Publications by authors named "Oliver Scheufler"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Complex nasal reconstruction for skin cancer and posttraumatic deformity using a modified frontonasal flap - Case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;83:105944. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, AARE KLINIK, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Reconstruction of the nasal tip is challenging, especially when large defects are associated with compromised nasal soft tissues and framework. The frontonasal flap is an axial-pattern myocutaneous flap from the glabella and nasal dorsum that allows for various modifications in flap design to cover medium sized defects of the nasal tip.

Case Presentation: A 66-year-old male patient presented with a large and ulcerated squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal tip that was associated with substantial posttraumatic damage of the nasal soft tissue envelope and cartilaginous vault of the dorsum. Considering patient comorbidity, risk factors, and specific nasal condition, a single-stage tumor resection and reconstruction using a modified frontonasal flap was intended. While tumor excision resulting in a tip defect of 1.5 × 1.5 cm and flap coverage were initially achieved in a single stage, histologically incomplete tumor resection and individual patient requests mandated further surgery, including re-excision, cartilage grafting, and soft tissue contouring.

Clinical Discussion: The frontonasal flap allows for single-stage reconstruction of moderate size tip defects. Even in the case of prior soft tissue damage and scarring, the flap may be used safely pending individual adjustments in flap design. However, additional measures may be employed as needed to optimize the functional and aesthetic outcome in cases of complex nasal pathology.

Conclusion: In a case with a combined tumor and posttraumatic nasal deformity, an individualized surgical concept incorporating a modified frontonasal flap with adjunct cartilage grafting and soft tissue contouring achieved an excellent functional and cosmetic outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.105944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129936PMC
April 2021

Surgical treatment of abdominal wall weakness and lumbar hernias in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 26;76:14-18. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology, Westkuestenklinikum Heide, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Universities of Kiel, Luebeck and Hamburg, Heide, Germany.

Introduction: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare and diverse group of heritable connective tissue disorders. Gastrointestinal manifestations and abdominal pain are frequent in most subtypes of EDS. Conservative treatment is the standard of care.

Presentation Of The Case: A 43-year-old female patient with genetically confirmed EDS classic subtype presented with diffuse gastrointestinal symptoms (bloating, belching and pain) that were controlled by the patient through inclined posture and external abdominal compression. A standard abdominoplasty with rectus muscle plication and mesh implantation lead immediately to complete relief of symptoms, which allowed the patient to assume an upright posture and resume all daily activities again. After 7 years, the patient was again seen with severe, persistent abdominal pain and inclined posture related to right lumbar herniations, as confirmed by MRI. However, there was no recurrence of the previous abdominal midline weakness and related gastrointestinal symptoms. Following lumbar hernia repair and mesh implantation, the patient was free of abdominal pain and resumed an upright posture again.

Discussion: Although conservative treatment of EDS is primarily recommended and most surgeons are reluctant to operate on these patients except in life threatening situations, we present the successful surgical relief of disabling abdominal symptoms.

Conclusion: Regarding the variability and complexity of symptoms in different subtypes of EDS, a personalized multimodal treatment including surgical approaches should be considered and achieved a significant and long-lasting improvement in quality of life in our patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.09.165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530213PMC
September 2020

Variations in Frontonasal Flap Design for Single-Stage Reconstruction of the Nasal Tip.

Authors:
Oliver Scheufler

Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Dec;138(6):1032e-1042e

Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Single-stage reconstruction of the nasal tip using frontonasal flaps yields variable results. Variations in flap design were used to optimize outcome.

Methods: Consecutive nasal tip reconstructions using frontonasal flaps performed by the author during a 6-year period were studied retrospectively. Patients were followed up clinically and charts were reviewed for defect size, vertical orientation (tip versus supratip), and horizontal orientation (central versus lateral). Surgical reports and digital photographs were evaluated for flap design that was adapted to the defect, individual anatomy, and the nasal subunit concept. Flaps were classified by size (standard versus extended), proximal scar configuration (angular versus curved), and distal scar configuration (straight versus stairstep). Surgical complications and aesthetic outcomes were evaluated.

Results: Twenty-nine frontonasal flaps were performed in 16 female and 13 male patients with a mean age of 73 years. The average defect diameter was 2 cm. The average surface area was 4 cm. Primary defects were located at the tip in 22 cases and the supratip in seven cases, with 19 being lateral and 10 being central. Standard flaps were chosen in 13 patients and extended flaps in 16 patients. Proximal scar configuration was angular in 20 cases and curved in nine cases. Distals scar configuration was straight in 21 patients and stairstep in eight cases. Minor flap complications occurred in eight patients. Outcome was rated good to excellent in 97 percent of patients.

Conclusion: Aesthetically pleasing single-stage reconstruction of the nasal tip is attainable using an anatomically based approach to frontonasal flap design.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000002785DOI Listing
December 2016

Progenitor cell therapy for sacral pressure sore: a pilot study with a novel human chronic wound model.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2014 Jan 29;5(1):18. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Introduction: Chronic wounds are a major health-care issue, but research is limited by the complexity and heterogeneity in terms of wound etiology as well as patient-related factors. A suitable animal model that replicates the situation in humans is not available. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to present a standardized human wound model and the data of a pilot study of topically applied progenitor cells in a sacral pressure sore.

Methods: Three patients underwent cell harvest from the iliac crest at the time of the initial debridement. Forty-eight hours after bone marrow harvest and debridement, the CD34+ selected cell suspension was injected into the wound. With the aid of a laser scanner, three-dimensional analyses of wound morphometry were performed until the defect was reconstructed with a local flap 3 weeks after debridement.

Results: Decreases in volume to 60%±6% of baseline on the sham side and to 52%±3% of baseline on the cell side were measured. Histologic work-up revealed no signs of metaplastic, dysplastic, or neoplastic proliferation/differentiation after progenitor cell treatment. CD34+ cells were detected in the biopsies of day 0.

Conclusions: The pressure sore wound model allows investigation of the initial 3 weeks after cell-based therapy. Objective outcome analysis in terms of wound volume and histology can be performed without, or with, minimal additional morbidity, and the anatomy of the sacral area allows a control and study side in the same patient. Therefore, this model can serve as a standard for wound-healing studies.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00535548.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/scrt407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4054976PMC
January 2014

High incidence of hamate hook fractures in underwater rugby players: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

Hand Surg 2013 ;18(3):357-63

AARE KLINIK, Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, Bern, Switzerland.

Hamate hook fractures are rare injuries but appear to occur frequently in underwater rugby, the reason for which was investigated in this study. High-level underwater rugby players with hook fractures diagnosed during a five-year interval (2005-2010) were studied retrospectively. Medical data on these patients were reviewed for information on the mechanism of injury, type of fracture, radiological imaging, treatment, and outcome. In ten patients, hook fractures of the leading hand were confirmed by computed tomography, all of which were associated with specific injuries during underwater rugby games. Conservative treatment resulted in delayed healing or non-union, wherefore fragment excision and open reduction and internal fixation was performed in ten and five patients, respectively, while two patients declined surgery. After surgery, all patients were able to play underwater rugby again. In underwater rugby, hook fractures occur frequently due to high and repeated forces applied to the leading hand during games.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218810413500391DOI Listing
June 2014

Dorsal percutaneous cannulated mini-screw fixation for fractures of the hamate hook.

Hand Surg 2012 ;17(2):287-93

AARE KLINIK, Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: Open fixation of acute fractures, delayed union and non-union of the hamate hook through a palmar approach has been reported. Minimal invasive fixation using a dorsal percutaneous approach and a headless cannulated mini-screw is another option not commonly considered. The authors present their case series of patients who underwent dorsal percutaneous fixation of acute fractures and delayed union of the hamate hook.

Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed six consecutive patients (five male patients and one female patient) with non-displaced acute fractures (< 8 weeks) and delayed union (8 to 12 weeks) of the hamate hook treated with dorsal percutaneous cannulated mini-screw fixation. The indications for surgery included wrist pain, patient refusal of conservative treatment, and prevention of non-union and hook excision. Exclusion criteria included displacement or inadequate size of the hamate hook, previous surgery, associated carpal injury, flexor tendon rupture, and median or ulnar nerve lesion in the carpal tunnel and Guyon's canal respectively. Each fracture was visualized by radiography and computed tomography before and after the intervention.

Results: Anatomically correct fixation of the hamate hook with central screw positioning was achieved in all patients. No displacement or disruption of the cortical shell of the hook was observed. The union rate was 100% with all patients being able to resume their pre-injury activities after an average of seven weeks from surgery.

Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that non-displaced acute fractures and delayed union of the hamate hook can be treated successfully by dorsal percutaneous cannulated mini-screw fixation with minimal morbidity and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218810412970039DOI Listing
November 2012

Minimal Invasive Fixation of Hamate Hook Fractures Through a Dorsal Percutaneous Approach Using a Mini Compression Screw: An Experimental Feasibility Study.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2009 Aug 12;35(4):397-402. Epub 2008 Nov 12.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology, Westkuestenklinikum Heide, Academic Teaching Hospital, University of Kiel, Luebeck and Hamburg, Kiel, Germany.

Purpose: Isolated fractures of the hamate hook can be treated by conservative or surgical means. Because nonoperative treatment is associated with high nonunion rates, surgical treatment with open reduction and internal fixation through a palmar approach is often preferred. The aim of this study was to refine surgical treatment of hamate hook fractures using a cannulated mini compression screw through a dorsal percutaneous approach.

Methods: Artificial fractures of the hamate hook were created in five male cadaver hands under fluoroscopy. Using an ulnar approach, the hamate hook was fractured at the base (n = 3) and middle third (n = 2) of the hook using an osteotome. Each fracture was visualized by X-ray and computed tomography. Under fluoroscopy, the fracture was stabilized with a 1.1 mm K wire through a dorsal percutaneous approach which guided the introduction of a 3 mm diameter cannulated mini compression screw. The screw position was then controlled by X-ray and computed tomography.

Results: Percutaneous fixation of the fractured hook through the dorsal approach was achieved in all cases. Regardless of the fracture location, all fragments were adapted into anatomically correct positions. No displacement or disruption of the cortex of the hook was observed with central screw positioning.

Conclusion: Minimal invasive repair of isolated hamate hook fractures through a dorsal percutaneous approach is feasible. The special properties of the cannulated mini compression screw allow optimal screw positioning and stable fixation without risk of diplacement or disruption of the hook fragment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-008-8112-yDOI Listing
August 2009

Spatial and temporal patterns of bone formation in ectopically pre-fabricated, autologous cell-based engineered bone flaps in rabbits.

J Cell Mol Med 2008 Aug;12(4):1238-49

Department of Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Biological substitutes for autologous bone flaps could be generated by combining flap pre-fabrication and bone tissue engineering concepts. Here, we investigated the pattern of neotissue formation within large pre-fabricated engineered bone flaps in rabbits. Bone marrow stromal cells from 12 New Zealand White rabbits were expanded and uniformly seeded in porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds (tapered cylinders, 10-20 mm diameter, 30 mm height) using a perfusion bioreactor. Autologous cell-scaffold constructs were wrapped in a panniculus carnosus flap, covered by a semipermeable membrane and ectopically implanted. Histological analysis, substantiated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computerized tomography scans, indicated three distinct zones: an outer one, including bone tissue; a middle zone, formed by fibrous connective tissue; and a central zone, essentially necrotic. The depths of connective tissue and of bone ingrowth were consistent at different construct diameters and significantly increased from respectively 3.1+/-0.7 mm and 1.0+/-0.4 mm at 8 weeks to 3.7+/-0.6 mm and 1.4+/-0.6 mm at 12 weeks. Bone formation was found at a maximum depth of 1.8 mm after 12 weeks. Our findings indicate the feasibility of ectopic pre-fabrication of large cell-based engineered bone flaps and prompt for the implementation of strategies to improve construct vascularization, in order to possibly accelerate bone formation towards the core of the grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00137.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865668PMC
August 2008

Prognostic factors in necrotizing fasciitis and myositis: analysis of 16 consecutive cases at a single institution in Switzerland.

Ann Plast Surg 2007 May;58(5):523-30

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Necrotizing fasciitis and myositis are life-threatening infections involving the superficial fascia and musculature, respectively. Outcome depends on early diagnosis and aggressive treatment. Here, we aimed to determine prognostic factors for necrotizing soft tissue infections.The medical records of 16 consecutive patients diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis (n = 13) and necrotizing myositis (n = 3) from 1999 to 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival was 81.3% for necrotizing soft tissue infections, 84.6% for necrotizing fasciitis, and 66.7% for necrotizing myositis. Injection drug use was the most common cause of infection (31.3%). Frequent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus and hepatitis B and C (25.0%). As infectious agents, group A streptococci (GAS) were identified in 10 patients and multiple pathogens in 6 patients. Lethal outcome was always associated with GAS infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). In our patients, myonecrosis, GAS infection, and STSS appeared to be negative prognostic factors for survival in necrotizing soft tissue infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.sap.0000244978.27053.08DOI Listing
May 2007

Instep free flap for plantar soft tissue reconstruction: indications and options.

Microsurgery 2007 ;27(3):174-80

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital of Basel, Basil, Switzerland.

Pedicled instep flaps are frequently used in weight-bearing plantar reconstruction, but may not be available after severe foot injuries. Although free instep flaps offer a viable option, they have scarcely been reported. A posttraumatic plantar forefoot defect was reconstructed with a sensate, instep free flap, because local flaps were not available and defect size did not require a distant free flap, and the current literature was reviewed for therapeutic options. The instep free flap yielded an excellent functional and aesthetic long-term result. In the literature, pedicled instep flaps are advocated for moderate size defects of the weight-bearing heel and sole, while free flaps from distant sites are preferred for large defects. Although skin-grafted muscle flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps yield similar results, reconstruction by like tissues appears favorable. We suggest the instep free flap for weight-bearing plantar foot reconstruction, when pedicled instep flaps are not available and distant free flaps are avoidable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/micr.20327DOI Listing
June 2007

Anatomical basis and clinical application of the infragluteal perforator flap.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2006 Nov;118(6):1389-1400

Basel and Nottwil, Switzerland; and Durham, N.C. From the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital of Basel; Swiss Paraplegic Center; and Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, Maxillofacial, and Oral Surgery, Duke University Medical Center.

Background: When selecting flaps for coverage of pressure ulcers of the sacrum and perineal region in paraplegic patients, long-term high recurrence rates should be considered. Therefore, the authors developed an infragluteal perforator flap to avoid "burning bridges" for future reconstruction.

Methods: Infragluteal perforator flaps were dissected in five fresh human cadavers to define the anatomy of the cutaneous branches of the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery and cluneal nerves and define anatomical landmarks for clinical application. In a series of 13 paraplegic patients, the authors used perforator-based flaps (additional skin bridge) to cover four perineal ulcers and one sacral ulcer and perforator flaps to cover six perineal and two sacral ulcers. Donor sites were closed by direct approximation.

Results: Twelve of 13 flaps healed uneventfully. In all cadaver and clinical dissections, one or two cutaneous branches of the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery and one or two cluneal nerves were found at the lower border of the gluteus maximus muscle supplying the infragluteal perforator flap. These direct cutaneous branches allowed dissection of inferior gluteal perforator flaps with improved flap mobility compared with the perforator-based flaps. The descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery could always be spared for future flaps.

Conclusions: The infragluteal perforator flap is a versatile and reliable flap for coverage of ischial and sacral pressure sores. It can be designed as a perforator-based or perforator flap and could provide a sensate flap in ambulatory patients. Donor-site morbidity is minimal, and options for future flaps of the gluteal and posterior thigh region are preserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000239533.39497.a9DOI Listing
November 2006

[Optimization of conventional X-ray images for the detection of hook of hamate fractures].

Rontgenpraxis 2006 ;56(2):59-65

Abteilung für Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, KMG Klinikum Güstrow, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universität Rostock.

Fractures of the hook of the hamate are a rare event. The fracture cannot always be detected clinically and standard radiographs do not always provide an overlap-free image of the hook of the hamate, so that fractures can easily be overlooked. The objective of the present study was to examine if the sensitivity of detecting hamulus ossis hamati fractures can further be improved by a modified conventional radiographic projection. After dissection of the hook of the hamate on 10 cadaver hands, a fracture was produced close to the base using a surgical chisel. Conventional radiographs were then performed in four different projections (dorso-palmar, lateral, carpal-tunnel and oblique view). The oblique view was obtained in a 45 degrees supination position, slight extension and radial duction, with the tube tilted from distal to proximal by 30 degrees. An axial spiral CT was used as a reference for detection of the fracture. The highest sensitivity of the conventional radiographs, with 8/10 identified fractures (80%), was achieved by the oblique view. The carpal-tunnel view with 4/10 (40%) and the dorso-palmar projection with 3/10 (30%) were much lower. All fractures were missed in the lateral projection. If all of the conventional radiographic projections are taken into account, the sensitivity is increased to 90%. All of the fractures were reliably detected in the axial CT-image. If a hamulus ossis hamati fracture is suspected clinically, in addition to the dorso-palmar and carpal-tunnel view, the special oblique view described here should be performed as a third projection plane, while the lateral view can be dispensed with. However, even if all projections are taken into account, a negative finding in the conventional radiographic imaging does not exclude a fracture with absolute certainty. In such cases, a CT or MRI should be performed to exclude a fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rontge.2005.08.001DOI Listing
June 2006

Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex: an update.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2006 ;59(1):40-53

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Along with continuing progress in reconstructive surgery of the breast numerous techniques of nipple-areola reconstruction have been developed. With time and experience some methods have been discredited to historical significance only while others have evolved to widely accepted concepts used by surgeons all over the world, which in turn contributed new ideas and modifications. In addition to those favourite techniques others are reserved as second-line alternatives in specific situations. The principle criterion for a pleasing nipple-areola complex is symmetry regarding several parameters: colour, texture, size, and projection. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and discuss the concepts and techniques of nipple-areola reconstruction that have evolved over the past decades. Furthermore, those principles and techniques are pointed out that fulfil best the criteria of an ideal nipple-areola complex with emphasis on different techniques of breast reconstruction and individual conditions of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2005.08.006DOI Listing
March 2006

Therapeutic alternatives in nonunion of hamate hook fractures: personal experience in 8 patients and review of literature.

Ann Plast Surg 2005 Aug;55(2):149-54

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland.

Symptomatic nonunion frequently results after conservative treatment of hamate hook fractures, emphasizing the need of appropriate surgical strategies. A retrospective analysis of 8 patients with nonunions treated by fragment excision or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) at 3 centers was performed. The literature was reviewed for treatment options, as bone grafting and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. Although fragment excision is advocated as the "gold standard" in nonunion, reports on functional results are controversial, and recent anatomic and biomechanical studies of the hook challenge this opinion. In our patients, complete relief of symptoms and comparable functional results were observed after ORIF or fragment excision. Bone grafting could supplement ORIF in selected cases. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may evolve as a conservative treatment option. Several alternatives to hook excision are available aiming at complete anatomic and functional recovery of hamate hook nonunion. Further experience is needed before general recommendations can be formulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.sap.0000168697.05149.75DOI Listing
August 2005

Hook of hamate fractures: critical evaluation of different therapeutic procedures.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2005 Feb;115(2):488-97

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Markus Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

The treatment of choice in nondisplaced hook of hamate fractures is conservative, with lower arm splinting. Displaced fractures should be treated operatively, whereby excision of the fragment or open reduction and internal fixation are described. A hamulus ossis hamati fracture was verified in 14 patients (mean age, 42 years; range, 21 to 73 years) including 11 men and three women. In six patients (42.9 percent), conservative treatment was initiated immediately after trauma with a lower arm cast for 6 weeks, and eight patients (57.1 percent) were operated on primarily. In five patients (35.7 percent), the fragment was excised, and in three patients (21.4 percent), an open reduction and internal fixation was performed using a screw. In five of six patients treated conservatively, nonunion of the fracture with persisting clinical symptoms developed. All of those patients were treated operatively, whereby three patients underwent excision and two patients underwent screw fixation, which led to elimination of the symptoms. One patient was asymptomatic despite nonunion of the fracture and rejected surgery. All of the eight patients operated on primarily were asymptomatic 3 months after surgery. Therefore, the success rate of primary surgical treatment (eight of eight) was significantly higher compared with conservative treatment(one of six). Finally, all 14 patients were asymptomatic at late postoperative follow-up. The clinical outcome of patients with hook of hamate fractures treated conservatively was disappointing. Therefore, primary surgical treatment is recommended. In our patients, excision and open reduction and internal fixation led to comparable results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000149480.25248.20DOI Listing
February 2005

[Eagle syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy].

Rontgenpraxis 2003 ;55(3):108-13

Abteilung für Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Güstrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universität Rostock.

In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the outpatients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective.
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September 2004

Investigation of TRAM flap oxygenation and perfusion by near-infrared reflection spectroscopy and color-coded duplex sonography.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2004 Jan;113(1):141-52; discussion 153-5

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Hand Surgery, Markus Hospital, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.

Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy, used experimentally for investigation of tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in various flaps, was tested in the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap, chosen as a simple clinical model because of its well-known vascular anatomy and clinical relevance. The study intended to answer the following questions: Does the near-infrared reflection spectroscopy system used in this study measure tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the superficial skin layers only, as proposed by the manufacturer? Is near-infrared reflection spectroscopy able to detect differences of tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in distinct zones of the TRAM flap skin before, early, and late after surgery? Does tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation correspond to blood flow in the supplying superior epigastric artery and to clinical signs of TRAM flap perfusion and viability? In 11 patients, tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the lower abdomen/TRAM flap, mastectomy skin flap, and contralateral breast were measured by a new near-infrared reflection spectroscopy system preoperatively, early postoperatively, and late postoperatively. Simultaneously, systolic peak flow in the ipsilateral superior epigastric artery was obtained by color-coded duplex sonography. Routine clinical monitoring was performed throughout the early postoperative period. Tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the lower abdomen, mastectomy skin flap, and contralateral breast were similar before surgery but varied considerably between different patients. There were no significant differences among preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative values of tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the mastectomy skin flap and contralateral breast. However, near-infrared reflection spectroscopy measurements of the TRAM flap revealed significant differences between preoperative and early postoperative values of tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation and among zones I, II, and III early after surgery. Tissue hemoglobin content in the TRAM flap skin increased and oxygenation decreased early after surgery. Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy values corresponded to clinical signs of venous congestion predominantly in zone III. Late postoperative return of hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the TRAM flap toward preoperative values can be attributed to improved venous return by reversed flow across regurgitant valves and development of collateral circulation. Finally, there was a significant increase of systolic peak flow in the ipsilateral superior epigastric artery early after surgery. This could be related to the opening of small-caliber choke arteries between the superior and deep inferior epigastric arteries following ligation of the dominant deep inferior epigastric artery and TRAM flap transfer to the chest. Systolic peak flow returned to preoperative values late after surgery. The near-infrared reflection spectroscopy system used in this study appeared to measure hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the superficial skin layers only. Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy was able to detect differences of tissue hemoglobin content and oxygenation in the TRAM flap between preoperative and postoperative measurements and between distinct zones of the TRAM flap early postoperatively. Postoperative changes in near-infrared reflection spectroscopy values corresponded to clinical observations and blood flow in the superior epigastric artery measured by color-coded duplex sonography. Further experience is needed before near-infrared reflection spectroscopy can be advocated for routine clinical flap monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000095940.96294.A5DOI Listing
January 2004

Venous interruption is unnecessary for adequate TRAM flap delay.

Authors:
Oliver Scheufler

Plast Reconstr Surg 2003 Sep;112(4):1195-6

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000077243.20687.A9DOI Listing
September 2003

Hyperplasia of the subcutaneous adipose tissue is the primary histopathologic abnormality in lipedematous scalp.

Am J Dermatopathol 2003 Jun;25(3):248-52

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Hand Surgery, Markus Hospital, Teaching Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University School of Medicine, Wilhelm-Epstein-Strasse 2, 60431 Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

A 51-year-old white woman presented with thickening of the scalp located at the vertex and left lateral occiput without hair abnormalities or alopecia. Skin biopsies of the thickened scalp showed thickening of the subcutaneous tissue with proliferation of mature subcutaneous fat cells but no signs of inflammation or hair abnormalities. During 2.5 years of follow-up, scalp thickening progressed over the entire hair-bearing scalp and persisted without signs of further progression at 3.5 year follow-up. Lipedematous scalp is an extremely rare diagnosis. It is defined by a thickening of the subcutaneous layer of the scalp and can be distinguished from lipedematous alopecia, in which subcutaneous thickening is associated with diffuse alopecia and shortening of scalp hairs. A total of seven cases of lipedematous alopecia and two cases of lipedematous scalp have been reported. We report the third case of lipedematous scalp in a 51-year-old white woman associated with early symptoms of meningitis. Additional features described in the literature include pruritus, pain, and paresthesia of the scalp as well as associated medical problems such as hyperelasticity of skin and laxity of joints, renal failure, and diabetes mellitus. This sporadic disorder is predominantly located at the vertex and occiput. The etiology and pathogenesis of lipedematous scalp and alopecia remain unclear. The treatment is symptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000372-200306000-00010DOI Listing
June 2003

Tissue oxygenation and perfusion in inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty by near-infrared reflection spectroscopy and color-coded duplex sonography.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2003 Mar;111(3):1131-46

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Markus Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Wilhelm-Epstein-Strasse 2, 60431 Frankfurt-Main, Germany.

Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy has been used in various experimental and clinical settings to investigate tissue perfusion and oxygenation noninvasively. Its application in plastic surgery has only recently been reported. The current study used near-infrared reflection spectroscopy to monitor cutaneous microcirculation in breast skin flaps after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty. Thirty patients underwent bilateral reduction mammaplasty by a modified Robbins technique. Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy measurements were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at several defined positions of the breast. The reflection spectroscopy system was capable of detecting absolute values of total hemoglobin in milligrams per milliliter of tissue and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation in percent. Color-coded duplex sonography was used to visualize nutrient vessels of the inferior dermoglandular pedicle and to measure systolic peak flow in the arteries supplying the nipple-areola complex. Reflection spectroscopy values were examined for changes during the postoperative course. Reflection spectroscopy and duplex sonography values were analyzed for differences between patients with normal and compromised skin flap perfusion and wound healing, which was assessed clinically and by ultrasound. Preoperative reflection spectroscopy values demonstrated local, regional, and interindividual variations. Postoperatively, characteristic changes of tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin were observed in all patients during the 2-week follow-up. Reflection spectroscopy values differed significantly between breast and nipple-areola skin. Tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation was significantly lower, and total hemoglobin significantly higher, in patients with impaired wound healing compared with patients having normal wound healing. However, systolic peak flow in arteries of the inferior dermoglandular pedicle did not reveal differences between patients with impaired or normal wound healing of the nipple-areola complex. Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy allows the detection of hemoglobin content and oxygenation in skin flaps. Changes in tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin reflect hemodynamic changes in skin flaps during normal and pathological wound healing. Because of considerable intraindividual and interindividual variations, trend values seem to be superior to single measurements. Although in this study, near-infrared reflection spectroscopy was capable of distinguishing between normal and impaired perfusion in skin flaps in a clinical model, its future implication may be the early detection of vascular compromise in free flaps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000046615.36917.3EDOI Listing
March 2003

Dermal suspension flap in vertical-scar reduction mammaplasty.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2002 Jun;109(7):2289-98; discussion 2299-30

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Markus Hospital, Teaching Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University School of Medicine, Wilhelm-Epstein-Strasse 2, 60431 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Reduction mammaplasty has the following goals: appropriate reduction of breast size, symmetric and youthful breast shape, minimal and inconspicuous scars, and stable, long-term results. Although the first two parameters can be obtained by various reduction techniques, vertical-scar mammaplasty eliminates the horizontal inframammary scar, thereby reducing total scar length. Dermal flaps have been described in various types of reduction mammaplasty. The refinement of the authors' method is the incorporation of a superiorly pedicled dermal flap for better and longer-lasting support in vertical-scar reduction mammaplasty. A total of 73 vertical breast reductions in 38 patients were performed with this technique from May of 1996 to November of 1999. Vertical-scar reduction mammaplasty with a dermal suspension flap combines minimal scars with an internal support for long-term stability of the breast shape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006534-200206000-00019DOI Listing
June 2002