Publications by authors named "Olivier Chabre"

91 Publications

Pre-term birth in women exposed to Cushing's disease: the baby-cush study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Mar;184(3):469-476

Aix-Marseille Université, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1251, Marseille Medical Genetics (MMG), Institut Marseille Maladies Rares (MarMaRa), Marseille, France.

Design: Hypercortisolism during pregnancy is a risk factor for prematurity. Long-term exposure to hypercortisolism may lead to permanent comorbidities, such as hypertension or diabetes, even after remission. Our aim was to determine whether women with a history of Cushing's disease (and being eu-, hypo- or hypercortisolic at the time of pregnancy) had the same risks of comorbidities, and especially prematurity, during pregnancy.

Methods: It was a retrospective multicentric study focusing on mothers with a history of Cushing's disease or diagnosed during pregnancy, followed in French tertiary referral centers. We compared the outcomes of pregnancies depending on the cortisolic status at the time of pregnancy.

Results: A total of 60 patients (78 pregnancies including 21 with hypercortisolism, 32 with hypocortisolism and 25 in eucortisolism in 25) were evaluated. The overall rate of preterm birth was 24.3%, with a peak in women diagnosed during pregnancy (62.5%), a high risk in hypercortisolic (33%) and hypocortisolic (19.3%), and a low risk (8%) in eucortisolic women Gestational diabetes and hypertension were observed in 21% and 10.4% of the whole cohort, with a higher risk in hypercortisolic women. Cesarean delivery was performed in 33.7% of the cohort.

Conclusions: Being non-eucortisolic at the time of pregnancy increases the risk of prematurity and comorbidities compared to the general population. Women with a history of Cushing's disease should thus be carefully monitored during pregnancy. The high rate of cesarean delivery emphasizes the fact that these pregnancies should always be considered at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-1224DOI Listing
March 2021

Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy (Nelson's syndrome): systematic review and expert consensus recommendations.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Mar;184(3):P1-P16

Section on Genetics & Endocrinology Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Insitute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) National Institute of Health (NIH), NIH Clinical Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Corticotroph tumor progression (CTP) leading to Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a severe and difficult-to-treat complication subsequent to bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX) for Cushing's disease. Its characteristics are not well described, and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are missing.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed focusing on clinical studies and case series (≥5 patients). Definition, cumulative incidence, treatment and long-term outcomes of CTP/NS after BADX were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were presented and discussed at an interdisciplinary consensus workshop attended by international pituitary experts in Munich on October 28, 2018.

Results: Data covered definition and cumulative incidence (34 studies, 1275 patients), surgical outcome (12 studies, 187 patients), outcome of radiation therapy (21 studies, 273 patients), and medical therapy (15 studies, 72 patients).

Conclusions: We endorse the definition of CTP-BADX/NS as radiological progression or new detection of a pituitary tumor on thin-section MRI. We recommend surveillance by MRI after 3 months and every 12 months for the first 3 years after BADX. Subsequently, we suggest clinical evaluation every 12 months and MRI at increasing intervals every 2-4 years (depending on ACTH and clinical parameters). We recommend pituitary surgery as first-line therapy in patients with CTP-BADX/NS. Surgery should be performed before extrasellar expansion of the tumor to obtain complete and long-term remission. Conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery should be utilized as second-line treatment for remnant tumor tissue showing extrasellar extension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-1088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060870PMC
March 2021

Editorial: Travelling in time and space in the heart of Paris.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2020 Dec 13. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Service d'endocrinologie et des maladies de la reproduction, hôpital Bicêtre, 78, rue du Général-Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2020.12.006DOI Listing
December 2020

Adherence to growth hormone therapy guidelines in a real-world French cohort of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2021 Feb 5;82(1):59-68. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Novo Nordisk, 100 Esplanade du Général de Gaulle, 92400 Paris, France.

Objective: Using real-world data from patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), we evaluated whether clinical practice in France adheres to international guidelines regarding somatropin dose adjustment, and assessed the long-term effectiveness and safety of somatropin.

Methods: Data were obtained from a national prospective systematic longitudinal routine follow-up programme of naive/non-naive adults with childhood-onset (CO) or adult-onset (AO) GHD treated with Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S).

Results: Between 2003 and 2006, 331 treatment-naive and non-naive adults with severe GHD were enrolled and followed for a median duration of approximately 5 years; 328 patients were available for analysis. At baseline, mean patient age was 39.2 years; median standard deviation score (SDS) for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was -2.2 in naive patients, subsequently fluctuating between -0.1 and +0.3 SDS during the study period. Mean GH doses ranged between 0.25 and 0.51mg/day (naive patients) and 0.39 and 0.46mg/day (non-naive patients). Despite generally receiving a higher somatropin dose, women (naive/non-naive) tended to have lower IGF-1 levels than men. Median somatropin dose was consistently higher in patients with CO-GHD than patients with AO-GHD. Extreme IGF-1 values (<-2 or >+2 SDS) were not systematically accompanied by somatropin dose adjustments. Waist circumference improved in approximately one third of patients, at a mean 3.5 years. Somatropin was well tolerated; there were no cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events during the 5-year analysis period.

Conclusion: Current clinical practice of physicians in France follows international guidelines regarding somatropin dose adjustment in adults with GHD. However, dose adjustments are not always sufficient, notably in women, and treatment effects may have been delayed due to low somatropin dose (Clinical trial registration NCT01580605).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2020.11.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Pneumocystis pneumonia can complicate medical treatment of hypercortisolism even in outpatients with Cushing's disease.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2020 Dec 2;81(6):551-560. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Endocrinology Unit, University Hospital Centre Grenoble Alpes, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, France. Electronic address:

Several cases of Pneumocystosis pneumonia (PCP) have been reported in patients with hypercortisolism, mainly in patients with severe ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). We report 2 cases of PCP that did not develop until after starting treatment with metyrapone, one of which occurred in an outpatient with Cushing's disease (CD) without pulmonary symptoms before medical treatment for CD. Patient 1 presented as an outpatient with CD and severe hypercortisolism but nonetheless in good general condition. Treatment with metyrapone was started before pituitary surgery. Patient 2 had EAS due to prostate cancer. Respiratory failure in the two patients occurred 4 days and 30 days, respectively, after the start of metyrapone treatment. In both cases, chest CT showed bilateral interstitial infiltrates, and Pneumocystis jirovecii was found on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). A literature review was performed to identify risk factors for PCP in patients with CD: we identified 20 other cases of PCP in patients treated for hypercortisolism, including 16 patients with EAS. Ninety percent of patients had free urinary cortisol greater than 6 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). In conclusion, onset of PCP after initiation of anticortisolic therapy is not limited to patients with EAS, and may occur in CD patients with elevated cortisol levels, even if the patient remains in good general condition and has no pulmonary symptoms before treatment. In such patients, routine prophylactic treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2020.11.002DOI Listing
December 2020

The Somatotropic Axis in the Sleep Apnea-Obesity Comorbid Duo.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 12;11:376. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic diseases, Pôle Cardiovascular and Metabolic, Larrey University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Growth hormone (GH) stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in most tissues and together GH and IGF-1 profoundly impact adipose tissue deposition, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular function. A low serum IGF-I level has been reported as being associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and might be one of the mechanisms underlying cardio-metabolic risk in OSA patients. In a multicenter national study, 817 patients consulting for suspicion of OSA (OSA confirmed for 567 patients) underwent serum IGF-1 measurements. We analyzed the association between an IGF-1 level below the median value of the population and variables related to cardio-metabolic risk: body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, apnea hypopnea index (AHI), cholesterol and triglycerides (expressed as median and divided into quartiles for continuous variables). After adjustment for age and gender, low IGF-1 levels were associated with increased BMI and AHI (Odds ratios (OR) = 2.83; < 0.0001 and OR = 3.03, < 0.0001 for Quartile 4 vs. Quartile1, respectively), with elevated cholesterol levels (OR = 1.36, = 0.0444), and elevated triglyceride levels (OR = 1.36; = 0.0008). Both adiposity and sleep apnea synergistically predict low levels of IGF-1 and thus could together contribute toward cardio-metabolic risk. Further work are needed to confirm whether IGF-1 levels allow grading severity and predicting response to treatments to aim at a personalized medicine for patients suffering from OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325876PMC
June 2020

Hypopituitarism in Patients with Blepharophimosis and FOXL2 Mutations.

Horm Res Paediatr 2020 26;93(1):30-39. Epub 2020 May 26.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Service d'Endocrinologie Pédiatrique, Bron, France.

Background: FOXL2 is the gene involved in blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES). There have been few single case reports of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) with this syndrome, and Foxl2 is known to be involved in pituitary development in mice. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of FOXL2 gene alteration in a series of patients with congenital hypopituitarism and eyelid anomalies.

Methods: FOXL2 was analyzed in 10 patients with hypopituitarism (ranging from isolated GHD to complete pituitary hormone deficiency) and eyelid anomalies (typical BPES in 4 patients and milder anomalies in 6 patients). In patients with an FOXL2 mutation, we ruled out other possible molecular explanations by analyzing a panel of 20 genes known to be associated with hypopituitarism, and a candidate gene approach was used for patients without an FOXL2mutation.

Results: Three patients had an FOXL2mutation. All 3 had typical BPES. Their pituitary phenotype varied from GHD to complete pituitary hormone deficiency and their pituitary morphology ranged from normal to an interrupted pituitary stalk. No mutations were found in genes previously associated with hypopituitarism.

Conclusion: Our study shows that some patients with BPES have hypopituitarism with no molecular explanation other than FOXL2 mutation. This points toward an involvement of FOXL2 in human pituitary development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507249DOI Listing
April 2021

Covid-19: The challenges facing endocrinology.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2020 06 25;81(2-3):61-62. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism Department, Lille University Hospital, 59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2020.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195032PMC
June 2020

Early Postoperative Circulating miR-483-5p Is a Prognosis Marker for Adrenocortical Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 19;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INSERM, CEA, IRIG, Biology of Cancer and Infection UMR_S 1036, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

We have previously identified serum miR-483-5p as a preoperative diagnosis and prognosis biomarker for adrenocortical cancer (ACC). Here, we aimed to determine whether circulating miR-483-5p levels measured 3 months post-operatively distinguished patients with good prognosis (no recurrence for at least 3 years; NR3yrs) from patients with poor prognosis (recurrence or death within 3 years after surgery; R < 3yrs). We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis using sera from 48 patients with ACC that were initially non-metastatic and treated by surgery. Sera sampled within 3 months after surgery were available in 26 patients. MiR-483-5p absolute circulating levels were measured using quantitative PCR. Thirteen patients showed a recurrence before 3 years (=R < 3yrs). Thirteen patients showed no recurrence within 3 years, including 11 patients with a follow-up longer than 3 years (=NR3yrs). Serum miR-483-5p levels were higher in R < 3yrs than in NR3yrs: 1,541,990 ± 428,377 copies/mL vs. 388,457 ± 62,169 copies/mL ( = 0.002). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that a value of 752,898 copies/mL distinguished R < 3yrs from NR3yrs with 61.5% sensitivity (CI 31.6-86.1) and 100% specificity (CI 71.5-100) with an area under the curve of 0.853. Patients with a value below this threshold had a significantly longer recurrence-free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, miR-483-5p provided the single best prognostic value for recurrence-free survival (RFS) (hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence 5.98, < 0.011) but not for overall survival. Our study suggests that serum miR-483-5p is a potent early post-operative biomarker for ACC prognosis that might be a better predictor of RFS than currently used markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140036PMC
March 2020

MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion: an expert operational opinion.

Eur J Endocrinol 2020 Apr;182(4):R29-R58

Department of Endocrinology, Bordeaux University, Haut-Lévêque Hospital, Pessac, France.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) is rare but is frequently a severe condition because of the intensity of the hypercortisolism that may be dissociated from the tumoral condition. EAS should often be considered as an endocrine emergency requiring an emergency response both in terms of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions. Patient management is complex and necessitates dual skills, in the diagnosis and treatment of CS and in the specific management of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Therefore, initial management should be performed ideally by experienced endocrinology teams in collaboration with specialized hormonal laboratory, modern imaging platforms and intensive care units. Diagnostic procedures vary according to the endocrine and tumoral contexts but should be reduced to a minimum in intense hypercortisolism. Preventive and curative treatments of cortisol-induced comorbidities, non-specific management of hypercortisolism and etiological treatments should be considered simultaneously. Therapeutic strategies vary according to (1.) the intensity of hypercortisolism, the general condition of the patient and associated comorbidities and (2.) the tumoral status, ranging from resectable ACTH secreting tumors to non-resectable metastatic endocrine tumors or occult tumors. The ideal treatment is complete excision of the ACTH-secreting tumor that can be performed rapidly or after preoperative preparation using cortisol-lowering drugs. When this is not possible, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed by a multidisciplinary experienced team in a personalized perspective and include variable combinations of pharmacological agents, bilateral adrenalectomy and non-specific tumoral interventions. Here we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic strategies including the modern, currently available tools and emphasize on the operational effectiveness of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-19-0877DOI Listing
April 2020

Frequency and Incidence of Carney Complex Manifestations: A Prospective Multicenter Study With a Three-Year Follow-Up.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 03;105(3)

INSERM U1016, CNRS UMR8104, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Paris.

Introduction: Carney Complex (CNC) is a rare multiple endocrine and nonendocrine neoplasia syndrome. Manifestations and genotype-phenotype correlations have been described by retrospective studies, but no prospective study evaluating the occurrence of the different manifestations has been available so far.

Methods: This multicenter national prospective study included patients with CNC, primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD), or a pathogenic PRKAR1A mutation; after a full initial workup, participants were followed for 3 years with annual standardized evaluation.

Results: The cohort included 70 patients (50 female/20 male, mean age 35.4 ± 16.7 years, 81% carrying PRKAR1A mutation). The initial investigations allowed identification of several manifestations. At the end of the 3-year follow-up, the newly diagnosed manifestations of the disease were subclinical acromegaly in 6 patients, bilateral testicular calcifications in 1 patient, and cardiac myxomas in 2 patients. Recurrences of cardiac myxomas were diagnosed in 4 patients during the 3-year follow-up study period. Asymptomatic abnormalities of the corticotroph and somatotroph axis that did not meet criteria of PPNAD and acromegaly were observed in 11.4% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Patients carrying the PRKAR1A c.709-7del6 mutation had a mild phenotype.

Conclusion: This study underlines the importance of a systematic follow-up of the CNC manifestations, especially a biannual screening for cardiac myxoma. By contrast, regular screening for the other manifestations after a first extensive workup could be spread out, leading to a lighter and more acceptable follow-up schedule for patients. These are important results for recommendations for long-term management of CNC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa002DOI Listing
March 2020

Letter to the Editor: "Long-Term Outcome of Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia After Unilateral Adrenalectomy".

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 02;105(2)

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition. University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz105DOI Listing
February 2020

High mortality within 90 days of diagnosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome: results from the ERCUSYN registry.

Eur J Endocrinol 2019 Nov;181(5):461-472

Institute of Medicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality.

Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years.

Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment.

Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-19-0464DOI Listing
November 2019

Value of Molecular Classification for Prognostic Assessment of Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

JAMA Oncol 2019 Oct;5(10):1440-1447

Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, CNRS UMR8104, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Importance: The risk stratification of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on tumor proliferation index and stage is limited. Adjuvant therapy after surgery is recommended for most patients. Pan-genomic studies have identified distinct molecular groups closely associated with outcome.

Objective: To compare the molecular classification for prognostic assessment of ACC with other known prognostic factors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this retrospective biomarker analysis, ACC tumor samples from 368 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal were collected from March 1, 2005, to September 30, 2015 (144 in the training cohort and 224 in the validation cohort) at 21 referral centers with a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range, 18-74 months). Data were analyzed from March 2016 to March 2018.

Exposures: Meta-analysis of pan-genomic studies (transcriptome, methylome, chromosome alteration, and mutational profiles) was performed on the training cohort. Targeted biomarker analysis, including targeted gene expression (BUB1B and PINK1), targeted methylation (PAX5, GSTP1, PYCARD, and PAX6), and targeted next-generation sequencing, was performed on the training and validation cohorts.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazards regression and C indexes were used to assess the prognostic value of each model.

Results: Of the 368 patients (mean [SD] age, 49 [16] years), 144 were in the training cohort (100 [69.4%] female) and 224 were in the validation cohort (142 [63.4%] female). In the training cohort, pan-genomic measures classified ACC into 3 molecular groups (A1, A2, and A3-B), with 5-year survival of 9% for group A1, 45% for group A2, and 82% for group A3-B (log-rank P < .001). Molecular class was an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in stage I to III ACC after complete surgery (hazard ratio, 55.91; 95% CI, 8.55-365.40; P < .001). The combination of European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage, tumor proliferation index, and molecular class provided the most discriminant prognostic model (C index, 0.88). In the validation cohort, the molecular classification, determined by targeted biomarker measures, was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor of recurrence (hazard ratio, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.81-19.58], P = .003 for the targeted classifier combining expression, methylation, and chromosome alterations; and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.31-5.19], P = .006 for the targeted classifier combining methylation, chromosome alterations, and mutational profile). The prognostic value of the molecular markers was limited for patients with stage IV ACC.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings suggest that in localized ACC, targeted classifiers may be used as independent markers of recurrence. The determination of molecular class may improve individual prognostic assessment and thus may spare unnecessary adjuvant treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.1558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6624825PMC
October 2019

Impaired 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 in Glucocorticoid-Resistant Patients.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 11;104(11):5205-5216

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité Mixte de Recherche_S U1185, Faculty of Medicine at Université Paris-Sud, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.

Context: Six patients carrying heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) presented with hypercortisolism, associated with low kalemia, low plasma renin, and aldosterone levels, with or without hypertension, suggesting a pseudohypermineralocorticism whose mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that an impaired activity of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2; encoded by the HSD11B2 gene), catalyzing cortisol (F) inactivation, may account for an inappropriate activation of a renal mineralocorticoid signaling pathway in these GC-resistant patients.

Objective: We aim at studying the GR-mediated regulation of HSD11B2.

Design: The HSD11B2 promoter was subcloned and luciferase reporter assays evaluated GR-dependent HSD11B2 regulation, and 11β-HSD2 expression/activity was studied in human breast cancer MCF7 cells, endogenously expressing this enzyme.

Results: Transfection assays revealed that GR transactivated the long (2.1-kbp) HSD11B2 promoter construct, whereas a defective 501H GR mutant was unable to stimulate luciferase activity. GR-mediated transactivation of the HSD11B2 gene was inhibited by the GR antagonist RU486. A threefold increase in HSD11B2 mRNA levels was observed after dexamethasone (DXM) treatment of MCF7 cells, inhibited by RU486 or by actinomycin, supporting a GR-dependent transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation further demonstrated a DXM-dependent GR recruitment onto the HSD11B2 promoter. 11β-HSD2 activity, evaluated by the cortisone/F ratio, quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, was 10-fold higher in the supernatant of DXM-treated cells than controls, consistent with a GR-dependent stimulation of 11β-HSD2 catalytic activity.

Conclusion: Collectively, we demonstrate that 11β-HSD2 expression and activity are transcriptionally regulated by GR. In the context of GR haploinsufficiency, these findings provide evidence that defective GR signaling may account for apparent mineralocorticoid excess in GC-resistant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2019-00800DOI Listing
November 2019

Why we should still treat by neurosurgery patients with Cushing's disease and a normal or inconclusive pituitary MRI.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 14. Epub 2019 May 14.

Neurosurgery unit, CHU Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble France.

Context: In patients with Cushing's disease (CD) and a typical image of adenoma at MRI, transsphenoidal surgery is consensual. However, when MRI is inconclusive or normal, some authors now advocate medical treatment instead. The implicit assumption is that modern MRI should miss only very small microadenomas, too difficult to visualize at surgery.

Objective: To analyze the evolution with time of the performances of MRI and the outcomes of surgery in CD patients with a typical image of adenoma vs. inconclusive or normal MRI.

Methods And Patients: Retrospective single center study of 195 CD patients treated by transsphenoidal surgery between 1992 and 2018, using first a translabial microscopic and then a transnasal endoscopic approach. Patients with inconclusive or normal MRI were explored by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS). Four MRI groups were defined : microadenomas (n=89), macroadenomas (n=18), or MRI either inconclusive (n=44) or normal (n=44).

Results: The proportion of inconclusive/normal MRI decreased with time, from 60% (21/35) in 1992-96 to 27% (14/51) in 2012-2018 (p=0.037).In the 4 MRI groups, per-operatory adenoma visualization rate was only slightly lower when MRI was normal (95%; 100%; 86%; 79% ; p=0.012) and postoperative remission rates were not different (85%; 94%; 73%; 75 %; p= 0.11).

Conclusion: The diagnostic performances of MRI have improved but remain inferior to the eye of an expert neurosurgeon, best assisted by endoscopy. We propose that patients with CD and an inconclusive/normal MRI be still addressed to an expert neurosurgeon for transsphenoidal surgery rather than treated medically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2019-00333DOI Listing
May 2019

Illicit Upregulation of Serotonin Signaling Pathway in Adrenals of Patients With High Plasma or Intra-Adrenal ACTH Levels.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 11;104(11):4967-4980

Laboratory of Neuronal and Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Communication, Normandie University, UNIROUEN, INSERM, U1239, Rouen, France.

Context: In the human adrenal, serotonin (5-HT), released by mast cells stimulates corticosteroid secretion through activation of type 4 serotonin receptors (5-HT4R). In primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease cells, activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by PRKAR1A mutations triggers upregulation of the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and the 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. Because ACTH stimulates cortisol secretion through activation of PKA, adrenocortical tissues exposed to sustained stimulation by ACTH may harbor increased expression of TPH and 5-HT4/6/7 receptors.

Objective: To investigate the effects of long-term ACTH stimulation on the serotonergic pathway in adrenals of patients with high plasma or intra-adrenal ACTH levels.

Methods: Adrenal tissues were obtained from patients with Cushing disease, ectopic secretion of ACTH [paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome; (paraCS)], 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with intra-adrenal ACTH presence, or cortisol-producing adenomas. TPH and 5-HT4/6/7 receptor expression was investigated using RT-PCR and immunochemistry in comparison with normal adrenals. Primary cultured adrenocortical cells originating from a patient with paraCS were incubated with 5-HT and 5-HTR agonists/antagonists.

Results: TPH and/or 5-HT4/6/7 receptors were overexpressed in the different types of tissues. In paraCS cultured cells, the cortisol response to 5-HT was exaggerated compared with normal adrenal cells and the stimulatory action of 5-HT was reduced by 5-HT4R antagonist.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that prolonged activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by ACTH induces an aberrant serotonergic stimulatory loop in the adrenal cortex that likely participates in the pathogenesis of corticosteroid hypersecretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2019-00425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937520PMC
November 2019

Positive Impact of Genetic Test on the Management and Outcome of Patients With Paraganglioma and/or Pheochromocytoma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 04;104(4):1109-1118

Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, Service d'Endocrinologie, Centre de Référence Maladies Rares de la Surrénale, Paris, France.

Context: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are characterized by a strong genetic component, with up to 40% of patients carrying a germline mutation in a PPGL susceptibility gene. International guidelines recommend that genetic screening be proposed to all patients with PPGL.

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate how a positive genetic test impacts the management and outcome of patients with SDHx or VHL-related PPGL.

Design: We performed a multicentric retrospective study involving 221 propositi carrying an SDHB, SDHD, SDHC, or VHL germline mutation. Patients were divided into two groups: genetic patients, who were informed of their genetic status within the year following the first PPGL diagnosis, and historic patients, who only benefited from the genetic test several years after initial PPGL diagnosis.

Results: Genetic patients had better follow-up than historic patients, with a greater number of examinations and a reduced number of patients lost to follow-up (9.6% vs 72%, respectively). During follow-up, smaller (18.7 vs 27.6 mm; P = 0.0128) new PPGLs and metastases as well as lower metastatic spread were observed in genetic patients. Of note, these differences were reversed in the historic cohort after genetic testing. Genetic patients who developed metachronous metastases had a better 5-year survival rate than historic patients (P = 0.0127).

Conclusion: Altogether, our data suggest that early knowledge of genetic status had a positive impact on the management and clinical outcome of patients with a germline SDHx or VHL mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02411DOI Listing
April 2019

Natural history, treatment, and long-term follow up of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: an international, multicentre, retrospective study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019 03 16;7(3):213-220. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B is a rare syndrome caused mainly by Met918Thr germline RET mutation, and characterised by medullary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, and extra-endocrine features. Data are scarce on the natural history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. We aimed to advance understanding of the phenotype and natural history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, to increase awareness and improve detection.

Methods: This study was a retrospective, multicentre, international study in patients carrying the Met918Thr RET variant with no age restrictions. The study was done with registry data from 48 centres globally. Data from patients followed-up from 1970 to 2016 were retrieved from May 1, 2016, to May 31, 2018. Our primary objectives were to determine overall survival, and medullary thyroid carcinoma-specific survival based on whether the patient had undergone early thyroidectomy before the age of 1 year. We also assessed remission of medullary thyroid carcinoma, incidence and treatment of phaeochromocytoma, and the penetrance of extra-endocrine features.

Findings: 345 patients were included, of whom 338 (98%) had a thyroidectomy. 71 patients (21%) of the total cohort died at a median age of 25 years (range <1-59). Thyroidectomy was done before the age of 1 year in 20 patients, which led to long-term remission (ie, undetectable calcitonin level) in 15 (83%) of 18 individuals (2 patients died of causes unrelated to medullary thyroid carcinoma). Medullary thyroid carcinoma-specific survival curves did not show any significant difference between patients who had thyroidectomy before or after 1 year (comparison of survival curves by log-rank test: p=0·2; hazard ratio 0·35; 95% CI 0.07-1.74). However, there was a significant difference in remission status between patients who underwent thyroidectomy before and after the age of 1 year (p<0·0001). There was a significant difference in remission status between patients who underwent thyroidectomy before and after the age of 1 year (p<0·0001). In the other 318 patients who underwent thyroidectomy after 1 year of age, biochemical and structural remission was obtained in 47 (15%) of 318 individuals. Bilateral phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed in 156 (50%) of 313 patients by 28 years of age. Adrenal-sparing surgery was done in 31 patients: three (10%) of 31 patients had long-term recurrence, while normal adrenal function was obtained in 16 (62%) patients. All patients with available data (n=287) had at least one extra-endocrine feature, including 106 (56%) of 190 patients showing marfanoid body habitus, mucosal neuromas, and gastrointestinal signs.

Interpretation: Thyroidectomy done at no later than 1 year of age is associated with a high probability of cure. The reality is that the majority of children with the syndrome will be diagnosed after this recommended age. Adrenal-sparing surgery is feasible in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and affords a good chance for normal adrenal function. To improve the prognosis of such patients, it is imperative that every health-care provider be aware of the extra-endocrine signs and the natural history of this rare syndrome. The implications of this research include increasing awareness of the extra-endocrine symptoms and also recommendations for thyroidectomy before the age of 1 year.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30336-XDOI Listing
March 2019

Bilateral adrenalectomy in Cushing's disease: Altered long-term quality of life compared to other treatment options.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2019 Feb 19;80(1):32-37. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Fédération d'endocrinologie, groupement hospitalier Est, hospices civils de Lyon, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Lyon, France; Inserm U1052, CNRS UMR5286, Lyon I university, signaling, metabolism and tumor progression, cancer center of Lyon, centre Léon-Bérard, bâtiment Cheney D-5th Floor, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon, France.

Objective: Bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX) has become an important treatment of Cushing's disease (CD), especially when other treatment options have failed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term quality of life (QoL) of patients having undergone BADX for CD, in comparison to other therapeutic options.

Methods: Thirty-four patients with CD were identified in two French centers: 17 underwent BADX and the remaining 17 one or more of the following treatments: surgery, medical therapy or radiotherapy. Three questionnaires were filled in by each patient in order to evaluate their QoL: Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Cushing QoL questionnaire and Beck depression inventory (BDI).

Results: The mean age of patients was 49.3±15.2 years. Average time lapse between diagnosis and BADX was 6.1 years. Results from each questionnaire adjusted to age showed a lower QoL among patients who underwent BADX. These were significant in most aspects of the SF-36 questionnaire (bodily pain P<0.01, general health P<0.01, vitality P≤0.05, social functioning P≤0.05), as well as in the Cushing QoL questionnaire (P<0.05) and BDI (P≤0.05). Adrenal insufficiency appeared to be the major predictor of poor QoL whatever their initial treatment.

Conclusions: Despite their clinical remission, patients who undergo BADX appear to be at a greater risk of suffering an impaired QoL due to more prolonged period of time with imperfectly controlled hypercortisolism combined with definitive adrenal insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2018.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Endocrine side-effects of new anticancer therapies: Overall monitoring and conclusions.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2018 Oct 11;79(5):591-595. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

HESPER EA 7425, université Claude-Bernard Lyon 1, hospices civils de Lyon, fédération d'endocrinologie, 69008 Lyon, France.

The present final consensus statement of the French Society of Endocrinology lays out the assessments that are to be systematically performed before and during anticancer treatment by immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors or mTOR inhibitors, even without onset of any endocrinopathy. It also discusses the CTCAE adverse event grading system in oncology and the difficulty of implementing it for endocrine side-effects of these anticancer treatments. Notably, this is why certain treatment steps applied in other side-effects (e.g., high-dose corticosteroids, contraindications to immunotherapy, etc.) need to be discussed before implementation for endocrine side-effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2018.07.005DOI Listing
October 2018

Clinicopathological description of 43 oncocytic adrenocortical tumors: importance of Ki-67 in histoprognostic evaluation.

Mod Pathol 2018 11 19;31(11):1708-1716. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, L'institut du Thorax, CHU Nantes, 44093, Nantes, France.

Oncocytic adrenocortical tumors are a rare subtype of adrenal tumors with challenging diagnosis and histoprognostic assessment. It is usually believed that oncocytic adrenocortical tumors have a more indolent clinical behavior than conventional adrenocortical tumors. As the Weiss score overestimates the malignancy of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors owing to intrinsic parameters, alternative scores have been proposed. The Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia score is currently recommended. We performed a large nationwide multicenter retrospective clinicopathologic study of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors. Among the 43 patients in our cohort, 40 patients were alive without disease, 2 patients died of their disease and 1 patient was alive with relapse after a median follow-up of 38 months (20-59). Our data revealed that over 50% of the oncocytic adrenocortical tumor cases were diagnosed as carcinoma whatever the classification systems used, including the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia score. The exception is the Helsinki score, which incorporates the Ki-67 proliferation index and was the most specific prognostic score for oncocytic adrenocortical tumor malignancy without showing a loss in sensitivity. A comparison of malignant oncocytic adrenocortical tumors with conventional adrenocortical carcinomas matched for age, sex, ENS@T stage and surgical resection status showed significant better overall survival of malignant oncocytic adrenocortical tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0077-8DOI Listing
November 2018

The difficulties of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome (or "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism").

Authors:
Olivier Chabre

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2018 Jun 30;79(3):138-145. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Service d'endocrinologie, faculté de médecine, unité mixte Inserm-CEA-UJF U1036 CEA, université Grenoble-Alpes, centre hospitalier universitaire Grenoble-Alpes, 38043 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome covers different pathological conditions responsible for mild-to-moderate ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, related not to an ACTH-secreting tumor but rather to CRH and/or AVP hypothalamic secretion through activation of various neural pathways, in patients generally displaying excess central adiposity. It is better termed "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism" (NNH). The main conditions implicated in NNH comprise: neuropsychiatric disorder, alcohol abuse, insulin-resistant obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, and end-stage kidney disease. Glucocorticoid resistance is one differential diagnosis, as are some cases of primary adrenal disease with incompletely suppressed ACTH. Differentiating between NNH and mild-to-moderate Cushing's disease can be a real challenge. Clinical analysis, based on thorough history taking and screening for catabolic signs is essential; useful explorations include midnight serum or salivary cortisol and Dex/CRH and ddAVP stimulation response. Pituitary MRI suffers from limitations regarding both sensitivity and specificity, while bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling cannot distinguish between pituitary ACTH secretion by a tumor or by normal cells stimulated by endogenous CRH. Definitive diagnosis of functional etiology requires demonstrating that treatment of the underlying condition restores normal secretion of ACTH and cortisol, but this is not always possible. Lingering diagnostic uncertainty has to be accepted in certain patients, who will have to be followed up for some time before diagnosis can be considered more or less definitive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2018.04.017DOI Listing
June 2018

MiR-483-5p and miR-139-5p promote aggressiveness by targeting N-myc downstream-regulated gene family members in adrenocortical cancer.

Int J Cancer 2018 08 30;143(4):944-957. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 1036, Grenoble, France.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a tumor with poor prognosis in which overexpression of a panel of microRNAs has been associated with malignancy but a very limited number of investigations on their role in ACC pathogenesis have been conducted. We examined the involvement of miR-483-5p and miR-139-5p in adrenocortical cancer aggressiveness. Using bioinformatics predictions and mRNA/miRNA expression profiles, we performed an integrated analysis to identify inversely correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs in ACC. We identified N-myc downstream-regulated gene family members 2 and 4 (NDRG2 and NDRG4) as targets of miR-483-5p and miR-139-5p, respectively. NDRG2 and NDRG4 expressions were inversely correlated respectively with miR-483-5p and miR-139-5p levels in aggressive ACC samples from two independent cohorts of 20 and 44 ACC. Moreover, upregulation of miR-139-5p and downregulation of NDRG4 demonstrated a striking prognostic value. A direct interaction between miR-483-5p or miR-139-5p and their targets was demonstrated in reporter assays. Downregulation of miR-483-5p or miR-139-5p in the ACC cell lines NCI-H295R and SW13 increased NDRG2 or NDRG4 mRNA and protein expression, compromised adrenocortical cancer cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth. MiR-483-5p or miR-139-5p overexpression and NDRG2 or NDRG4 inhibition produce similar changes, which are rescued by NDRG2 or NDRG4 ectopic expression. We established that key factors mediating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition are downstream effectors of miR-483-5p/NDRG2 and miR-139-5p/NDRG4 pathways. Collectively, our data show for the first time that miR-483-5p/NDRG2 and miR-139-5p/NDRG4 axes promote ACC aggressiveness, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions in adrenocortical malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31363DOI Listing
August 2018

Hepatic safety of ketoconazole in Cushing's syndrome: results of a Compassionate Use Programme in France.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 May 22;178(5):447-458. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of EndocrinologyAix Marseille Universite, CNRS UMR7286, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, La Conception Hospital, Marseille, France.

Objective: Ketoconazole (KTZ) is one of few available treatments for Cushing's syndrome (CS). Although KTZ has been associated with severe hepatotoxicity, little information is available about hepatic safety in CS. The aim of this study was to document changes in liver function in patients with CS treated with KTZ.

Design: An observational prospective French cohort study (Compassionate Use Programme (CUP)).

Methods: Enrolled patients were stratified into a KTZ-naive cohort and a cohort already treated by another formulation of ketoconazole (KTZ-switch cohort). Liver function markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin) were monitored at regular intervals. Patients with ALT > 3 × ULN (upper limit of normal), total bilirubin > 2 × ULN or both ALP > 2 × ULN and ALT > ULN were considered to have liver injury.

Results: Overall, 108 patients were analysed (47 KTZ-naïve; 61 KTZ-switch). The median KTZ dose was 600 mg/day. Most abnormalities observed were asymptomatic mild increases of liver enzymes. Four patients in the KTZ-naïve cohort (8.5%) and two in the KTZ-switch cohort (3.3%) developed liver injury, considered related to KTZ in three cases (all KTZ-naïve in the first month of treatment). Five patients had mild liver function abnormalities at baseline and two had proven liver metastases. Two patients recovered on discontinuation of KTZ and the remaining patient died of unrelated causes.

Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for close monitoring of liver enzymes especially during the first six months of treatment. Liver enzyme abnormalities usually occurred within four weeks were asymptomatic and could be reversed on timely discontinuation of KTZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-17-0886DOI Listing
May 2018

Preoperative medical treatment in Cushing's syndrome: frequency of use and its impact on postoperative assessment: data from ERCUSYN.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Apr 12;178(4):399-409. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de BordeauxBordeaux, France.

Background: Surgery is the definitive treatment of Cushing's syndrome (CS) but medications may also be used as a first-line therapy. Whether preoperative medical treatment (PMT) affects postoperative outcome remains controversial.

Objective: (1) Evaluate how frequently PMT is given to CS patients across Europe; (2) examine differences in preoperative characteristics of patients who receive PMT and those who undergo primary surgery and (3) determine if PMT influences postoperative outcome in pituitary-dependent CS (PIT-CS).

Patients And Methods: 1143 CS patients entered into the ERCUSYN database from 57 centers in 26 countries. Sixty-nine percent had PIT-CS, 25% adrenal-dependent CS (ADR-CS), 5% CS from an ectopic source (ECT-CS) and 1% were classified as having CS from other causes (OTH-CS).

Results: Twenty per cent of patients took PMT. ECT-CS and PIT-CS were more likely to receive PMT compared to ADR-CS ( < 0.001). Most commonly used drugs were ketoconazole (62%), metyrapone (16%) and a combination of both (12%). Median (interquartile range) duration of PMT was 109 (98) days. PIT-CS patients treated with PMT had more severe clinical features at diagnosis and poorer quality of life compared to those undergoing primary surgery (SX) ( < 0.05). Within 7 days of surgery, PIT-CS patients treated with PMT were more likely to have normal cortisol ( < 0.01) and a lower remission rate ( < 0.01). Within 6 months of surgery, no differences in morbidity or remission rates were observed between SX and PMT groups.

Conclusions: PMT may confound the interpretation of immediate postoperative outcome. Follow-up is recommended to definitely evaluate surgical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-17-0997DOI Listing
April 2018

SFE/SFEDP adrenal insufficiency French consensus: Introduction and handbook.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2018 Feb 12;79(1):1-22. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Service d'endocrinologie diabétologie pédiatrique, hôpital Robert-Debré, centre de référence des maladies endocriniennes rares de la croissance et du développement, université Paris Diderot, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 48, boulevard Sérurier, 75019 Paris, France.

The French endocrinology society (SFE) and the French pediatric endocrinology society (DFSDP) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in the adult and child, based on an analysis of the literature by 19 experts in 6 work-groups. A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms except hyperpigmentation which is observed in primary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis rely on plasma cortisol and ACTH measurement at 8am and/or the cortisol increase after synacthen administration. When there is a persistant doubt of secondary adrenal insufficiency, insulin hypoglycemia test should be carried out in adults, adolescents and children older than 2 years. For determining the cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, measurement of anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies is the initial testing. An adrenal CT scan should be performed if auto-antibody tests are negative, then assay for very long chain fatty acids is recommended in young males. In children, a genetic anomaly is generally found, most often congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In the case of isolated corticotropin (ACTH) insufficiency, it is recommended to first eliminate corticosteroid-induced adrenal insufficiency, then perform an hypothalamic-pituitary MRI. Acute adrenal insufficiency is a serious condition, a gastrointestinal infection being the most frequently reported initiating factor. After blood sampling for cortisol and ACTH assay, treatment should be commenced by parenteral hydrocortisone hemisuccinate together with the correction of hypoglycemia and hypovolemia. Prevention of acute adrenal crisis requires an education of the patient and/or parent in the case of pediatric patients and the development of educational programs. Treatment of adrenal insufficiency is based on the use of hydrocortisone given at the lowest possible dose, administered several times per day. Mineralocorticoid replacement is often necessary for primary adrenal insufficiency but not for corticotroph deficiency. Androgen replacement by DHEA may be offered in certain conditions. Monitoring is based on the detection of signs of under- and over-dosage and on the diagnosis of associated auto-immune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2017.12.001DOI Listing
February 2018

Group 1. Epidemiology of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency: Prevalence and incidence, acute adrenal insufficiency, long-term morbidity and mortality.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Dec 27;78(6):490-494. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Service des maladies endocriniennes et métaboliques, hôpital Cochin, CHU Paris Centre, 75014 Paris, France.

The prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency is estimated at between 82-144/million, with auto-immunity being the most common cause in adults and genetic causes, especially enzyme defects, being the most common cause in children. The prevalence of secondary adrenal deficiency is estimated to be between 150-280/million. The most frequent occurrence is believed to be corticosteroid-induced insufficiency, despite the incidence of clinically relevant deficiency after cessation of glucocorticoid treatment being widely debated. Data on mortality in adrenal insufficiency are contradictory, with studies from Sweden suggesting a two-fold increase in comparison to the general population, but this is not consistently reported in all studies. However, increased mortality has been consistently reported in young patients, associated with infection and/or acute adrenal insufficiency. Acute adrenal deficiency (adrenal crisis) occurs in primary as well as secondary adrenal insufficiency. Its incidence, mostly determined in retrospective studies, is estimated in Europe at 6-8/100 patients/year. A prospective study reported 0.5 deaths/100 patient-years from adrenal crisis. Long-term morbidity of adrenal insufficiency is not well-established, the increased cardiovascular risk or bone demineralization which are not consistently reported may also be due to a supraphysiological glucocorticoid replacement therapy. However, alteration in quality of life, both in physical and mental health components, has been demonstrated by several studies in both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2017.10.010DOI Listing
December 2017

Group 2: Adrenal insufficiency: screening methods and confirmation of diagnosis.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Dec 23;78(6):495-511. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Service d'endocrinologie et nutrition, CHU Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; Inserm U1173, université Versailles-Saint-Quentin, Montigny-Le-Bretonneux, France. Electronic address:

A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, hypotension, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia amongst adrenal causes of insufficiency). The diagnosis should be considered in case of pituitary disease or a state of shock. Treatment should be commenced immediately without waiting for confirmation from biochemical tests, which rely on cortisol level at 8am (expected to be low) and on ACTH level (expected to be high in the case of primary adrenal insufficiency). If these tests are inconclusive, a Synacthen test should be carried out. The threshold limits are provided as a guide. Low plasma cortisol and normal to low plasma ACTH indicates a pituitary origin for the deficiency. In this situation, the Synacthen test can give a false normal result, and if this adrenal insufficiency is strongly suspected, an insulin hypoglycemia test or metyrapone (Metopirone) test should be carried out. In children younger than 2yr, hypoglycemia, dehydration and convulsions are frequently observed and in young girls, virilization is suspect of congenital adrenal hyperplasia . The circadian rhythm of cortisol is not present until after 4months of age and the Synacthen test is the only one that is feasible. In children older than 2yrs, the signs and diagnostic methods are the same as in the adult. Cessation of corticosteroid treatment is a frequent circumstance however there is little published data and no evidence for definitive guidelines. After ceasing a short period of corticosteroid treatment, patient education is all that is required. After longer treatment, consensus leaves the choice up to the physician, between educating the patient and prescribing hydrocortisone in case of stress, or prescribing low daily dose hydrocortisone and evaluating the ACTH axis over time until normal function is recovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2017.10.005DOI Listing
December 2017