Publications by authors named "Olivier Casasnovas"

105 Publications

New Approaches in Characterization of Lesions Dissemination in DLBCL Patients on Baseline PET/CT.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 8;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 8.

LITO Laboratory, U1288, Institut Curie, Université PSL, Inserm, Université Paris Saclay, 91400 Orsay, France.

Dissemination, expressed recently by the largest Euclidian distance between lymphoma sites (SDmax), appeared a promising risk factor in DLBCL patients. We investigated alternative distance metrics to characterize the robustness of the dissemination information. In 290 patients from the REMARC trial (NCT01122472), the Euclidean (Euc), Manhattan (Man), and Tchebychev (Tch) distances between the furthest lesions, firstly based on the centroid of each lesion and then directly from the two most distant tumor voxels and the Travelling Salesman Problem distance (TSP) were calculated. For PFS, the areas under the ROC curves were between 0.63 and 0.64, and between 0.62 and 0.65 for OS. Patients with high SDmax whatever the method of calculation or high SD_TSP had a significantly poorer outcome than patients with low SDmax or SD_TSP ( < 0.001 for both PFS and OS), with significance maintained in Ann Arbor advanced-stage patients. In multivariate analysis with total metabolic tumor volume and ECOG, each distance feature had an independent prognostic value for PFS. For OS, only SDmax_Tch, SDmax_Euc _Vox, and SDmax_Man _Vox reached significance. The spread of DLBCL lesions measured by the largest distance between lymphoma sites is a strong independent prognostic factor and could be measured directly from tumor voxels, allowing its development in the area of the deep learning segmentation methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13163998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392801PMC
August 2021

Obinutuzumab-atezolizumab-lenalidomide for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma: final analysis of a Phase Ib/II trial.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Aug 20;11(8):147. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Haematology Department, Université Claude Bernard de Lyon, Lyon University Hospital, Pierre Benite, France.

We evaluated the triplet regimen obinutuzumab-atezolizumab-lenalidomide (G-atezo-len) for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) follicular lymphoma (FL) in an open-label, multicenter phase Ib/II study (BO29562; NCT02631577). An initial 3 + 3 dose-escalation phase to define the recommended phase II dose of lenalidomide was followed by an expansion phase with G-atezo-len induction and maintenance. At final analysis, 38 patients (lenalidomide 15 mg, n = 4; 20 mg, n = 34) had completed the trial. Complete response rate for the efficacy population (lenalidomide 20 mg, n = 32) at end-of-induction was 71.9% (66.7% in double-refractory patients [refractory to rituximab and alkylator] [n = 12]; 50.0% in patients with progressive disease within 24 months of first-line therapy [n = 12]). The 36-month progression-free survival rate was 68.4%. All treated patients had ≥1 adverse event (AE; grade 3-5 AE, 32 patients [84%]; serious AE, 18 patients [47%]; AEs leading to discontinuation of any study drug, 11 patients [29%]). There were 2 fatal AEs (1 merkel carcinoma, 1 sarcomatoid carcinoma; both unrelated to any study drug). The G-atezo-len regimen is effective and tolerable in patients with R/R FL. AEs were consistent with the known safety profile of the individual drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00539-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379261PMC
August 2021

c-MYC and p53 expression highlight starry-sky pattern as a favourable prognostic feature in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 Nov 9;7(6):604-615. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Pathology, Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital, Grenoble, France.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically heterogeneous entity, in which the first-line treatment currently consists of an immuno-chemotherapy regimen (R-CHOP). However, around 30% of patients will not respond or will relapse. Overexpression of c-MYC or p53 is frequently found in DLBCL, but an association with prognosis remains controversial, as for other biomarkers previously linked with DLBCL aggressivity (CD5, CD23, or BCL2). The aim of this study was to explore the expression of these biomarkers and their correlation with outcome, clinical, or pathological features in a DLBCL cohort. Immunohistochemical (c-MYC, p53, BCL2, CD5, and CD23), morphological ('starry-sky' pattern [SSP]), targeted gene panel sequencing by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and fluorescence in situ hybridisation analyses were performed on tissue microarray blocks for a retrospective cohort of 94 R-CHOP-treated de novo DLBCL. In univariate analyses, p53 overexpression (p53 ) was associated with unfavourable outcome (p = 0.04) and with c-MYC overexpression (p = 0.01), whereas c-MYC overexpression was linked with an SSP (p = 0.004), but only tended towards an inferior prognosis (p = 0.06). Presence of a starry-sky morphology was found to be correlated with better survival in p53 DLBCL (p = 0.03) and/or c-MYC-positive DLBCL (p = 0.002). Furthermore, NGS data revealed that these three variables were associated with somatic mutations (PIM1, TNFRSF14, FOXO1, and B2M) involved in B-cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and immune signalling. Taken together, these results show that the SSP pattern seems to be a protective factor in high-risk DLBCL subgroups and highlight cell death as a built-in failsafe mechanism to control tumour growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8503894PMC
November 2021

Droplet digital PCR allows vector copy number assessment and monitoring of experimental CAR T cells in murine xenograft models or approved CD19 CAR T cell-treated patients.

J Transl Med 2021 06 21;19(1):265. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

INSERM UMR1098, Right, EFSBFC, UFC, Laboratoire de Thérapeutique Immuno-Moléculaire Et Cellulaire Des Cancers, 8 rue du Dr Jean François Xavier Girod, 25020, Besançon, France.

Background: Genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T lymphocytes are promising therapeutic tools for cancer. Four CAR T cell drugs, including tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel) and axicabtagene-ciloleucel (axi-cel), all targeting CD19, are currently approved for treating B cell malignancies. Flow cytometry (FC) remains the standard for monitoring CAR T cells using a recombinant biotinylated target protein. Nevertheless, there is a need for additional tools, and the challenge is to develop an easy, relevant, highly sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive detection method. Molecular tools can meet this need to specifically monitor long-term persistent CAR T cells.

Methods: Based on 2 experimental CAR T cell constructs, IL-1RAP and CS1, we designed 2 quantitative digital droplet (ddPCR) PCR assays. By targeting the 4.1BB/CD3z (28BBz) or 28/CD3z (28z) junction area, we demonstrated that PCR assays can be applied to approved CD19 CAR T drugs. Both 28z and 28BBz ddPCR assays allow determination of the average vector copy number (VCN) per cell. We confirmed that the VCN is dependent on the multiplicity of infection and verified that the VCN of our experimental or GMP-like IL-1RAP CAR T cells met the requirement (< 5 VCN/cell) for delivery to the clinical department, similar to approved axi-cel or tisa-cel drugs.

Results: 28BBz and 28z ddPCR assays applied to 2 tumoral (acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or multiple myeloma (MM) xenograft humanized NSG mouse models allowed us to quantify the early expansion (up to day 30) of CAR T cells after injection. Interestingly, following initial expansion, when circulating CAR T cells were challenged with the tumor, we noted a second expansion phase. Investigation of the bone marrow, spleen and lung showed that CAR T cells disseminated more within these tissues in mice previously injected with leukemic cell lines. Finally, circulating CAR T cell ddPCR monitoring of R/R acute lymphoid leukemia or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n = 10 for tisa-cel and n = 7 for axi-cel) patients treated with both approved CAR T cells allowed detection of early expansion, which was highly correlated with FC, as well as long-term persistence (up to 450 days), while FC failed to detect these events.

Conclusion: Overall, we designed and validated 2 ddPCR assays allowing routine or preclinical monitoring of early- and long-term circulating approved or experimental CAR T cells, including our own IL-1RAP CAR T cells, which will be evaluated in an upcoming phase I clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02925-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215786PMC
June 2021

Efficacy and safety assessment of prolonged maintenance with subcutaneous rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of the Phase III MabCute study.

Haematologica 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Rituximab plus chemotherapy induction followed by rituximab maintenance for up to 2 years confers long-term progression-free survival (PFS) benefit in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is not known whether further prolonged maintenance with rituximab provides additional benefit. The phase III MabCute study enrolled 692 patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients who responded to induction with rituximab plus chemotherapy and were still responding after up to 2 years' initial maintenance with subcutaneous rituximab were randomized to extended maintenance with subcutaneous rituximab (n=138) or observation only (n=138). The primary endpoint of investigator-assessed PFS in the randomized population was un-addressed by the end of study because of an insufficient number of events (129 events were needed for 80% power at 5% significance if approximately 330 patients were randomized). In total, there were 46 PFS events, 19 and 27 in the rituximab and observation arms, respectively (P=0.410 by stratified log rank test; hazard ratio 0.76 [95% confidence interval: 0.37-1.53]). Median PFS was not reached in either randomized arm. There were no new safety signals; however, adverse events were seen slightly more frequently with rituximab than with observation during extended maintenance. Maintenance for up to 2 years with rituximab after response to initial induction therefore remains the standard of care in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.274803DOI Listing
June 2021

Obinutuzumab and idelalisib in symptomatic patients with relapsed/refractory Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Blood Adv 2021 05;5(9):2438-2446

Hematology Department, Sorbonne Université, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière APHP, Paris, France; and.

We present the results of a phase 2 study evaluating the combination of obinutuzumab + idelalisib in relapsed/refractory (R/R) Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). The goal was to determine the safety and efficacy of a fixed-duration chemotherapy-free treatment. During the induction phase, patients received idelalisib + obinutuzumab for 6 cycles, followed by a maintenance phase with idelalisib alone for ≤2 years. Forty-eight patients with R/R WM were treated with the induction combination, and 27 patients participated in the maintenance phase. The best responses, reached after a median of 6.5 months (interquartile range, 3.4-7.1; range, 2.6-22.1 months), were very good partial response in 5 patients, partial response in 27 patients, and minor response in 3 patients, leading to overall response rate and major response rate estimates of 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56.7-83.4) and 65.3% (95% CI, 50.4-78.3), respectively. With a median follow-up of 25.9 months, median progression-free survival was 25.4 months (95% CI, 15.7-29.0). Univariate analysis focusing on molecular screening found no significant impact of CXCR4 genotypes on responses and survivals but a deleterious impact of TP53 mutations on survival. Although there was no grade 5 toxicity, 26 patients were removed from the study because of side effects; the most frequent were neutropenia (9.4%), diarrhea (8.6%), and liver toxicity (9.3%). The combination of idelalisib + obinutuzumab is effective in R/R WM. Nonetheless, the apparent lack of impact of genotype on outcome could give new meaning to targeting of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in WM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02962401.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114554PMC
May 2021

Short Diagnosis-to-Treatment Interval Is Associated With Higher Circulating Tumor DNA Levels in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 28;39(23):2605-2616. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Hematology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Purpose: Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) in need of immediate therapy are largely under-represented in clinical trials. The diagnosis-to-treatment interval (DTI) has recently been described as a metric to quantify such patient selection bias, with short DTI being associated with adverse risk factors and inferior outcomes. Here, we characterized the relationships between DTI, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), conventional risk factors, and clinical outcomes, with the goal of defining objective disease metrics contributing to selection bias.

Patients And Methods: We evaluated pretreatment ctDNA levels in 267 patients with DLBCL treated across multiple centers in Europe and the United States using Cancer Personalized Profiling by Deep Sequencing. Pretreatment ctDNA levels were correlated with DTI, total metabolic tumor volumes (TMTVs), the International Prognostic Index (IPI), and outcome.

Results: Short DTI was associated with advanced-stage disease ( .001) and higher IPI ( .001). We also found an inverse correlation between DTI and TMTV ( 0.37; .001). Similarly, pretreatment ctDNA levels were significantly associated with stage, IPI, and TMTV (all .001), demonstrating that both DTI and ctDNA reflect disease burden. Notably, patients with shorter DTI had higher pretreatment ctDNA levels ( .001). Pretreatment ctDNA levels predicted short DTI independent of the IPI ( .001). Although each risk factor was significantly associated with event-free survival in univariable analysis, ctDNA level was prognostic of event-free survival independent of DTI and IPI in multivariable Cox regression (ctDNA: hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI [1.2 to 2.0]; IPI: 1.1 [0.9 to 1.3]; -DTI: 1.1 [1.0 to 1.2]).

Conclusion: Short DTI largely reflects baseline tumor burden, which can be objectively measured using pretreatment ctDNA levels. Pretreatment ctDNA levels therefore have utility for quantifying and guarding against selection biases in prospective DLBCL clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8331064PMC
August 2021

Oxaliplatin before autologous transplantation in combination with high-dose cytarabine and rituximab provides longer disease control than cisplatin or carboplatin in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma: results from the LyMA prospective trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 3;56(7):1700-1709. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Clinical Hematology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France.

LyMA trial has demonstrated the benefit of rituximab maintenance after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in previously untreated mantle-cell lymphoma patients (MCL). Induction consisted of four courses of R-DHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and platinum derivative). The platinum derivative (PD) choice was free: R-DHA-cisplatin, R-DHA-carboplatin, or R-DHA-oxaliplatin. We investigated the prognostic impact of each PD. PFS and OS calculated from inclusion and investigated in an intention-to-treat (ITT) (= 298) and per-protocol analyses (PP) (n = 227). R-DHACis, R-DHACa, or R-DHAOx were used at first cycle in 184, 76, and 38 patients, respectively. Overall, 71 patients (59 in the R-DHACis) required a change in PD, mainly because of PD toxicity. In ITT-analysis, PFS in the R-DHACis and R-DHACa groups were similar (4-year PFS of 65%), while R-DHAOx had a better PFS (4-year PFS of 65% versus 86.5%, respectively, HR = 0.44, p = 0.02). The 4-year OS was 92% for R-DHAOx versus 75.9% for R-DHACis/DHACa (HR = 0.37, p = 0.03). Similar results were yielded in the PP analysis. Low MIPI and R-DHAOx were independent favorable prognostic markers for both PFS (HR = 0.44, p = 0.035) and OS (HR = 0.36, p = 0.045). In vitro and in silico analyses confirmed that oxaliplatin has an anti-MCL cytotoxic effect that differs from that of other PD. R-DHAOx before ASCT provides better outcome in transplantation eligible young MCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01198-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of novel, clonally stable, somatic mutations targeting transcription factors PAX5 and NKX2-3, the epigenetic regulator LRIF1, and BRAF in a case of atypical B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia harboring a t(14;18)(q32;q21).

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2021 02 19;7(1). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

University of Burgundy-ISITE-BFC-Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) UMR1231, Faculty of Medicine, 21079 Dijon, France.

Diagnosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is usually straightforward, involving clinical, immunophenotypic (Matutes score), and (immuno)genetic analyses (to refine patient prognosis for treatment). CLL cases with atypical presentation (e.g., Matutes ≤ 3) are also encountered, and for these diseases, biology and prognostic impact are less clear. Here we report the genomic characterization of a case of atypical B-CLL in a 70-yr-old male patient; B-CLL cells showed a Matutes score of 3, chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) (), mutated , deletion 17p, and mutations in , (subclonal), and (subclonal). Quite strikingly, a novel mutation that was predicted to be loss of function was also seen. Exome sequencing identified, in addition, a potentially actionable mutation, together with novel somatic mutations affecting the homeobox transcription factor , known to control B-lymphocyte development and homing, and the epigenetic regulator , which is implicated in chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Neither nor mutations, predicted to be loss of function, have previously been reported in B-CLL. Sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations together with , , and mutations, with the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation, in the initial diagnostic sample obtained 12 yr prior. This is suggestive of a role for these novel mutations in B-CLL initiation and stable clonal evolution, including upon treatment withdrawal. This case extends the spectrum of atypical B-CLL with t(14;18)(q32;q21) and highlights the value of more global precision genomics for patient follow-up and treatment in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a005934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903887PMC
February 2021

Integrative analysis of a phase 2 trial combining lenalidomide with CHOP in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(2):539-548

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Unité Hémopathies Lymphoïdes, Créteil, France.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a frequent T-cell lymphoma in the elderly population that has a poor prognosis when treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone  (CHOP) therapy. Lenalidomide, which has been safely combined with CHOP to treat B-cell lymphoma, has shown efficacy as a single agent in AITL treatment. We performed a multicentric phase 2 trial combining 25 mg lenalidomide daily for 14 days per cycle with 8 cycles of CHOP21 in previously untreated AITL patients aged 60 to 80 years. The primary objective was the complete metabolic response (CMR) rate at the end of treatment. Seventy-eight of the 80 patients enrolled were included in the efficacy and safety analysis. CMR was achieved in 32 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-52.7%) patients, which was below the prespecified CMR rate of 55% defined as success in the study. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 42.1% (95% CI, 30.9%-52.8%), and the 2-year overall survival was 59.2% (95% CI, 47.3%-69.3%). The most common toxicities were hematologic and led to treatment discontinuation in 15% of patients. This large prospective and uniform series of AITL treatment data was used to perform an integrative analysis of clinical, pathologic, biologic, and molecular data. TET2, RHOA, DNMT3A, and IDH2 mutations were present in 78%, 54%, 32%, and 22% of patients, respectively. IDH2 mutations were associated with distinct pathologic and clinical features and DNMT3A was associated with shorter PFS. In conclusion, the combination of lenalidomide and CHOP did not improve the CMR in AITL patients. This trial clarified the clinical impact of recurrent mutations in AITL. This trial was registered at www.clincialtrials.gov as #NCT01553786.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839364PMC
January 2021

Ibrutinib, obinutuzumab, and venetoclax in relapsed and untreated patients with mantle cell lymphoma: a phase 1/2 trial.

Blood 2021 02;137(7):877-887

Peninsula Medical School, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom; and.

Ibrutinib, obinutuzumab, and venetoclax demonstrate synergy in preclinical models of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). OAsIs (NCT02558816), a single-arm multicenter prospective phase 1/2 trial, aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of venetoclax in combination with fixed doses of ibrutinib and obinutuzumab, in relapsed MCL patients. At the venetoclax MTD, extension cohorts were opened for relapsed and untreated patients. Safety and efficacy were secondary objectives. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed by allele-specific oligonucleotide quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Between 14 October 2015 and 29 May 2018, 48 patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicity was reported, and venetoclax at 400 mg per day was chosen for extension. Eighteen (75%) relapsed and 8 (53%) untreated patients experienced grade 3/4 adverse events. The complete response rate assessed by positron emission tomography at the end of cycle 6 was 67% in relapsed and 86.6% in untreated patients. MRD clearance for evaluable patients was seen in 71.5% of relapsed (10/14 patients) and 100% of untreated MRD-evaluable patients (n = 12) at the end of 3 cycles. The median follow-up for relapsed patients was 17 months (range, 10-35 months). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 69.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9%-91.4%) and 68.6% (95% CI, 49.5%-95.1%) for overall survival. The median follow-up was 14 months (range, 5-19) for untreated patients, the 1-year PFS was 93.3% (95% CI, 81.5%-100%). The combination of obinutuzumab, ibrutinib, and venetoclax is well tolerated and provides high response rates, including at the molecular level, in relapsed and untreated MCL patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02558816.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008727DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictive factors of early progression after CAR T-cell therapy in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(22):5607-5615

Department of Hemato-Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has emerged as an option for relapsed/refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas that have failed 2 lines of therapy. Failures usually occur early after infusion. The purpose of our study was to identify factors that may predict failure, particularly early progression (EP), within the first month after infusion. Characteristics of 116 patients were analyzed at the time of decision (TD) to use commercial CAR (axicabtagene ciloleucel, n = 49; tisagenlecleucel n = 67) and at the time of treatment (TT), together with total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) at TT. With a median follow-up of 8.2 months, 55 patients failed treatment; 27 (49%) were early progressors. The estimated 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 47.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.0-58.6) and 67.0% (95% CI, 57-79), respectively. Univariate analyses for PFS and OS identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) ≥2, stage III/IV disease, extranodal (EN) sites ≥2, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased C-reactive protein (CRP), high International Prognostic Index at TD and at TT, as well as increased CRP, bulky mass, and high TMTV at TT, as risk factors. Multivariate analyses for PFS, EP, and OS identified elevated LDH and EN sites ≥2 at TD and the same predictors at TT (ie, increased CRP, EN sites ≥2, and TMTV >80 mL). In summary, risk factors identified for early progression at TD and at TT were EN involvement (≥2 sites) and lymphoma burden (LDH, TMTV).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686887PMC
November 2020

Long-term overall survival and toxicities of ABVD vs BEACOPP in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: A pooled analysis of four randomized trials.

Cancer Med 2020 09 25;9(18):6565-6575. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Onco-Haematology, Archet Hospital, Nice, France.

Purpose: We explored the potential overall survival (OS) benefit of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) over doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in a pooled analysis of four randomized trials.

Patients And Methods: Primary objective was to evaluate the OS impact of BEACOPP using individual patient data. Secondary objectives were progression-free survival (PFS), secondary cancers, and use of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).

Results: About 1227 patients were included. The 7-year OS was 84.3% (95% CI 80.8-87.2) for ABVD vs 87.7% (95% CI 84.5-90.2) for BEACOPP. Two follow-up periods were identified based on survival curves and hazard ratio (HR) over time. For the first 18 months, there was no difference. For the second period of ≥18 months, ABVD patients had a higher death risk (HR  = 1.59; 95% CI 1.09-2.33). A Cox model stratified by trial and evaluating the effect of treatment and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score as fixed effects showed that both were statistically significant (treatment, P = .0185; IPI score, P = .0107). The 7-year PFS was 71.1% (95% CI 67.1-74.6) for ABVD vs 81.1% (95% CI 77.5-84.2) for BEACOPP (P < .001). After ABVD, 25 secondary cancers (4.0%) were reported with no myelodysplasia (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to 36 (6.5%) after BEACOPP, which included 13 patients with MDS/AML. Following ABVD, 86 patients (13.8%) received ASCT vs 39 (6.4%) for BEACOPP.

Conclusions: This analysis showed a slight improvement in OS for BEACOPP and confirmed a PFS benefit. Frontline use of BEACOPP instead of ABVD increased secondary leukemia incidence but halved the requirement for ASCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520354PMC
September 2020

Safety and efficacy of temsirolimus in combination with three different immuno-chemotherapy regimens in relapse and refractory mantle cell lymphoma, final results of the T phase IB trial of the LYSA.

Ann Hematol 2020 Aug 29;99(8):1771-1778. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Hematology, CHU de Nantes, University Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.

Mantle cell lymphoma has a dismal prognosis at relapse or in the refractory setting. Among therapies, mTor pathway targeting by temsirolimus has been the first strategy approved for relapse in Europe. While its efficacy in monotherapy has long been demonstrated, its use remains limited. In the T phase Ib clinical trial, we investigated the recommended dose of temsirolimus in association with R-CHOP (R-CHOP-T), or high-dose cytarabine plus rituximab (R-DHA-T), or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide plus rituximab (R-FC-T). From November 11, 2011 to February 26, 2015, forty-one patients were enrolled. Patients presented with high MIPI (47.5%) at relapse and a median number of treatments of 1 (1-3). Patients were treated by R-CHOP-T (n = 10), R-FC-T (n = 14), or R-DHA-T (n = 17) according to the choice of local investigators. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 15 mg in the R-CHOP-T arm and has not been determined in other treatment arms because of toxicities. All patients experienced ≥ Grade 3 adverse events, mainly thrombocytopenia (76%). Twenty-six patients discontinued prematurely the treatment, mostly for toxicity (n = 12) and progression of the disease (n = 8). Of note, 6 patients of the R-DHA-T arm reached complete remission (35%). Temsirolimus with immuno-chemotherapy is associated with a high rate of toxicities. Determination of MTD could only be achieved for R-CHOP-T arm. Associations between temsirolimus and other targeted therapies may be warranted for R/R MCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04159-3DOI Listing
August 2020

Selinexor in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SADAL): a single-arm, multinational, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jul;7(7):e511-e522

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc, Newton, MA, USA.

Background: Relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer with a median overall survival of less than 6 months. We aimed to assess the response to single-agent selinexor, an oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export, in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL who had no therapeutic options of potential clinical benefit.

Methods: SADAL was a multicentre, multinational, open-label, phase 2b study done in 59 sites in 19 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with pathologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, who had received two to five lines of previous therapies, and progressed after or were not candidates for autologous stem-cell transplantation were enrolled. Germinal centre B-cell or non-germinal centre B-cell tumour subtype and double or triple expressor status were determined by immunohistochemistry and double or triple hit status was determined by cytogenetics. Patients received 60 mg selinexor orally on days 1 and 3 weekly until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study was initially designed to evaluate both 60 mg and 100 mg twice-weekly doses of selinexor; however, the 100 mg dose was discontinued in the protocol (version 7.0) on March 29, 2017, when an improved therapeutic window was observed at 60 mg. Primary outcome was overall response rate. The primary outcome and safety were assessed in all patients who received 60 mg selinexor under protocol version 6.0, or enrolled under protocol versions 7.0 or higher and received at least one dose of selinexor. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02227251 (active but not enrolling).

Findings: Between Oct 21, 2015, and Nov 2, 2019, 267 patients were randomly assigned, with 175 allocated to the 60 mg group and 92 to the discontinued 100 mg group. 48 patients assigned to the 60 mg group were excluded due to enrolment before version 6.0 of the protocol; the remaining 127 patients received selinexor 60 mg and were included in analyses of primary outcome and safety. The overall response rate was 28% (36/127; 95% CI 20·7-37·0); 15 (12%) achieved a complete response and 21 (17%) a partial response. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (n=58), neutropenia (n=31), anaemia (n=28), fatigue (n=14), hyponatraemia (n=10), and nausea (n=8). The most common serious adverse events were pyrexia (n=9), pneumonia (n=6), and sepsis (n=6). There were no deaths judged as related to treatment with selinexor.

Interpretation: Single-drug oral selinexor induced durable responses and had a manageable adverse events profile in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL who received at least two lines of previous chemoimmunotherapy. Selinexor could be considered a new oral, non-cytotoxic treatment option in this setting.

Funding: Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30120-4DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical spectrum of primary adrenal lymphoma: results of a multicenter cohort study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2020 10;183(4):453-462

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Purpose: We sought to refine the clinical picture of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with predominant adrenal manifestation and risk of adrenal insufficiency.

Methods: Ninety-seven patients from 14 centers in Europe, Canada and the United States were included in this retrospective analysis between 1994 and 2017.

Results: Of the 81 patients with imaging data, 19 (23%) had isolated adrenal involvement (iPAL), while 62 (77%) had additional extra-adrenal involvement (PAL+). Among patients who had both CT and PET scans, 18FDG-PET revealed extra-adrenal involvement not detected by CT scan in 9/18 cases (50%). The most common clinical manifestations were B symptoms (55%), fatigue (45%), and abdominal pain (35%). Endocrinological assessment was often inadequate. With a median follow-up of 41.6 months, 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival rates in the entire cohort were 35.5% and 39.4%, respectively. The hazard ratios of iPAL for PFS and OS were 40.1 (95% CI: 2.63-613.7, P = 0.008) and 2.69 (95% CI: 0.61-11.89, P = 0.191), respectively. PFS was much shorter in iPAL vs PAL+ (median 4 months vs not reached, P = 0.006), and OS also appeared to be shorter (median 16 months vs not reached), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.16). Isolated PAL was more frequent in females (OR = 3.81; P = 0.01) and less frequently associated with B symptoms (OR = 0.159; P = 0.004).

Conclusion: We found unexpected heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of PAL. Further studies are needed to clarify whether clinical distinction between iPAL and PAL+ is corroborated by differences in molecular biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-19-0506DOI Listing
October 2020

Deep-Learning F-FDG Uptake Classification Enables Total Metabolic Tumor Volume Estimation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

J Nucl Med 2021 01 12;62(1):30-36. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Laboratoire d'Imagerie Translationnelle en Oncologie, INSERM, Institut Curie, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay, France.

Total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV), calculated from F-FDG PET/CT baseline studies, is a prognostic factor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) whose measurement requires the segmentation of all malignant foci throughout the body. No consensus currently exists regarding the most accurate approach for such segmentation. Further, all methods still require extensive manual input from an experienced reader. We examined whether an artificial intelligence-based method could estimate TMTV with a comparable prognostic value to TMTV measured by experts. Baseline F-FDG PET/CT scans of 301 DLBCL patients from the REMARC trial (NCT01122472) were retrospectively analyzed using a prototype software (PET Assisted Reporting System [PARS]). An automated whole-body high-uptake segmentation algorithm identified all 3-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) with increased tracer uptake. The resulting ROIs were processed using a convolutional neural network trained on an independent cohort and classified as nonsuspicious or suspicious uptake. The PARS-based TMTV (TMTV) was estimated as the sum of the volumes of ROIs classified as suspicious uptake. The reference TMTV (TMTV) was measured by 2 experienced readers using independent semiautomatic software. The TMTV was compared with the TMTV in terms of prognostic value for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). TMTV was significantly correlated with the TMTV (ρ = 0.76; < 0.001). Using PARS, an average of 24 regions per subject with increased tracer uptake was identified, and an average of 20 regions per subject was correctly identified as nonsuspicious or suspicious, yielding 85% classification accuracy, 80% sensitivity, and 88% specificity, compared with the TMTV region. Both TMTV results were predictive of PFS (hazard ratio, 2.3 and 2.6 for TMTV and TMTV, respectively; < 0.001) and OS (hazard ratio, 2.8 and 3.7 for TMTV and TMTV, respectively; < 0.001). TMTV was consistent with that obtained by experts and displayed a significant prognostic value for PFS and OS in DLBCL patients. Classification of high-uptake regions using deep learning for rapidly discarding physiologic uptake may considerably simplify TMTV estimation, reduce observer variability, and facilitate the use of TMTV as a predictive factor in DLBCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.242412DOI Listing
January 2021

Performance of CT Compared with F-FDG PET in Predicting the Efficacy of Nivolumab in Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Radiology 2020 06 14;295(3):651-661. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

From the Dept of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hosp, Columbia Univ Medical Ctr, New York, NY (F.Z.M., L.D., A.C., L.H.S.); Dept of Radiology, Rangueil Univ Hosp, Toulouse, France (F.Z.M.); Dept of Radiology, First Affiliated Hosp of Nanjing Medical Univ, Nanjing, China (A.C.); Univ Lille, CHU Lille, EA 7365-GRITA-Groupe de Recherche sur les Formes Injectables et les Technologies Associées, Lille, France (F.M.); Dept of Hematology, Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen, France (A.S.); Dept of Hematology, Paoli-Calmette Inst, Marseille, France (J.M.S.d.C.); Dept of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hosp, AP-HP, Paris, France (L.V.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Dijon, Dijon, France (O.C.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Besançon, Besançon, France (A.C.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Reims, Reims, France (A.D.); Dept of Hematology, Leon Berard Ctr, Lyon, France (E.N.V.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Lyon, Lyon, France (H.G.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Angers, Angers, France (M.P.M.M.); Dept of Hematology, Bergonie Inst, Bordeaux, France (A.S.); Dept of Hematology, Saint-Antoine Hosp, AP-HP, Paris, France (R.D.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France (K.B.); Dept of Hematology, Institut Universitaire du Cancer Toulouse-Oncopole, Toulouse, France (C.B.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Limoges, Limoges, France (M.T.); Dept of Hematology, Cochin Hosp, AP-HP, Paris, France (B.D.F.); Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice, France (F.P.); Dept of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Curie, Paris, France (R.D.S.); Dept of Hematology, Univ Hosp of Rennes, Rennes, France (G.M., R.H.); INSERM, U1236, Rennes, France (G.M., R.H.); and UMR1015, Institut Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif 94800, France (L.D.).

Background CT and fluorine 18 (F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT performances following immune therapy are not well known in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (RRHL). Purpose To compare CT and PET/CT for prognostic value of early response evaluation following nivolumab therapy. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included patients from 34 institutions who underwent early imaging response evaluation from July 2013 to April 2017. Three experienced readers classified imaging response by using Cheson et al and 2016 Lymphoma Response to Immunomodulatory Therapy Criteria as follows: complete (metabolic) response, partial (metabolic) response, stable disease or no metabolic response, or progressive (metabolic) disease. Primary CT and PET assessments were performed at a median of 2.0 months (interquartile range, 1.7-3.7 months) after nivolumab initiation. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine the relationship of primary CT and PET assessment response categories to overall survival (OS). Agreements between primary and secondary imaging assessments were assessed by using κ analysis. Results A total of 45 patients (median age, 37 years; range, 18-77 years; 25 men) underwent a primary assessment using CT and PET/CT; 36 patients also underwent a subsequent assessment. Eleven patients (24%) died after a median follow-up of 21.2 months. CT and PET response categories were associated with OS ( = .03 for primary CT assessment; = .02 for primary PET assessment). There was no pseudoprogression at primary CT and PET assessments. At the primary assessment, response categories by using CT were reclassified by using PET in 44% (20 of 45) of patients. Among these, 55% (11 of 20) were reclassified to complete metabolic response (complete metabolic response rate: 29% [13 of 45 patients] vs complete response rate: 4% [two of 45 patients]), with a 2-year OS probability of 100%. At the secondary assessment, complete response rate using CT increased to 17% (six of 36 patients), hence a better agreement with PET (κ = 0.78; < .001). Conclusion Early CT and PET/CT at a median of 2 months after initiation of nivolumab predicted overall survival in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Early PET detected additional patients with complete metabolic response. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Scott and Wang in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192056DOI Listing
June 2020

High total metabolic tumor volume at baseline predicts survival independent of response to therapy.

Blood 2020 04;135(16):1396-1405

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hemato-Oncology, Paris, France; and.

Early identification of ultra-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is needed to aid stratification to innovative treatment. Previous studies suggested high baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) negatively impacts survival of DLBCL patients. We analyzed the prognostic impact of TMTV and prognostic indices in DLBCL patients, aged 60 to 80 years, from the phase 3 REMARC study that randomized responding patients to R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) into maintenance lenalidomide or placebo. TMTV was computed on baseline positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the 41% maximum standardized uptake value method; the optimal TMTV cutoff for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was determined and confirmed by a training validation method. There were 301 out of 650 evaluable patients, including 192 patients classified as germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)/non-GCB and MYC/BCL2 expressor. Median baseline TMTV was 238 cm3; optimal TMTV cutoff was 220 cm3. Patients with high vs low TMTV showed worse/higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2, stage III or IV disease, >1 extranodal site, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, International Prognostic Index (IPI) 3-5, and age-adjusted IPI 2-3. High vs low TMTV significantly impacted PFS and OS, independent of maintenance treatment. Although the GCB/non-GCB profile and MYC expression did not correlate with TMTV/survival, BCL2 >70% impacted PFS and could be stratified by TMTV. Multivariate analysis identified baseline TMTV and ECOG PS as independently associated with PFS and OS. Even in responding patients, after R-CHOP, high baseline TMTV was a strong prognosticator of inferior PFS and OS. Moreover, TMTV combined with ECOG PS may identify an ultra-risk DLBCL population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01122472.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162688PMC
April 2020

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of relapsed follicular lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation in the rituximab era.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Apr 30;38(2):137-145. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Hematology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a therapeutic option for patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL). The clinical characteristics and outcomes of FL relapse after ASCT in the rituximab era have not yet been fully elucidated. We retrospectively reviewed 414 FL patients treated with ASCT between 2000 and 2014 in four hematology departments. All patients received rituximab as a first-line treatment. We specifically analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies at relapse, and outcomes of 95 patients (23%) who relapsed after ASCT. The patients (median age, 57 y) received a median of two lines of therapy (range, 2-6) prior to ASCT, with 92% in complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) before ASCT. Histological transformation at relapse after ASCT was observed in 20% of the patients. Treatment at relapse after ASCT consisted of chemotherapy with or without rituximab (n = 45/90, 50%), targeted agents (18%), rituximab monotherapy (14%), or consolidation allogeneic transplantation after induction chemotherapy (12%) and radiotherapy (6%). After relapse, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1 year (95% CI, 0.541-1.579) and 5.5 years (95% CI, 1.910-9.099), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, histological transformation (HT) was associated with OS (P = .044; HR 2.439; 95% CI, 1.025-5.806), and a high FLIPI score at relapse was associated with PFS (P = .028; HR 2.469; 95% CI, 1.104-5.521). This retrospective study showed that the period of PFS of patients who relapsed after ASCT is short. A biopsy should be performed for these patients to document the HT. Our results indicate that new treatment strategies will need to be developed for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2713DOI Listing
April 2020

Management and outcome of primary CNS lymphoma in the modern era: An LOC network study.

Neurology 2020 03 6;94(10):e1027-e1039. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

From Service de Neurologie 2-Mazarin, Sorbonne Université, IHU, ICM (C. Houillier, A.A., D.D., H.D., D.G., B.A., K.H.-X.), Service d'Hématologie (S. Choquet), Service de Neuro-Radiologie (N.M.-D.), Service d'Ophtalmologie (V.T.), Service de Médecine Nucléaire (A.K.), Service de Neuro-Pathologie (K.M.), Service d'Anatomie et Cytologies Pathologiques (F.C.), Service de Radiothérapie (L.F.), Service d'Hémato-Biologie (M.L.G.-T., M.C.), and Service de Neurochirurgie (B.M., M.P.), APHP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Service d'Hématologie (C. Soussain), Institut Curie, Site Saint-Cloud; Service d'Hématologie (H.G.), CHU Lyon Sud; Service d'Hématologie (P.S., A.S.), Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux; Service de Neuro-Oncologie (O. Chinot), Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, INP, AP-HM, CHU de la Timone, Marseille; Service de Neurologie (L.T., M.B.), CHU de Nancy; Service d'Hématologie (R.H.), Inserm U1236 Université de Rennes 1 (T.L.), CHU de Rennes; Service de Neurologie (G.A.), Hôpitaux Civils, Colmar; Service d'Hématologie (G.D.), CHU de Caen; Service d'Oncologie Médical (P.A.), Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest, Saint Herblain; Service d'Hématologie (C.M.-C.), CHU de Clermont-Ferrand; Service de Neurologie (A.A.), CHU de Toulouse; Service d'Oncologie Hématologique et de Thérapie Cellulaire (V.D.), CHU de Poitiers, INSERM, CIC 1402, Centre d'Investigation Clinique, Université de Poitiers; Service d'Oncologie Médicale (M.F.), Institut du Cancer de Montpellier Val d'Aurelle; Service d'Hématologie (F.J.), Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen; Service d'Hématologie (A.C.), CHU de Besançon; Service d'Hématologie (M.P.M.-M.), CHU d'Angers; Service d'Hématologie (F.M., E.B.), CHRU de Lille; Service d'Hématologie (O. Casasnovas), CHU de Dijon; Service d'Onco-Hématologie (R.G.), CHU de Grenoble; Service d'Hématologie (L.M.F.), CHU de Strasbourg; Service d'Hématologie (J.A.), CHU de Limoges; Service d'Hématologie (J.-P.M.), CHU d'Amiens; Service d'Hématologie (A.T.), CHU de Brest; Service de Neurologie (C.C.) and Service d'Hématologie (A.W.), CHU de Nîmes; Clinique Courlancy (P.C.), Reims; Service d'Hématologie (J.T.), Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Paris; Service d'Hématologie Clinique (K.L.), Centre Hospitalier, Le Mans; Service d'Hématologie (C. Serrier), Centre Hospitalier de Perpignan; Service d'Hématologie (C. Haioun), Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, APHP; Service d'Hématologie Clinique (S. Chebrek), Centre Hospitalier d'Avignon; Service d'Hématologie (J.O.B.), CHU de Clermont-Ferrand; Service d'Hématologie (L.O.), Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse; Service de Neuro-Oncologie (E.T.), Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, INP, AP-HM, CHU de la Timone; Service d'Ophtalmologie (N.C.), Institut Curie, Université Paris V Descartes et PSL (Paris Science et Lettre), Paris; and Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire (E.G.), Centre d'Investigations Cliniques INSERM U1517, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Université de Tours, France.

Objective: Real-life studies on patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) are scarce. Our objective was to analyze, in a nationwide population-based study, the current medical practice in the management of PCNSL.

Methods: The French oculo-cerebral lymphoma network (LOC) database prospectively records all newly diagnosed PCNSL cases from 32 French centers. Data of patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: We identified 1,002 immunocompetent patients (43% aged >70 years, median Karnofsky Performance Status [KPS] 60). First-line treatment was high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy in 92% of cases, with an increasing use of rituximab over time (66%). Patients <60 years of age received consolidation treatment in 77% of cases, consisting of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (54%) or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HCT-ASCT) (23%). Among patients >60 years of age, WBRT and HCT-ASCT consolidation were administered in only 9% and 2%, respectively. The complete response rate to initial chemotherapy was 50%. Median progression-free survival was 10.5 months. For relapse, second-line chemotherapy, HCT-ASCT, WBRT, and palliative care were offered to 55%, 17%, 10%, and 18% of patients, respectively. The median, 2-year, and 5-year overall survival was 25.3 months, 51%, and 38%, respectively (<60 years: not reached [NR], 70%, and 61%; >60 years: 15.4 months, 44%, and 28%). Age, KPS, sex, and response to induction CT were independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Our study confirms the increasing proportion of elderly within the PCNSL population and shows comparable outcome in this population-based study with those reported by clinical trials, reflecting a notable application of recent PCNSL advances in treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238921PMC
March 2020

Good clinical practice recommendations for the use of PET/CT in oncology.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 01 21;47(1):28-50. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Nuclear Medicine, Jean Perrin Cancer Institute, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique with proven clinical value in oncology. PET/CT indications are continually evolving with fresh advances made through research. French practice on the use of PET in oncology was framed in recommendations based on Standards-Options-Recommendations methodology and coordinated by the French federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNLCC). The recommendations were originally issued in 2002 followed by an update in 2003, but since then, a huge number of scientific papers have been published and new tracers have been licenced for market release. The aim of this work is to bring the 2003 version recommendations up to date. For this purpose, a focus group was set up in collaboration with the French Society for Nuclear Medicine (SFMN) to work on developing good clinical practice recommendations. These good clinical practice recommendations have been awarded joint French National Heath Authority (HAS) and French Cancer Institute (INCa) label status-the stamp of methodological approval. The present document is the outcome of comprehensive literature review and rigorous appraisal by a panel of experts, organ specialists, clinical oncologists, surgeons and imaging specialists. These data were also used for the EANM referral guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04553-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Early F-FDG PET/CT Response Predicts Survival in Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated with Nivolumab.

J Nucl Med 2020 05 18;61(5):649-654. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are associated with high response rates in patients with relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To date, no prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) has been established with these agents in HL. We examined whether the first early response assessment evaluated using F-FDG PET/CT may be associated with OS in this setting. This retrospective study included 45 patients from 34 institutions. In a masked, centralized review, 3 independent radiologists classified PET/CT scans obtained at a median of 2.0 mo (interquartile range, 1.7-3.7 mo) after nivolumab initiation using existing criteria (i.e., 2014 Lugano classification and 2016 LYRIC). Patients were classified according to 4 possible response categories: complete metabolic response (CMR), partial metabolic response (PMR), no metabolic response (NMR), or progressive metabolic disease (PMD). Because the OS of patients with NMR and PMR was similar, they were grouped together. OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using log-rank testing. Eleven patients (24%) died after a median follow-up of 21.2 mo. The classification was identical between Lugano and LYRIC because all 16 progression events classified as indeterminate response per LYRIC were confirmed on subsequent evaluations. Both Lugano and LYRIC classified patients as CMR in 13 cases (29%), PMD in 16 (36%), NMR in 4 (9%), and PMR in 12 (27%). The 2-y OS probability was significantly different in patients with PMD (0.53; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.32-0.87), NMR or PMR (0.80; 95%CI, 0.63-1.00), and CMR (1.00; 95%CI, 1.00-1.00) in the overall population ( = 0.02, 45 patients), as well as according to a landmark analysis at 3 mo ( = 0.05, 32 patients). In relapsed or refractory HL patients treated with anti-PD-1 mAbs, the first early PET/CT assessment using either Lugano or LYRIC predicted OS and allowed early risk stratification, suggesting that PET/CT might be used to develop risk-adapted strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.119.232827DOI Listing
May 2020

Sustained Progression-Free Survival Benefit of Rituximab Maintenance in Patients With Follicular Lymphoma: Long-Term Results of the PRIMA Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 11 24;37(31):2815-2824. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen, France.

Purpose: The PRIMA study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00140582) established that 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line immunochemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with follicular lymphoma compared with observation. Here, we report the final PFS and overall survival (OS) results from the PRIMA study after 9 years of follow-up and provide a final overview of safety.

Methods: Patients (> 18 years of age) with previously untreated high-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma were nonrandomly assigned to receive one of three immunochemotherapy induction regimens. Responding patients were randomly assigned (stratified by induction regimen, response to induction treatment, treatment center, and geographic region) 1:1 to receive 2 years of rituximab maintenance (375 mg/m, once every 8 weeks), starting 8 weeks after the last induction treatment, or observation (no additional treatment). All patients in the extended follow-up provided their written informed consent (data cutoff: December 31, 2016).

Results: In total, 1,018 patients completed induction treatment and were randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance (n = 505) or observation (n = 513). Consent for the extended follow-up was provided by 607 patients (59.6%) of 1,018 (rituximab maintenance, n = 309; observation, n = 298). After data cutoff, median PFS was 10.5 years in the rituximab maintenance arm compared with 4.1 years in the observation arm (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.73; < .001). No OS difference was seen in patients randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance or observation (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40; = .7948); 10-year OS estimates were approximately 80% in both study arms. No new safety signals were observed.

Conclusion: Rituximab maintenance after induction immunochemotherapy provides a significant long-term PFS, but not OS, benefit over observation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823890PMC
November 2019

PET-guided treatment in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: yes but which one?

Oncotarget 2019 07 9;10(43):4354-4355. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Hematology, and INSERM UMR 1231, CHU F. Mitterrand, Dijon, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6633886PMC
July 2019

Dynamic Risk Profiling Using Serial Tumor Biomarkers for Personalized Outcome Prediction.

Cell 2019 07 4;178(3):699-713.e19. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Accurate prediction of long-term outcomes remains a challenge in the care of cancer patients. Due to the difficulty of serial tumor sampling, previous prediction tools have focused on pretreatment factors. However, emerging non-invasive diagnostics have increased opportunities for serial tumor assessments. We describe the Continuous Individualized Risk Index (CIRI), a method to dynamically determine outcome probabilities for individual patients utilizing risk predictors acquired over time. Similar to "win probability" models in other fields, CIRI provides a real-time probability by integrating risk assessments throughout a patient's course. Applying CIRI to patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, we demonstrate improved outcome prediction compared to conventional risk models. We demonstrate CIRI's broader utility in analogous models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and breast adenocarcinoma and perform a proof-of-concept analysis demonstrating how CIRI could be used to develop predictive biomarkers for therapy selection. We envision that dynamic risk assessment will facilitate personalized medicine and enable innovative therapeutic paradigms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380118PMC
July 2019

F-FDG PET Dissemination Features in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Are Predictive of Outcome.

J Nucl Med 2020 01 14;61(1):40-45. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Imagerie Moléculaire In Vivo, CEA, INSERM, Université Paris Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, Orsay, France.

We assessed the predictive value of new radiomic features characterizing lesion dissemination in baseline F-FDG PET and tested whether combining them with baseline metabolic tumor volume (MTV) could improve prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. From the LNH073B trial (NCT00498043), patients with advanced-stage DLCBL and F-FDG PET/CT images available for review were selected. MTV and several radiomic features, including the distance between the 2 lesions that were farthest apart (Dmax), were calculated. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff for quantitative variables, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed. With a median age of 46 y, 95 patients were enrolled, half of them treated with R-CHOP biweekly (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and the other half with R-ACVBP (rituximab, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone), with no significant impact on outcome. Median MTV and Dmax were 375 cm and 45 cm, respectively. The median follow-up was 44 mo. High MTV and Dmax were adverse factors for PFS ( = 0.027 and = 0.0003, respectively) and for OS ( = 0.0007 and = 0.0095, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only Dmax was significantly associated with PFS ( = 0.0014) whereas both factors remained significant for OS ( = 0.037 and = 0.0029, respectively). Combining MTV (>384 cm) and Dmax (>58 cm) yielded 3 risk groups for PFS ( = 0.0003) and OS ( = 0.0011): high with 2 adverse factors (4-y PFS and OS of 50% and 53%, respectively, = 18), low with no adverse factor (94% and 97%, = 36), and an intermediate category with 1 adverse factor (73% and 88%, = 41). Combining MTV with a parameter reflecting the tumor burden dissemination further improves DLBCL patient risk stratification at staging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.119.229450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954460PMC
January 2020
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