Publications by authors named "Olivia Wendling"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Differential physiological roles for BIN1 isoforms in skeletal muscle development, function and regeneration.

Dis Model Mech 2020 11 24;13(11). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), Department of Translational Medicine, 67404 Illkirch, France

Skeletal muscle development and regeneration are tightly regulated processes. How the intracellular organization of muscle fibers is achieved during these steps is unclear. Here, we focus on the cellular and physiological roles of amphiphysin 2 (BIN1), a membrane remodeling protein mutated in both congenital and adult centronuclear myopathies (CNM), that is ubiquitously expressed and has skeletal muscle-specific isoforms. We created and characterized constitutive muscle-specific and inducible homozygous and heterozygous knockout mice targeting either ubiquitous or muscle-specific isoforms. Constitutive -deficient mice died at birth from lack of feeding due to a skeletal muscle defect. T-tubules and other organelles were misplaced and altered, supporting a general early role for BIN1 in intracellular organization, in addition to membrane remodeling. Although restricted deletion of in unchallenged adult muscles had no impact, the forced switch from the muscle-specific isoforms to the ubiquitous isoforms through deletion of the in-frame muscle-specific exon delayed muscle regeneration. Thus, ubiquitous BIN1 function is necessary for muscle development and function, whereas its muscle-specific isoforms fine tune muscle regeneration in adulthood, supporting that BIN1 CNM with congenital onset are due to developmental defects, whereas later onset may be due to regeneration defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.044354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710016PMC
November 2020

BAHD1 haploinsufficiency results in anxiety-like phenotypes in male mice.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(5):e0232789. Epub 2020 May 14.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

BAHD1 is a heterochomatinization factor recently described as a component of a multiprotein complex associated with histone deacetylases HDAC1/2. The physiological and patho-physiological functions of BAHD1 are not yet well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of BAHD1 deficiency in the brains of male mice. While Bahd1 knockout mice had no detectable defects in brain anatomy, RNA sequencing profiling revealed about 2500 deregulated genes in Bahd1-/- brains compared to Bahd1+/+ brains. A majority of these genes were involved in nervous system development and function, behavior, metabolism and immunity. Exploration of the Allen Brain Atlas and Dropviz databases, assessing gene expression in the brain, revealed that expression of the Bahd1 gene was limited to a few territories and cell subtypes, particularly in the hippocampal formation, the isocortex and the olfactory regions. The effect of partial BAHD1 deficiency on behavior was then evaluated on Bahd1 heterozygous male mice, which have no lethal or metabolic phenotypes. Bahd1+/- mice showed anxiety-like behavior and reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Altogether, these results suggest that BAHD1 plays a role in chromatin-dependent gene regulation in a subset of brain cells and support recent evidence linking genetic alteration of BAHD1 to psychiatric disorders in a human patient.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232789PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224496PMC
July 2020

The neuroanatomy of Eml1 knockout mice, a model of subcortical heterotopia.

J Anat 2019 09 7;235(3):637-650. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

INSERM UMR S-1270, Paris, France.

The cerebral cortex is a highly organized structure responsible for advanced cognitive functions. Its development relies on a series of steps including neural progenitor cell proliferation, neuronal migration, axonal outgrowth and brain wiring. Disruption of these steps leads to cortical malformations, often associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. We have generated a new resource to shed further light on subcortical heterotopia, a malformation characterized by abnormal neuronal position. We describe here the generation and characterization of a knockout (KO) mouse model for Eml1, a microtubule-associated protein showing mutations in human ribbon-like subcortical heterotopia. As previously reported for a spontaneous mouse mutant showing a mutation in Eml1, we observe severe cortical heterotopia in the KO. We also observe abnormal progenitor cells in early corticogenesis, likely to be the origin of the defects. EML1 KO mice on the C57BL/6N genetic background also appear to present a wider phenotype than the original mouse mutant, showing additional brain anomalies, such as corpus callosum abnormalities. We compare the anatomy of male and female mice and also study heterozygote animals. This new resource will help unravel roles for Eml1 in brain development and tissue architecture, as well as the mechanisms leading to severe subcortical heterotopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704242PMC
September 2019

Corrigendum: High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes.

Nature 2017 11 8;551(7680):398. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature19356.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5849394PMC
November 2017

Atp6ap2 ablation in adult mice impairs viability through multiple organ deficiencies.

Sci Rep 2017 08 29;7(1):9618. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

CELPHEDIA-PHENOMIN, Institut Clinique de la Souris (ICS), CNRS, INSERM, University of Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, F-67404, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France.

ATP6AP2 codes for the (pro)renin receptor and is an essential component of vacuolar H+ ATPase. Activating (pro)renin for conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin makes ATP6AP2 attractive for drug intervention. Tissue-specific ATP6AP2 inactivation in mouse suggested a strong impact on various organs. Consistent with this, we found that embryonic ablation of Atp6ap2 resulted in both male hemizygous lethality and female haploinsufficiency. Next, we examined the phenotype of an induced inactivation in the adult animal, most akin to detect potential effect of functional interference of ATP6AP2 through drug therapy. Induced ablation of Atp6ap2, even without equal efficiency in all tissues (aorta, brain and kidney), resulted in rapid lethality marked by weight loss, changes in nutritional as well as blood parameters, leukocyte depletion, and bone marrow hypoplasia. Upon Atp6ap2 ablation, the colon demonstrated a rapid disruption of crypt morphology, aberrant proliferation, cell-death activation, as well as generation of microadenomas. Consequently, disruption of ATP6AP2 is extremely poorly tolerated in the adult, and severely affects various organ systems demonstrating that ATP6AP2 is an essential gene implicated in basic cellular mechanisms and necessary for multiple organ function. Accordingly, any potential drug targeting of this gene product must be strictly assessed for safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08845-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5575319PMC
August 2017

High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes.

Nature 2016 09 14;537(7621):508-514. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

Approximately one-third of all mammalian genes are essential for life. Phenotypes resulting from knockouts of these genes in mice have provided tremendous insight into gene function and congenital disorders. As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium effort to generate and phenotypically characterize 5,000 knockout mouse lines, here we identify 410 lethal genes during the production of the first 1,751 unique gene knockouts. Using a standardized phenotyping platform that incorporates high-resolution 3D imaging, we identify phenotypes at multiple time points for previously uncharacterized genes and additional phenotypes for genes with previously reported mutant phenotypes. Unexpectedly, our analysis reveals that incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are common even on a defined genetic background. In addition, we show that human disease genes are enriched for essential genes, thus providing a dataset that facilitates the prioritization and validation of mutations identified in clinical sequencing efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295821PMC
September 2016

Role of the BAHD1 Chromatin-Repressive Complex in Placental Development and Regulation of Steroid Metabolism.

PLoS Genet 2016 Mar 3;12(3):e1005898. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Micalis Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Équipe Microbiologie Cellulaire et Epigénétique, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

BAHD1 is a vertebrate protein that promotes heterochromatin formation and gene repression in association with several epigenetic regulators. However, its physiological roles remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ablation of the Bahd1 gene results in hypocholesterolemia, hypoglycemia and decreased body fat in mice. It also causes placental growth restriction with a drop of trophoblast glycogen cells, a reduction of fetal weight and a high neonatal mortality rate. By intersecting transcriptome data from murine Bahd1 knockout (KO) placentas at stages E16.5 and E18.5 of gestation, Bahd1-KO embryonic fibroblasts, and human cells stably expressing BAHD1, we also show that changes in BAHD1 levels alter expression of steroid/lipid metabolism genes. Biochemical analysis of the BAHD1-associated multiprotein complex identifies MIER proteins as novel partners of BAHD1 and suggests that BAHD1-MIER interaction forms a hub for histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, chromatin readers and transcription factors. We further show that overexpression of BAHD1 leads to an increase of MIER1 enrichment on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). In addition, BAHD1 and MIER1/3 repress expression of the steroid hormone receptor genes ESR1 and PGR, both playing important roles in placental development and energy metabolism. Moreover, modulation of BAHD1 expression in HEK293 cells triggers epigenetic changes at the ESR1 locus. Together, these results identify BAHD1 as a core component of a chromatin-repressive complex regulating placental morphogenesis and body fat storage and suggest that its dysfunction may contribute to several human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4777444PMC
March 2016

Contribution of serotonin to cardiac remodeling associated with hypertensive diastolic ventricular dysfunction in rats.

J Hypertens 2015 Nov;33(11):2310-21

aLaboratoire de Neurobiologie et Pharmacologie Cardiovasculaire EA7296, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle, Université et Centre Hospitalier de Strasbourg, Strasbourg bMouse Clinical Institute, Illkirch-Graffenstaden cCNRS, UMR7213, University of Strasbourg, Illkirch-Graffenstaden dINSERM U1063, Stress oxydant et pathologies métaboliques, LUNAM Université, Angers eINSERM UMR S-839, Institut du Fer à Moulin, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 17 rue du Fer à Moulin, Paris, France *Estelle Ayme-Dietrich and Halim Marzak contributed equally to this work.

Objective: Left-ventricular hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis are the main pathophysiological factors of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Blockade of the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT2BR) has been shown to reduce cardiac hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and extracellular cell matrix activation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the 5-HT2BR blockade, on hemodynamic and cardiac remodeling, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) that display a diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction.

Method: Thirty-seven-week-old SHRs were randomized in four groups receiving either saline, the selective 5-HT2BR antagonist RS-127445 (1 mg/kg per day), a calcium channel blocker nicardipine (6 mg/kg per day), or RS-127445 + nicardipine. During the 14 weeks of treatment period, cardiac function and blood pressure were monitored by echocardiography and tail-cuff. Finally, electrocardiograms and invasive hemodynamics were obtained before blood collection. Heart was analyzed for morphology and mRNA expression. A complementary study evaluated the cardiac and vascular effects of serotonin on wild-type and mice knockout for the 5-HT2BR (Htr2B) and/or the 5-HT2AR (Htr2A).

Results: Despite the left ventricular 5-HT2BR overexpression, 5-HT2BR blockade by RS-127445 did not affect left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis in SHRs. This antagonist did not improve diastolic dysfunction, neither alone nor in combination with nicardipine, although it induced plasma brain natriuretic peptide decrease. Moreover, RS-127445 amplified subendocardial fibrosis and favored left ventricular dilatation. Finally, a subendocardial left ventricular fibrosis was induced by chronic serotonin in wild-type mice, which was increased in Htr2B animals, but prevented in Htr2A and Htr2A/2B mice, and could be explained by a contribution of the endothelial 5-HT2BRs to coronary vasodilatation.

Conclusion: This work is the first to identify a cardioprotective function of the 5-HT2BR in an integrated model of diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000695DOI Listing
November 2015

Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad-based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics.

Authors:
Martin Hrabě de Angelis George Nicholson Mohammed Selloum Jacqui White Hugh Morgan Ramiro Ramirez-Solis Tania Sorg Sara Wells Helmut Fuchs Martin Fray David J Adams Niels C Adams Thure Adler Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel Dalila Ali-Hadji Gregory Amann Philippe André Sarah Atkins Aurelie Auburtin Abdel Ayadi Julien Becker Lore Becker Elodie Bedu Raffi Bekeredjian Marie-Christine Birling Andrew Blake Joanna Bottomley Mike Bowl Véronique Brault Dirk H Busch James N Bussell Julia Calzada-Wack Heather Cater Marie-France Champy Philippe Charles Claire Chevalier Francesco Chiani Gemma F Codner Roy Combe Roger Cox Emilie Dalloneau André Dierich Armida Di Fenza Brendan Doe Arnaud Duchon Oliver Eickelberg Chris T Esapa Lahcen El Fertak Tanja Feigel Irina Emelyanova Jeanne Estabel Jack Favor Ann Flenniken Alessia Gambadoro Lilian Garrett Hilary Gates Anna-Karin Gerdin George Gkoutos Simon Greenaway Lisa Glasl Patrice Goetz Isabelle Goncalves Da Cruz Alexander Götz Jochen Graw Alain Guimond Wolfgang Hans Geoff Hicks Sabine M Hölter Heinz Höfler John M Hancock Robert Hoehndorf Tertius Hough Richard Houghton Anja Hurt Boris Ivandic Hughes Jacobs Sylvie Jacquot Nora Jones Natasha A Karp Hugo A Katus Sharon Kitchen Tanja Klein-Rodewald Martin Klingenspor Thomas Klopstock Valerie Lalanne Sophie Leblanc Christoph Lengger Elise le Marchand Tonia Ludwig Aline Lux Colin McKerlie Holger Maier Jean-Louis Mandel Susan Marschall Manuel Mark David G Melvin Hamid Meziane Kateryna Micklich Christophe Mittelhauser Laurent Monassier David Moulaert Stéphanie Muller Beatrix Naton Frauke Neff Patrick M Nolan Lauryl Mj Nutter Markus Ollert Guillaume Pavlovic Natalia S Pellegata Emilie Peter Benoit Petit-Demoulière Amanda Pickard Christine Podrini Paul Potter Laurent Pouilly Oliver Puk David Richardson Stephane Rousseau Leticia Quintanilla-Fend Mohamed M Quwailid Ildiko Racz Birgit Rathkolb Fabrice Riet Janet Rossant Michel Roux Jan Rozman Ed Ryder Jennifer Salisbury Luis Santos Karl-Heinz Schäble Evelyn Schiller Anja Schrewe Holger Schulz Ralf Steinkamp Michelle Simon Michelle Stewart Claudia Stöger Tobias Stöger Minxuan Sun David Sunter Lydia Teboul Isabelle Tilly Glauco P Tocchini-Valentini Monica Tost Irina Treise Laurent Vasseur Emilie Velot Daniela Vogt-Weisenhorn Christelle Wagner Alison Walling Bruno Weber Olivia Wendling Henrik Westerberg Monja Willershäuser Eckhard Wolf Anne Wolter Joe Wood Wolfgang Wurst Ali Önder Yildirim Ramona Zeh Andreas Zimmer Annemarie Zimprich Chris Holmes Karen P Steel Yann Herault Valérie Gailus-Durner Ann-Marie Mallon Steve Dm Brown

Nat Genet 2015 Sep 27;47(9):969-978. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

MRC Harwell, Medical Research Council, Harwell, UK.

The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-oriented platforms. We developed new statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no previous functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice, finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. New phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with previously unknown function, providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4564951PMC
September 2015

Deletion of the App-Runx1 region in mice models human partial monosomy 21.

Dis Model Mech 2015 Jun 16;8(6):623-34. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Department of Translational Medicine and Neurogenetics, 1 rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7104, Illkirch 67404, France Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U964, Illkirch 67404, France Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch 67404, France Institut Clinique de la Souris, PHENOMIN-ICS, CNRS, INSERM, Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France

Partial monosomy 21 (PM21) is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by the loss of a variable segment along human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). The clinical phenotypes of this loss are heterogeneous and range from mild alterations to lethal consequences, depending on the affected region of Hsa21. The most common features include intellectual disabilities, craniofacial dysmorphology, short stature, and muscular and cardiac defects. As a complement to human genetic approaches, our team has developed new monosomic mouse models that carry deletions on Hsa21 syntenic regions in order to identify the dosage-sensitive genes that are responsible for the symptoms. We focus here on the Ms5Yah mouse model, in which a 7.7-Mb region has been deleted from the App to Runx1 genes. Ms5Yah mice display high postnatal lethality, with a few surviving individuals showing growth retardation, motor coordination deficits, and spatial learning and memory impairments. Further studies confirmed a gene dosage effect in the Ms5Yah hippocampus, and pinpointed disruptions of pathways related to cell adhesion (involving App, Cntnap5b, Lgals3bp, Mag, Mcam, Npnt, Pcdhb2, Pcdhb3, Pcdhb4, Pcdhb6, Pcdhb7, Pcdhb8, Pcdhb16 and Vwf). Our PM21 mouse model is the first to display morphological abnormalities and behavioural phenotypes similar to those found in affected humans, and it therefore demonstrates the major contribution that the App-Runx1 region has in the pathophysiology of PM21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.017814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457029PMC
June 2015

PTBP1 is required for embryonic development before gastrulation.

PLoS One 2011 Feb 17;6(2):e16992. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Molecular Diabetology, Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, School of Medicine and University Clinic Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.

Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is an important cellular regulator of messenger RNAs influencing the alternative splicing profile of a cell as well as its mRNA stability, location and translation. In addition, it is diverted by some viruses to facilitate their replication. Here, we used a novel PTBP1 knockout mouse to analyse the tissue expression pattern of PTBP1 as well as the effect of its complete removal during development. We found evidence of strong PTBP1 expression in embryonic stem cells and throughout embryonic development, especially in the developing brain and spinal cord, the olfactory and auditory systems, the heart, the liver, the kidney, the brown fat and cartilage primordia. This widespread distribution points towards a role of PTBP1 during embryonic development. Homozygous offspring, identified by PCR and immunofluorescence, were able to implant but were arrested or retarded in growth. At day 7.5 of embryonic development (E7.5) the null mutants were about 5x smaller than the control littermates and the gap in body size widened with time. At mid-gestation, all homozygous embryos were resorbed/degraded. No homozygous mice were genotyped at E12 and the age of weaning. Embryos lacking PTBP1 did not display differentiation into the 3 germ layers and cavitation of the epiblast, which are hallmarks of gastrulation. In addition, homozygous mutants displayed malformed ectoplacental cones and yolk sacs, both early supportive structure of the embryo proper. We conclude that PTBP1 is not required for the earliest isovolumetric divisions and differentiation steps of the zygote up to the formation of the blastocyst. However, further post-implantation development requires PTBP1 and stalls in homozygous null animals with a phenotype of dramatically reduced size and aberration in embryonic and extra-embryonic structures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0016992PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040740PMC
February 2011

Standardized Post-Mortem Examination and Fixation Procedures for Mutant and Treated Mice.

Curr Protoc Mouse Biol 2011 Mar 1;1(1):17-53. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

Mouse Clinical Institute, Illkirch, France.

A procedure for post-mortem examination (or necropsy) of mice is provided. The aim is to obtain a "holistic" picture of organs and systems at the anatomical and histological levels. The major issue is tissue preservation, which is achieved by rapid transfer into a fixative solution, usually neutral buffered formalin. Fixation is the first of the four basic steps in histopathological analyses of tissues, which also include embedding, sectioning, and staining. The protocols provided here describe routine methods for tissue fixation, as these methods are integral parts of any necropsy procedure. There is also a Strategic Planning section that addresses the overall approach to histopathological evaluation, as well as specifics such as age and gender of the mice, cohort size, and controls. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:17-53. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470942390.mo100118DOI Listing
March 2011

Characterization and Validation of Cre-Driver Mouse Lines.

Curr Protoc Mouse Biol 2011 Mar 1;1(1):1-15. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

Institut Clinique de la Souris (ICS), Illkirch, France.

Conditional gene manipulations in mice are increasingly popular strategies in biomedical research. These approaches rely on the production of conditional genetically engineered mutant mouse (GEMM) lines with mutations in protein-encoding genes. These conditional GEMMs are then bred with one or several transgenic mouse lines expressing a site-specific recombinase, most often the Cre recombinase, in a tissue-specific manner. Conditional GEMMs can only be exploited if Cre transgenic mouse lines are available to generate somatic mutations, and thus the number of Cre transgenic lines has significantly increased over the last 15 years. Once produced, these transgenic lines must be validated for reliable, efficient, and specific Cre expression and Cre-mediated recombination. In this overview, the minimum level of information that is ideally required to validate a Cre-driver transgenic line is first discussed. The vagaries associated with validation procedures are considered next, and some solutions are proposed to assess the expression and activity of constitutive or inducible Cre recombinase before undertaking extensive breeding experiments and exhaustive phenotyping. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:1-15. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470942390.mo100103DOI Listing
March 2011

TIF1β association with HP1 is essential for post-gastrulation development, but not for Sertoli cell functions during spermatogenesis.

Dev Biol 2011 Feb 14;350(2):548-58. Epub 2010 Dec 14.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), Illkirch-Cedex, France.

TIF1β is an essential mammalian transcriptional corepressor. It interacts with the heterochromatin proteins HP1 through a highly conserved motif, the HP1box, and we have previously shown that this interaction is essential for the differentiation of F9 cells to occur. Here we address the in vivo functions of the TIF1β-HP1 interaction, by generating mice in which the TIF1β HP1box is mutated, leading to the loss of TIF1β interaction with HP1. The effects of the mutation were monitored in two instances, where TIF1β is known to play key roles: early embryonic development and spermatogenesis. We find that mutating the HP1box of TIF1β disrupts embryonic development soon after gastrulation. This effect is likely caused by the misexpression of TIF1β targets that regulate mitotic progression and pluripotency. In contrast, in Sertoli cells, we found that the absence of TIF1β but not its mutation in the HP1box leads to a clear defect of spermatogenesis characterized by a failure of spermatid release and a testicular degeneration. These data show that the interaction between TIF1β and HP1 is essential for some but not all TIF1β functions in vivo. Furthermore, we observed that TIF1β is dispersed through the nucleoplasm of E7.0 embryos, whereas it is mainly associated with pericentromeric heterochromatin of E8.5 embryos and of Sertoli cells, an association that is lost upon TIF1β HP1box mutation. Altogether, these data provide strong evidence that nuclear organization plays key roles during early embryonic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.12.014DOI Listing
February 2011

Negative control of Smad activity by ectodermin/Tif1gamma patterns the mammalian embryo.

Development 2010 Aug 23;137(15):2571-8. Epub 2010 Jun 23.

Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Section of Histology and Embryology, University of Padua, viale Colombo 3, 35126 Padua, Italy.

The definition of embryonic potency and induction of specific cell fates are intimately linked to the tight control over TGFbeta signaling. Although extracellular regulation of ligand availability has received considerable attention in recent years, surprisingly little is known about the intracellular factors that negatively control Smad activity in mammalian tissues. By means of genetic ablation, we show that the Smad4 inhibitor ectodermin (Ecto, also known as Trim33 or Tif1gamma) is required to limit Nodal responsiveness in vivo. New phenotypes, which are linked to excessive Nodal activity, emerge from such a modified landscape of Smad responsiveness in both embryonic and extra-embryonic territories. In extra-embryonic endoderm, Ecto is required to confine expression of Nodal antagonists to the anterior visceral endoderm. In trophoblast cells, Ecto precisely doses Nodal activity, balancing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Epiblast-specific Ecto deficiency shifts mesoderm fates towards node/organizer fates, revealing the requirement of Smad inhibition for the precise allocation of cells along the primitive streak. This study unveils that intracellular negative control of Smad function by ectodermin/Tif1gamma is a crucial element in the cellular response to TGFbeta signals in mammalian tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.053801DOI Listing
August 2010

The histone deacetylase SIRT1 controls male fertility in mice through regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropin signaling.

Biol Reprod 2009 Feb 5;80(2):384-91. Epub 2008 Nov 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, India.

Sirtuins (SIRTs) are class-III NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that regulate various physiological processes. Inactivation of SIRT1 in the mouse leads to male sterility, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype have not been determined. Here we show that fetal testis development appears normal in Sirt1(-/-) mice. In contrast, the first round of spermatogenesis arrests before the completion of meiosis with abundant apoptosis of pachytene spermatocytes, abnormal Leydig and Sertoli cell maturation, and strongly reduced intratesticular testosterone levels. We show that this phenotype is the consequence of diminished hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone expression and strongly reduced luteinizing hormone levels. Rather than having an intrinsic effect on male germ cells per se, our results show that SIRT1 regulates spermatogenesis at postnatal stages by controlling hypothalamus-pituitary gonadotropin (HPG) signaling. In addition to its well studied role in control of metabolism and energy homeostasis, our results thus reveal a novel and critical function of SIRT1 in controlling HPG signaling. This phenotype is more severe than those previously described using mice bred on different genetic backgrounds, and highlights the fact that SIRT1 function is strongly modified by other genetic loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.070193DOI Listing
February 2009

Efficient temporally-controlled targeted mutagenesis in smooth muscle cells of the adult mouse.

Genesis 2009 Jan;47(1):14-8

Department of Functional Genomics, IGBMC (Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire), Illkirch, F-67400 France.

To generate temporally-controlled targeted somatic mutations selectively and efficiently in smooth muscles, we have established a transgenic SMA-Cre-ER(T2) mouse line in which the expression of the Tamoxifen-dependent Cre-ER(T2) recombinase is under the control of a large genomic DNA segment of the mouse smooth muscle alpha actin (SMA) gene, contained in a Bacterial artificial chromosome (Bac). In this transgenic mouse line, Cre-ER(T2)-mediated recombination of LoxP-flanked target DNA is strictly Tamoxifen-dependent, and efficient in both vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells. Moreover, with the exception of few cardiomyocytes, LoxP-flanked DNA excision is restricted to smooth muscle cells. Thus, SMA-Cre-ER(T2) mice should be of great value to analyze gene function in smooth muscles, and to establish new animal models of human smooth muscle disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvg.20448DOI Listing
January 2009

Histopathology in mouse metabolic investigations.

Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2007 Apr;Chapter 29:Unit 29B.4

Institut Clinique de la Souris and Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France.

Due to the small size of the mouse, evaluating its clinical phenotype is sometimes problematic. In contrast, mouse models are readily accessible to post-mortem analyses at any time during the course of a disease and prior to its clinical onset. RNA, protein, and histological analyses following sacrifice represent a powerful means to identify affected cell types and molecular events underlying the altered phenotype, and therefore to understanding the signaling or metabolic pathways involved. In this unit, an overview of post-mortem analyses is provided with a strong emphasis on the principles of routine histology, including tissue fixation, processing, embedding, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. There are also several protocols for staining with specialized histological stains used in the metabolic field to detect intracellular lipids, intracellular lipid "ghosts", cholesterol esters, polysaccharides, mitochondria, pathological collagen deposits, and atherosclerotic plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471142727.mb29b04s78DOI Listing
April 2007

Tissue collection for systematic phenotyping in the mouse.

Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2007 Oct;Chapter 29:Unit 29A.4

Institut Clinique de la Souris, Illkirch Cedex, France.

In this unit, a procedure for post-mortem examination of mice and tissue collection is provided. This procedure is performed for post-mortem analysis of anatomical defects (necropsy) and histological analysis and/or tissue collection destined for molecular biology applications. In both cases, tissue preservation is the major issue, but the way to achieve it depends on the objective. When histological analysis is the aim, tissue preservation is achieved by rapid transfer into fixative solutions. In contrast, molecular biology applications require rapid freezing of tissue samples to preserve mRNA integrity. Consequently, performing both procedures simultaneously may be at the expense of the final product quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471142727.mb29a04s80DOI Listing
October 2007

Liver receptor homolog 1 contributes to intestinal tumor formation through effects on cell cycle and inflammation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Feb 31;102(6):2058-62. Epub 2005 Jan 31.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale/Université Louis Pasteur, 67404 Illkirch, France.

Liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that synergizes with beta-catenin/T cell factor 4 signaling to stimulate intestinal crypt cell renewal. We evaluated here the impact of haploinsufficiency of LRH-1 on intestinal tumorigenesis by using two independent mouse models of human colon tumorigenesis. Haploinsufficiency of LRH-1 blunts intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mice, a genetic model of intestinal cancer. Likewise, Lrh-1+/- mice are protected against the formation of aberrant crypt foci in the colon of mice exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane. LRH-1 gene expression is reduced in tumors that express elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Reciprocally, decreased LRH-1 expression in Lrh-1+/- mice attenuates TNF-alpha expression. Compared with normal human colon, expression and subcellular localization of LRH-1 is significantly altered in neoplastic colon. In combination, these data suggest a role of LRH-1 in the initiation of intestinal tumorigenesis both by affecting cell cycle control as well as through its impact on inflammatory pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409756102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC548586PMC
February 2005

Synergy between LRH-1 and beta-catenin induces G1 cyclin-mediated cell proliferation.

Mol Cell 2004 Aug;15(4):499-509

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Louis Pasteur, 67404 Illkirch, France.

LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor predominantly expressed in tissues of endodermal origin, where it controls development and cholesterol homeostasis. We show here that LRH-1 induces cell proliferation through the concomitant induction of cyclin D1 and E1, an effect that is potentiated by its interaction with beta-catenin. Whereas beta-catenin coactivates LRH-1 on the cyclin E1 promoter, LRH-1 acts as a potent tissue-restricted coactivator of beta-catenin on the cyclin D1 promoter. The implication of LRH-1 in cell proliferation highlights an unanticipated crosstalk between LRH-1 and the beta-catenin/Tcf4 signaling pathway, which is relevant for the renewal of intestinal crypt cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.009DOI Listing
August 2004

Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and expression analysis of the mouse transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma gene.

Gene 2004 Jun;334:3-13

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), CNRS/INSERM/ULP/Collège de France, BP 10142, 67 404 Illkirch Cedex, France.

Human transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma (Tif1gamma), also known as Ret fused gene 7 (RFG7), is a member of a novel family of transcriptional coregulator-encoding genes which function in cell differentiation and development. Here, we report the structure and expression pattern of the mouse Tif1gamma gene. This gene comprises 20 coding exons spanning about 77 kb of genomic DNA on chromosome 3F2, and encodes a 1142-amino-acid protein with 96% identity to the human protein. The locations of exon/intron boundaries correlated well with those for the regions of conserved amino acid sequences (RBCC motif, PHD finger and bromodomain). In situ hybridization analysis of the TIF1gamma mRNA on sections from staged mouse embryos revealed a low level of ubiquitous expression at midgestation, and higher expression levels within the brain and spinal cord epithelium at later developmental stages. Prominent expression was also found in developing sensory epithelia (cochlea, retina, olfactory epithelium), and in several developing organs including the thymus, lung, stomach, intestine, liver, and kidney cortex. In the adult mouse, Tif1gamma mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis in all tissues examined, with the highest expression level in testis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry studies revealed that expression of the Tif1gamma mRNA and protein varied according to the stage of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Taken together, these results indicate-and serve as a basis for investigating-a possible involvement of Tif1gamma in the control of embryonic development and spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2004.02.056DOI Listing
June 2004

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is required in mature white and brown adipocytes for their survival in the mouse.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Mar 16;101(13):4543-7. Epub 2004 Mar 16.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Louis Pasteur, BP10142, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mediates the activity of the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones and plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and fat accretion. The analysis of PPARgamma functions in mature adipocytes is precluded by lethality of PPARgamma(-/-) fetuses and tetraploid-rescued pups. Therefore we have selectively ablated PPARgamma in adipocytes of adult mice by using the tamoxifen-dependent Cre-ER(T2) recombination system. We show that mature PPARgamma-null white and brown adipocytes die within a few days and are replaced by newly formed PPARgamma-positive adipocytes, demonstrating that PPARgamma is essential for the in vivo survival of mature adipocytes, in addition to its well established requirement for their differentiation. Our data suggest that potent PPARgamma antagonists could be used to acutely reduce obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0400356101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC384783PMC
March 2004

NSD1 is essential for early post-implantation development and has a catalytically active SET domain.

EMBO J 2003 Jun;22(12):3153-63

Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The nuclear receptor-binding SET domain-containing protein (NSD1) belongs to an emerging family of proteins, which have all been implicated in human malignancy. To gain insight into the biological functions of NSD1, we have generated NSD1-deficient mice by gene disruption. Homozygous mutant NSD1 embryos, which initiate mesoderm formation, display a high incidence of apoptosis and fail to complete gastrulation, indicating that NSD1 is a developmental regulatory protein that exerts function(s) essential for early post-implantation development. We have also examined the enzymatic potential of NSD1 and found that its SET domain possesses intrinsic histone methyltransferase activity with specificity for Lys36 of histone H3 (H3-K36) and Lys20 of histone H4 (H4-K20).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emboj/cdg288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC162140PMC
June 2003

TAF10 (TAF(II)30) is necessary for TFIID stability and early embryogenesis in mice.

Mol Cell Biol 2003 Jun;23(12):4307-18

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP, F-67404 Illkirch Cedex, CU de Strasbourg, France.

TAF10 (formerly TAF(II)30), is a component of TFIID and the TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-free TAF-containing complexes (TFTC/PCAF/STAGA). To investigate the physiological function of TAF10, we disrupted its gene in mice by using a Cre recombinase/LoxP strategy. Interestingly, no TAF10(-/-) animals were born from intercrosses of TAF10(+/-) mice, indicating that TAF10 is required for embryogenesis. TAF10(-/-) embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, implanted, but died shortly after ca. 5.5 days postcoitus. Surprisingly, trophoblast cells from TAF10(-/-) blastocysts were viable, whereas inner cell mass cells failed to survive, highlighting that TAF10 is not generally required for transcription in all cells. TAF10-deficient cells express normal levels of TBP and TAFs other than TAF10 but contain only partially formed TFIID, are endocycle arrested, and have undetectable levels of transcription. Thus, our results demonstrate that TAF10 is required for TFIID stability, cell cycle progression, and transcription in the early mouse embryo.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC156135PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mcb.23.12.4307-4318.2003DOI Listing
June 2003

Retinoic acid-induced developmental defects are mediated by RARbeta/RXR heterodimers in the pharyngeal endoderm.

Development 2003 May;130(10):2083-93

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP, Collège de France, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, CU de Strasbourg, France.

Fusion and hypoplasia of the first two branchial arches, a defect typically observed in retinoic acid (RA) embryopathy, is generated in cultured mouse embryos upon treatment with BMS453, a synthetic compound that exhibits retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) agonistic properties in transfected cells. By contrast, no branchial arch defects are observed following treatment with synthetic retinoids that exhibit RARalpha or RARgamma agonistic properties. The BMS453-induced branchial arch defects are mediated through RAR activation, as they are similar to those generated by a selective pan-RAR agonist, are prevented by a selective pan-RAR antagonist and cannot be mimicked by exposure to a pan-RXR agonist alone. They are enhanced in the presence of a pan-RXR agonist, and cannot be generated in Rarb-null embryos. Furthermore, they are accompanied, in the morphologically altered region, by ectopic expression of Rarb and of several other direct RA target genes. Therefore, craniofacial abnormalities characteristic of the RA embryopathy are mediated through ectopic activation of RARbeta/RXR heterodimers, in which the ligand-dependent activity of RXR is subordinated to that of RARbeta. Endodermal cells lining the first two branchial arches respond to treatment with the RARbeta agonist, in contrast to neural crest cells and ectoderm, which suggests that a faulty endodermal regionalization is directly responsible for RA-induced branchial arch dysmorphologies. Additionally, we provide the first in vivo evidence that the synthetic RARbeta agonist BMS453 exhibits an antagonistic activity on the two other RAR isotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.00428DOI Listing
May 2003

A directional strategy for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination at the cellular level in the mouse.

Nat Biotechnol 2003 May 31;21(5):562-5. Epub 2003 Mar 31.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP, Collège de France, BP10142, 67404 Illkirch Ce dex, CU de Strasbourg, France.

Functional redundancies, compensatory mechanisms, and lethal phenotypes often prevent the full analysis of gene functions through generation of germline null mutations in the mouse. The use of site-specific recombinases, such as Cre, which catalyzes recombination between loxP sites, has allowed the engineering of mice harboring targeted somatic mutations, which are both temporally controlled and cell-type restricted. Many Cre-expressing mouse lines exist, but only a few transgenic lines are available that harbor a reporter gene whose expression is dependent on a Cre-mediated event. Moreover, their use to monitor gene ablation at the level of individual cells is often limited, as in some tissues the reporter gene may be silenced, be affected by position-effect variegation, or reside in a chromatin configuration inaccessible for recombination. Thus, one cannot validly extrapolate from the expression of a reporter transgene to an identical ablation pattern for the conditional allele of a given gene. By combining the ability of Cre recombinase to invert or excise a DNA fragment, depending on the orientation of the flanking loxP sites, and the availability of both wild-type (WT) and mutant loxP sites, we designed a Cre-dependent genetic switch (FLEx switch) through which the expression of a given gene is turned off, while the expression of another one is concomitantly turned on. We demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of this switch to readily detect, in the mouse, at the single cell level, Cre-mediated gene ablation. We discuss how this strategy can be used to generate genetic modifications in a conditional manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt811DOI Listing
May 2003