disease control was frequently overestimated by clinicians. Disease stage and BR were the main prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002011DOI Listing
November 2020

Origin, HDV genotype and persistent viremia determine outcome and treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis delta.

J Hepatol 2020 11 4;73(5):1046-1062. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

AP-HP, Hôpital Avicenne, Laboratoire de microbiologie clinique, Université Paris 13, Centre national de référence des hépatites B, C et Delta, Bobigny, Inserm U955, équipe 18, Université Paris-Est, Créteil.

Background & Aims: HDV infection causes severe chronic liver disease in individuals infected with HBV. However, the factors associated with poor prognosis are largely unknown. Thus, we aimed to identify prognostic factors in patients with HDV infection.

Methods: The French National Reference Centre for HDV performed a nationwide retrospective study on 1,112 HDV-infected patients, collecting epidemiological, clinical, virological and histological data from the initial referral to the last recorded follow-up.

Results: The median age of our cohort was 36.5 (29.9-43.2) years and 68.6% of our cohort were male. Most patients whose birthplace was known were immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (52.5%), southern and eastern Europe (21.3%), northern Africa and the Middle East (6.2%), Asia (5.9%) and South America (0.3%). Only 150 patients (13.8%) were French native. HDV load was positive in 659 of 748 tested patients (88.1%). HDV-1 was predominant (75.9%), followed by sub-Saharan genotypes: HDV-5 (17.6%), HDV-7 (2.9%), HDV-6 (1.8%) and HDV-8 (1.6%). At referral, 312 patients (28.2%) had cirrhosis, half having experienced at least 1 episode of hepatic decompensation. Cirrhosis was significantly less frequent in African than in European patients regardless of HDV genotype. At the end of follow-up (median 3.0 [0.8-7.2] years), 48.8% of the patients had developed cirrhosis, 24.2% had ≥1 episode(s) of decompensation and 9.2% had hepatocellular carcinoma. European HDV-1 and African HDV-5 patients were more at risk of developing cirrhosis. Persistent replicative HDV infection was associated with decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. African patients displayed better response to interferon therapy than non-African patients (46.4% vs. 29.1%, p <0.001). HDV viral load at baseline was significantly lower in responders than in non-responders.

Conclusion: Place of birth, HDV genotype and persistent viremia constitute the main determinants of liver involvement and response to treatment in chronic HDV-infected patients.

Lay Summary: Chronic liver infection by hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that at least 15-20 million people are chronically infected by HDV worldwide, factors determining the severity of liver involvement are largely unknown. By investigating a large cohort of 1,112 HDV-infected patients followed-up in France, but coming from different areas of the world, we were able to determine that HDV genotype, place of birth (reflecting both viral and host-related factors) and persistent viremia constitute the main determinants of liver involvement and response to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.06.038DOI Listing
November 2020

Personalized surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis - using machine learning adapted to HCV status.

J Hepatol 2020 12 29;73(6):1434-1445. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier de La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service d'Hépatologie, Paris.

Background & Aims: Refining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance programs requires improved individual risk prediction. Thus, we aimed to develop algorithms based on machine learning approaches to predict the risk of HCC more accurately in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, according to their virological status.

Methods: Patients with compensated biopsy-proven HCV-related cirrhosis from the French ANRS CO12 CirVir cohort were included in a semi-annual HCC surveillance program. Three prognostic models for HCC occurrence were built, using (i) Fine-Gray regression as a benchmark, (ii) single decision tree (DT), and (iii) random survival forest for competing risks survival (RSF). Model performance was evaluated from C-indexes validated externally in the ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort (n = 668 enrolled between 08/2012-01/2014).

Results: Out of 836 patients analyzed, 156 (19%) developed HCC and 434 (52%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (median follow-up 63 months). Fine-Gray regression models identified 6 independent predictors of HCC occurrence in patients before SVR (past excessive alcohol intake, genotype 1, elevated AFP and GGT, low platelet count and albuminemia) and 3 in patients after SVR (elevated AST, low platelet count and shorter prothrombin time). DT analysis confirmed these associations but revealed more complex interactions, yielding 8 patient groups with varying cancer risks and predictors depending on SVR achievement. On RSF analysis, the most important predictors of HCC varied by SVR status (non-SVR: platelet count, GGT, AFP and albuminemia; SVR: prothrombin time, ALT, age and platelet count). Externally validated C-indexes before/after SVR were 0.64/0.64 [Fine-Gray], 0.60/62 [DT] and 0.71/0.70 [RSF].

Conclusions: Risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis differ according to SVR status. Machine learning algorithms can refine HCC risk assessment by revealing complex interactions between cancer predictors. Such approaches could be used to develop more cost-effective tailored surveillance programs.

Lay Summary: Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis must be included in liver cancer surveillance programs, which rely on ultrasound examination every 6 months. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening is hampered by sensitivity issues, leading to late cancer diagnoses in a substantial number of patients. Refining surveillance periodicity and modality using more sophisticated imaging techniques such as MRI may only be cost-effective in patients with the highest HCC incidence. Herein, we demonstrate how machine learning algorithms (i.e. data-driven mathematical models to make predictions or decisions), can refine individualized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.052DOI Listing
December 2020

Absence of impact of direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus on recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth in the AFEF/ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 25;45(1):101459. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Hepatology Unit, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 27, rue du Fg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.

Background: Although it has now been excluded that direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are associated with a significant risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients, a possible effect of DAA on tumor growth is still a subject of debate. We performed a blind comparison of the kinetics of HCC recurrence in patients after HCV treatment with or without DAA to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of HCC after DAA treatment.

Basic Procedures: Thirty-nine HCV-infected patients from the AFEF/ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort who experienced HCC recurrence after so-called curative treatment were evaluated. Contrast-enhanced CT and/or MR images were read blindly 6 months before HCC recurrence and during the follow-up period. Seventeen patients who received DAA (DAA+) before HCC recurrence were compared to the 22 who did not receive (DAA-), according to the LiRads and mRECIST criteria.

Main Findings: There were 28 men and 11 women, median age 62 years old, 37 (95%) with cirrhosis. DAA+ patients had a lower median MELD score (8±2 vs. 10±4, P=0.0286) than DAA- patients. The median time to HCC recurrence (time from the date of curative treatment to the diagnosis of recurrence) was not different (20 vs. 18 months) (P=0.73) between the two groups. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the overall survival and/or transplantation-free survival (P=0.71) and for the mRECIST time to progression (P=0.25).

Conclusion: This blinded analysis of HCC recurrence after HCC treatment does not support any negative impact of DAA therapy on the severity or progression of recurrent HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.04.022DOI Listing
January 2021

Sofosbuvir-Daclatasvir is suboptimal in patients with genotype 2 chronic hepatitis C infection: real-life experience from the HEPATHER ANRS CO22 cohort.

J Viral Hepat 2020 10 21;27(10):964-973. Epub 2020 May 21.

Hepatology Unit, APHP Cochin, Paris, France.

Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin has demonstrated a high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in clinical trials of patients infected with genotype 2 hepatitis Cvirus (HCV); however, there are currently no real-world data available for this regimen. To evaluate the real-life safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin in genotype 2 HCV patients in the French cohort ANRS CO22 HEPATHER(NCT01953458). In this ongoing, national, multicentre, prospective, observational study, we observed patients with HCV genotype 2 infection who initiated treatment with sofosbuvir (400 mg/d) plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin (1-1.2 g/d). Patients were divided into two treatment groups: sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin (12 weeks/24 weeks). The primary end point was a sustained virological response at week 12 following the end of therapy. Overall, 88% and 91% of patients achieved a sustained virological response following 12 and 24 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (29%), headache (15%) and fatigue (20%), and ribavirin addition was associated with a higher rate of adverse events and treatment discontinuation. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin was associated with lower rates of sustained virological response in the real-life setting compared with the clinical setting and demonstrated suboptimal efficacy for the treatment of patients with genotype 2 chronic HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13321DOI Listing
October 2020

Long-term impact of preventive UDCA therapy after transplantation for primary biliary cholangitis.

J Hepatol 2020 09 7;73(3):559-565. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Transplant Hepatology Unit, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maggiore Hospital Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background & Aims: Recurrence of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) after liver transplantation (LT) is frequent and can impair graft and patient survival. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the current standard therapy for PBC. We investigated the effect of preventive exposure to UDCA on the incidence and long-term consequences of PBC recurrence after LT.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in 780 patients transplanted for PBC, between 1983-2017 in 16 centers (9 countries), and followed-up for a median of 11 years. Among them, 190 received preventive UDCA (10-15 mg/kg/day). The primary outcome was histological evidence of PBC recurrence. The secondary outcomes were graft loss, liver-related death, and all-cause death. The association between preventive UDCA and outcomes was quantified using multivariable-adjusted Cox and restricted mean survival time (RMST) models.

Results: While recurrence of PBC significantly shortened graft and patient survival, preventive exposure to UDCA was associated with reduced risk of PBC recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.41; 95% CI 0.28-0.61; p <0.0001), graft loss (aHR 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.82; p <0.05), liver-related death (aHR 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.98; p <0.05), and all-cause death (aHR 0.69; 95% CI 0.49-0.96; p <0.05). On RMST analysis, preventive UDCA led to a survival gain of 2.26 years (95% CI 1.28-3.25) over a period of 20 years. Exposure to cyclosporine rather than tacrolimus had a complementary protective effect alongside preventive UDCA, reducing the cumulative incidence of PBC recurrence and all-cause death.

Conclusions: Preventive UDCA after LT for PBC is associated with a reduced risk of disease recurrence, graft loss, and death. A regimen combining cyclosporine and preventive UDCA is associated with the lowest risk of PBC recurrence and mortality.

Lay Summary: Recurrence of primary biliary cholangitis after liver transplantation is frequent and can impair graft and patient survival. We performed the largest international study of transplanted patients with primary biliary cholangitis to date. Preventive administration of ursodeoxycholic acid after liver transplantation was associated with reduced risk of disease recurrence, graft loss, liver-related and all-cause mortality. A regimen combining cyclosporine and preventive ursodeoxycholic acid was associated with the best outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.03.043DOI Listing
September 2020

Switching vs. add-on strategy in PBC treatment: Lessons from UDCA and bezafibrate experience.

J Hepatol 2020 06 18;72(6):1210-1211. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis, ERN Rare-Liver, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Inserm UMR_S938, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.12.027DOI Listing
June 2020

Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Sep 15;18(10):2295-2304.e2. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; European Reference Network on Hepatological Diseases.

Background & Aims: Few patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists because of the often mild symptoms of IBD. We assessed the effects of anti-TNF agents on liver function in patients with PSC and IBD, and their efficacy in treatment of IBD.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 141 patients with PSC and IBD receiving treatment with anti-TNF agents (infliximab or adalimumab) at 20 sites (mostly tertiary-care centers) in Europe and North America. We collected data on the serum level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). IBD response was defined as either endoscopic response or, if no endoscopic data were available, clinical response, as determined by the treating clinician or measurements of fecal calprotectin. Remission was defined more stringently as endoscopic mucosal healing. We used linear regression analysis to identify factors associated significantly with level of ALP during anti-TNF therapy.

Results: Anti-TNF treatment produced a response of IBD in 48% of patients and remission of IBD in 23%. There was no difference in PSC symptom frequency before or after drug exposure. The most common reasons for anti-TNF discontinuation were primary nonresponse of IBD (17%) and side effects (18%). At 3 months, infliximab-treated patients had a median reduction in serum level of ALP of 4% (interquartile range, reduction of 25% to increase of 19%) compared with a median 15% reduction in ALP in adalimumab-treated patients (interquartile range, reduction of 29% to reduction of 4%; P = .035). Factors associated with lower ALP were normal ALP at baseline (P < .01), treatment with adalimumab (P = .090), and treatment in Europe (P = .083).

Conclusions: In a retrospective analysis of 141 patients with PSC and IBD, anti-TNF agents were moderately effective and were not associated with exacerbation of PSC symptoms or specific side effects. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the association between use of adalimumab and reduced serum levels of ALP further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.02.014DOI Listing
September 2020

New treatments/targets for primary biliary cholangitis.

JHEP Rep 2019 Sep 9;1(3):203-213. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis, Hepatology Department, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP); INSERM UMR_S938, Saint-Antoine Research Center, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune, cholestatic, chronic liver disease that ultimately progresses towards cirrhosis and liver failure if untreated. While ursodeoxycholic acid has been established as standard of care for PBC in the last few decades, significant advances in second-line treatment options have recently been made and new therapeutic developments are currently under evaluation. The purpose of this article is to provide the clinician with an overview of the current treatment options and future opportunities for patients with PBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2019.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001536PMC
September 2019

The Complementary Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Vibration-Controlled Transient Elastography for Risk Stratification in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 12;114(12):1878-1885

Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Sorbonne University, INSERM, Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis & Saint-Antoine Research Center, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Objectives: Magnetic resonance (MR) risk scores and liver stiffness (LS) have individually been shown to predict clinical outcomes in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The aim of this study was to assess their complementary prognostic value.

Methods: Patients with PSC from 3 European centers with a 3-dimensional MR cholangiography available for central reviewing and a valid LS measurement assessed by vibration-controlled transient elastography by FibroScan performed within a 6-month interval were included in a longitudinal retrospective study. The MR score (Anali) without gadolinium (Gd) was calculated according to the formula: (1 × dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts) + (2 × dysmorphy) + (1 × portal hypertension). The primary end point was survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation. The prognostic values of LS and Anali score without Gd were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: One hundred sixty-two patients were included. Over a total follow-up of 753 patient-years, 40 patients experienced an adverse outcome (4 liver transplantations, 6 liver-related deaths, and 30 cirrhosis decompensations). LS and Anali score without Gd were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.51, P < 0.001) and were independently associated with the occurrence of an adverse outcome. Optimal prognostic thresholds were 10.5 kPa for LS and 2 for the Anali score without Gd. Hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.07 (1.06-4.06) and 3.78 (1.67-8.59), respectively. The use in combination of these 2 thresholds allowed us to separate patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups for developing adverse outcomes. The 5-year cumulative rates of adverse outcome in these 3 groups were 8%, 16%, and 38% (P < 0.001), respectively.

Discussion: The combined use of MRI and vibration-controlled transient elastography permits easy risk stratification of patients with PSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000461DOI Listing
December 2019

The challenges of primary biliary cholangitis: What is new and what needs to be done.

J Autoimmun 2019 12 20;105:102328. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is an uncommon, chronic, cholangiopathy of autoimmune origin and unknown etiology characterized by positive anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA), female preponderance and progression to cirrhosis if left untreated. The diagnosis is based on AMA- or PBC-specific anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-positivity in the presence of a cholestatic biochemical profile, histologic confirmation being mandatory only in seronegative cases. First-line treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is effective in preventing disease progression in about two thirds of the patients. The only approved second-line treatment is obeticholic acid. This article summarizes the most relevant conclusions of a meeting held in Lugano, Switzerland, from September 23rd-25th 2018, gathering basic and clinical scientists with various background from around the world to discuss the latest advances in PBC research. The meeting was dedicated to Ian Mackay, pioneer in the field of autoimmune liver diseases. The role of liver histology needs to be reconsidered: liver pathology consistent with PBC in AMA-positive individuals without biochemical cholestasis is increasingly reported, raising the question as to whether biochemical cholestasis is a reliable disease marker for both clinical practice and trials. The urgent need for new biomarkers, including more accurate markers of cholestasis, was also widely discussed during the meeting. Moreover, new insights in interactions of bile acids with biliary epithelia in PBC provide solid evidence of a role for impaired epithelial protection against potentially toxic hydrophobic bile acids, raising the fundamental question as to whether this bile acid-induced epithelial damage is the cause or the consequence of the autoimmune attack to the biliary epithelium. Strategies are needed to identify difficult-to-treat patients at an early disease stage, when new therapeutic approaches targeting immunologic pathways, in addition to bile acid-based therapies, may be effective. In conclusion, using interdisciplinary approaches, groundbreaking advances can be expected before long in respect to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of PBC, with the ultimate aim of improving its treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2019.102328DOI Listing
December 2019

Genetic contribution of ABCC2 to Dubin-Johnson syndrome and inherited cholestatic disorders.

Liver Int 2020 01 13;40(1):163-174. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire de Cardio-métabolisme et Nutrition (ICAN), Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Background And Aims: The ABCC2 gene is implicated in Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS), a rare autosomal recessive liver disorder. The primary aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of ABCC2 genetic testing in the largest cohort of DJS reported to date. The high number of patients with cholestatic manifestations in this series prompted us to evaluate the genetic contribution of rare, potentially pathogenic ABCC2 variants to other inherited cholestatic disorders.

Methods: The cohort study included 32 patients with clinical DJS diagnosis, and 372 patients referred for the following disorders: low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). ABCC2 was screened by next-generation sequencing.

Results: Most patients with clinical DJS had positive genetic diagnosis (n = 30; 94%), with a great diversity of point mutations and copy number variations in ABCC2. Strikingly, eight (27%) of these patients showed transient cholestatic features at presentation: four neonatal cholestasis, two ICP, one contraceptive-induced cholestasis and one sporadic cholestasis. Conversely, the frequency of rare, heterozygous, potentially pathogenic ABCC2 variants in patients with LPAC, ICP or BRIC did not differ significantly from that of the general population.

Conclusions: This large series reveals that DJS is a highly homogeneous Mendelian disorder involving a large spectrum of ABCC2 variants. Genetic testing is crucial to establish early DJS diagnosis in patients with atypical presentations, such as neonatal cholestasis. This study also provides no evidence for the contribution of rare, potentially pathogenic ABCC2 variants to other inherited cholestatic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14260DOI Listing
January 2020

A Brief Reflection on Continuous vs Binary Risk Indicators in Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 10;114(10):1691-1692

Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000360DOI Listing
October 2019

Fungi participate in the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Gut 2020 01 19;69(1):92-102. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Paris, France.

Objective: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were previously shown to display a bacterial gut dysbiosis but fungal microbiota has never been examined in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal gut microbiota in patients with PSC.

Design: We analysed the faecal microbiota of patients with PSC and concomitant IBD (n=27), patients with PSC and no IBD (n=22), patients with IBD and no PSC (n=33) and healthy subjects (n=30). Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively.

Results: We found that patients with PSC harboured bacterial dysbiosis characterised by a decreased biodiversity, an altered composition and a decreased correlation network density. These alterations of the microbiota were associated with PSC, independently of IBD status. For the first time, we showed that patients with PSC displayed a fungal gut dysbiosis, characterised by a relative increase in biodiversity and an altered composition. Notably, we observed an increased proportion of and a decreased proportion of . Compared with patients with IBD and healthy subjects, the gut microbiota of patients with PSC exhibited a strong disruption in bacteria-fungi correlation network, suggesting an alteration in the interkingdom crosstalk.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that bacteria and fungi contribute to gut dysbiosis in PSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317791DOI Listing
January 2020

Safety and efficacy of the combination simeprevir-sofosbuvir in HCV genotype 1- and 4-mono-infected patients from the French ANRS CO22 hepather cohort.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 2;19(1):300. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, F75012, Paris, France.

Background: Although real-life results of sofosbuvir/simeprevir have been extensively reported from the United States, data from other geographical areas are limited. In the French observational cohort, ANRS CO22 HEPATHER, 9432 patients were given the new oral antivirals from December 2013 to June 30, 2018. We report the results of sofosbuvir/simeprevir in genotypes 1- and 4-infected patients.

Methods: Demographics and history of liver disease were collected at entry in the cohort. Clinical, adverse events, and virological data were collected throughout treatment and post-treatment follow-up. The choice of treatment duration or addition of ribavirin was left up to the physician.

Results: Five hundred ninety-nine HCV (467 genotype 1 and 132 genotype 4) mono-infected, naïve for all oral-DAAs regimen patients were given sofosbuvir/simeprevir with (n = 63) or without ribavirin (n = 536) for 12 or 24 weeks; 56% had cirrhosis (4% decompensated) and 71% had prior treatment failure to interferon-based regimen. 7 patients (1.16%) were lost to follow-up. The overall SVR12 rate was 92.6%. The SVR12 was 90% in GT1a, 94.2% in GT1b and 91.6% in GT4 with no significant difference for genotype, treatment duration or ribavirin addition. Severity of liver disease was not associated with a lower SVR12 rate on multivariate analysis but was associated with a higher rate of severe side effects. Early treatment discontinuations were rare; no new safety signals were reported.

Conclusion: In this real life, observational, prospective cohort study, the 12-week sofosbuvir/simeprevir+/-ribavirin combination appears to be efficient and safe.

Trial Registration: Trial registration with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01953458 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3923-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446259PMC
April 2019

Simple Magnetic Resonance Scores Associate With Outcomes of Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 12 15;17(13):2785-2792.e3. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Sorbonne University, Department of Radiology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Background & Aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has a variable, often progressive, course. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) is used in the diagnosis of PSC. Magnetic resonance risk scoring systems, called Anali without and with gadolinium, are used to predict disease progression, determined by radiologic factors. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of Anali scores in patients with PSC and validate our findings in a separate cohort.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with large-duct PSC (internal cohort, 119 patients in France; external cohort, 119 patients in Canada, Italy, and the United Kingdom). All the first-available MRC results were reviewed by 2 radiologists and the Anali scores were calculated as follows: Anali without gadolinium = (1× dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts) + (2× dysmorphy) + (1× portal hypertension); Anali with gadolinium = (1× dysmorphy) + (1× parenchymal enhancement heterogeneity). The primary end point was survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation. The prognostic value of Anali scores was assessed by Cox regression modeling.

Results: During a total of 549 patient-years for the internal cohort and 497 patient-years for the external cohort, we recorded 2 and 8 liver transplantations, 4 and 3 liver-related deaths, and 26 and 25 cirrhosis decompensations, respectively. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation in the internal cohort were as follows: serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and Anali scores. Anali scores without and with gadolinium identified patients' survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation with a c-statistic of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64-0.87), respectively. Independent prognostic factors identified by multivariate analysis were Anali scores and bilirubinemia. The prognostic value of Anali scores was confirmed in the external cohort.

Conclusions: In internal and external cohorts, we found that Anali scores, determined from MRC, were associated with outcomes of patients with PSC. These scores might be used as prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.03.013DOI Listing
December 2019

Predictive criteria of response to endoscopic treatment for severe strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2019 08 14;43(4):387-394. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Radiology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris AP-HP, Sorbonne university, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to identify predictive criteria of improvement after endoscopic treatment (ET) for severe strictures of extrahepatic bile ducts in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

Methods: PSC patients who had at least one ET for severe stricture were included. Features of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), performed before ET, were evaluated according to a standard model of interpretation, and a radiologic qualitative score of probability of improvement after ET was built. Score 3 (likely) was given in case of severe common bile duct (CBD) stricture with marked dilatation without severe strictures of upstream ducts, Score 1 (unlikely) was given in case of severe multiple strictures of secondary ducts without biliary dilatation and Score 2 (undeterminate) was given to an intermediate pattern. The response to ET was assessed at 2 months (T2-response) from the last ET and at 12 months (T12-response) from inclusion.

Results: Thirty-one patients were included. All had severe stricture (reduction ≥ 75% of the diameter) of CBD and 50% had severe stricture of right and/or left hepatic duct (LHD) at MRC before ET. According to the qualitative score, 16 patients had Score 3, 7 had Score 1 and 9 had Score 2. T12-response was obtained in 50% of patients. In univariate analysis, short LHD strictures, bilirubin, transaminases, pruritus and Score 3 were associated with T12-response. Increased bilirubin and transaminases were independent predictive factors of T12-response (HR 24, 95% CI: 3.4-170.4, P = 0.001 and 23.8, 95% CI: 3.4-169.4, P = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusion: MRC, together with biochemical features, may contribute to identify the PSC patients who are likely to be improved after ET for severe strictures of extrahepatic bile ducts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2019.01.003DOI Listing
August 2019

Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C after direct-acting antiviral treatment: a prospective cohort study.

Lancet 2019 Apr 11;393(10179):1453-1464. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Unit of Hepatology, Hépatogastroentérologie, CHU Trousseau, Tours, France.

Background: Although direct-acting antivirals have been used extensively to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, their clinical effectiveness has not been well reported. We compared the incidence of death, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis between patients treated with direct-acting antivirals and those untreated, in the French ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort.

Methods: We did a prospective study in adult patients with chronic HCV infection enrolled from 32 expert hepatology centres in France. We excluded patients with chronic hepatitis B, those with a history of decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation, and patients who were treated with interferon-ribavirin with or without first-generation protease inhibitors. Co-primary study outcomes were incidence of all-cause mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis. The association between direct-acting antivirals and these outcomes was quantified using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01953458.

Findings: Between Aug 6, 2012, and Dec 31, 2015, 10 166 patients were eligible for the study. 9895 (97%) patients had available follow-up information and were included in analyses. Median follow-up was 33·4 months (IQR 24·0-40·7). Treatment with direct-acting antivirals was initiated during follow-up in 7344 patients, and 2551 patients remained untreated at the final follow-up visit. During follow-up, 218 patients died (129 treated, 89 untreated), 258 reported hepatocellular carcinoma (187 treated, 71 untreated), and 106 had decompensated cirrhosis (74 treated, 32 untreated). Exposure to direct-acting antivirals was associated with increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2·77, 95% CI 2·07-3·71) and decompensated cirrhosis (3·83, 2·29-6·42). After adjustment for variables (age, sex, body-mass index, geographical origin, infection route, fibrosis score, HCV treatment-naive, HCV genotype, alcohol consumption, diabetes, arterial hypertension, biological variables, and model for end-stage liver disease score in patients with cirrhosis), exposure to direct-acting antivirals was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·33-0·70) and hepatocellular carcinoma (0·66, 0·46-0·93), and was not associated with decompensated cirrhosis (1·14, 0·57-2·27).

Interpretation: Treatment with direct-acting antivirals is associated with reduced risk for mortality and hepatocellular carcinoma and should be considered in all patients with chronic HCV infection.

Funding: INSERM-ANRS (France Recherche Nord & Sud Sida-HIV Hépatites), ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), DGS (Direction Générale de la Santé), MSD, Janssen, Gilead, AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32111-1DOI Listing
April 2019

Baveno-VI-Guided Prediction of Esogastric Varices in Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 02;114(2):361-362

French Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases (MIVB) and French Network for Rare Liver Diseases (FILFOIE), Saint-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000056DOI Listing
February 2019

Rate of Spleen Length Progression Is a Marker of Outcome in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 11 4;17(12):2613-2615. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) tend to develop progressive liver fibrosis and end-stage liver disease within 10-20 years. The International PSC Study Group declared research on surrogate endpoints a high-priority task not least for ongoing clinical trials on novel treatment options. The spleen in patients with PSC often enlarges even before cirrhosis develops. Transient elastography (TE) has been investigated as a dynamic and prognostic marker in PSC. However, TE is not generally accessible, measures only a small part of the right liver, and is prone to errors in obese patients, and liver stiffness is related to postprandial status, liver inflammation, and biliary obstruction. We have recently demonstrated that single-point spleen length (SL) measurement has a prognostic performance similar to liver stiffness measured by TE. SL measurement is a fast, simple, and ubiquitously available method. However, absolute spleen size depends on body height and sex, and single-point measurement of SL cannot be used to assess the effects of therapeutic interventions. To overcome these issues, we assessed the intra-individual development of spleen size over time (delta spleen length: dSL = SL - SL) to evaluate its role as a novel surrogate marker, which accounts for the dynamic nature of PSC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.12.033DOI Listing
November 2019

Letter: reduction in projected mortality or need for liver transplantation associated with bezafibrate add-on in primary biliary cholangitis with incomplete UDCA response.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 01;49(2):236-238

Clinical Research Platform of East of Paris, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15049DOI Listing
January 2019

Immunological and clinical effects of low-dose interleukin-2 across 11 autoimmune diseases in a single, open clinical trial.

Ann Rheum Dis 2019 02 24;78(2):209-217. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (i2B), AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France

Objective: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmunity and control inflammation. Consequently, any autoimmune or inflammatory disease reveals a Treg insufficiency. As low-dose interleukin-2 (ld-IL2) expands and activates Tregs, it has a broad therapeutic potential.

Aim: We aimed to assess this potential and select diseases for further clinical development by cross-investigating the effects of ld-IL2 in a single clinical trial treating patients with 1 of 11 autoimmune diseases.

Methods: We performed a prospective, open-label, phase I-IIa study in 46 patients with a mild to moderate form of either rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, Behcet's disease, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Takayasu's disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune hepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis. They all received ld-IL2 (1 million IU/day) for 5 days, followed by fortnightly injections for 6 months. Patients were evaluated by deep immunomonitoring and clinical evaluation.

Results: ld-IL2 was well tolerated whatever the disease and the concomitant treatments. Thorough supervised and unsupervised immunomonitoring demonstrated specific Treg expansion and activation in all patients, without effector T cell activation. Indication of potential clinical efficacy was observed.

Conclusion: The dose of IL-2 and treatment scheme used selectively activate and expand Tregs and are safe across different diseases and concomitant treatments. This and preliminary indications of clinical efficacy should licence the launch of phase II efficacy trial of ld-IL2 in various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01988506.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214229DOI Listing
February 2019