Publications by authors named "Oliver Phipps"

8 Publications

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The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Jul 2;22(1):325. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton Road, Wolverhampton, WV10 0QP, UK.

Background: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients' quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam.

Methods: Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study.

Results: 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5-156.6) and 158.4 (136.1-180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the "Role limitation due to physical health" dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the 'activity' dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists. Trial registration Ethical approval REC Ref: 16/LO/1325.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02404-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9250209PMC
July 2022

A single faecal bile acid stool test demonstrates potential efficacy in replacing SeHCAT testing for bile acid diarrhoea in selected patients.

Sci Rep 2022 05 18;12(1):8313. Epub 2022 May 18.

Clinical Chemistry, Black Country Pathology Services, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK.

This study examines the validity of measuring faecal bile acids (FBA) in a single stool sample as a diagnostic tool for bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) by direct comparison to the selenium-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan. A prospective observational study was undertaken. Patients with chronic diarrhoea (> 6 weeks) being investigated for potential BAD with SeHCAT scan provided stool samples for measurement of FBA, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were characterised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group, post-cholecystectomy, idiopathic BAD and post-operative terminal ileal resected Crohn's disease. Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8-weeks post treatment to determine whether FBA measurement could be used to monitor therapeutic response. 113 patients had a stool sample to directly compare with their SeHCAT result. FBA concentrations (μmol/g) and interquartile ranges in patients in the control group (2.8; 1.6-4.2), BAD (3.6; 1.9-7.2) and post-cholecystectomy cohort 3.8 (2.3-6.8) were similar, but all were significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to the Crohn's disease cohort (11.8; 10.1-16.2). FBA concentrations in patients with SeHCAT retention of < 15% (4.95; 2.6-10.5) and < 5% (9.9; 4.8-15.4) were significantly higher than those with a SeHCAT retention > 15% (2.6; 1.6-4.2); (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity using FBA cut-off of 1.6 μmol/g (using ≤ 15% SeHCAT retention as diagnostic of BAD) were 90% and 25% respectively. A single random stool sample may have potential use in diagnosing severe BAD or BAD in Crohn's patients. Larger studies are now needed to confirm the potential efficacy of this test to accurately diagnose BAD in the absence of SeHCAT testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12003-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117305PMC
May 2022

Bile Acids and the Microbiome: Making Sense of This Dynamic Relationship in Their Role and Management in Crohn's Disease.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 22;2022:8416578. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, UK.

Background: Bile acids help maintain the physiological balance of the gut microbiome and the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Similarly, intestinal bacteria play a major role in bile acid metabolism as they are involved in crucial biotransformation steps in the enterohepatic circulation pathway. Understanding the relationship between bile acid signalling and the gut microbiome in Crohn's disease can help target new and innovative treatment strategies.

Aims: This review summarises the relationship between bile acids and the microbiome in Crohn's disease and discusses potential novel therapeutic options.

Methods: We performed a literature review on bile acid signalling, its effect on the gut microbiome, and therapeutic applications in Crohn's disease.

Results: Current research suggests that there is a strong interplay between the dysregulated microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and the mucosal immune system that can result in a changed immunological function, triggering the inflammatory response in Crohn's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated an association with altering the enterohepatic circulation and activating the farnesoid X receptor signalling pathway with the use of probiotics and faecal microbial transplantation, respectively. Bile acid sequestrants have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anti-apoptotic properties with the potential to alter the intestinal microbial composition, suggesting a possible role in inducing and maintaining Crohn's disease.

Conclusions: Active Crohn's disease has been correlated with changes in bacterial concentrations, which may be associated with changes in bile acid modification. Further research should focus on targeting these areas for future therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8416578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8964223PMC
April 2022

Intravenous iron is non-inferior to oral iron regarding cell growth and iron metabolism in colorectal cancer associated with iron-deficiency anaemia.

Sci Rep 2021 07 1;11(1):13699. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Research Institute in Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.

Oral iron promotes intestinal tumourigenesis in animal models. In humans, expression of iron transport proteins are altered in colorectal cancer. This study examined whether the route of iron therapy alters iron transport and tumour growth. Colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with pre-operative iron deficiency anaemia received oral ferrous sulphate (n = 15), or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (n = 15). Paired (normal and tumour tissues) samples were compared for expression of iron loading, iron transporters, proliferation, apoptosis and Wnt signalling using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Iron loading was increased in tumour and distributed to the stroma in intravenous treatment and to the epithelium in oral treatment. Protein and mRNA expression of proliferation and iron transporters were increased in tumours compared to normal tissues but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups. However, intravenous iron treatment reduced ferritin mRNA levels in tumours and replenished body iron stores. Iron distribution to non-epithelial cells in intravenous iron suggests that iron is less bioavailable to tumour cells. Therefore, intravenous iron may be a better option in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to its efficiency in replenishing iron levels while its effect on proliferation and iron metabolism is similar to that of oral iron treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93155-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249613PMC
July 2021

Differences in the On- and Off-Tumor Microbiota between Right- and Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer.

Microorganisms 2021 May 20;9(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Research Institute in Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK.

This study aims to determine differences in the on- and off-tumor microbiota between patients with right- and left-sided colorectal cancer. Microbiome profiling of tumor and tumor-adjacent biopsies from patients with right-sided ( = 17) and left-sided ( = 7) colorectal adenocarcinoma was performed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Off-tumor alpha and beta diversity were significantly different between right- and left-sided colorectal cancer patients. However, no differences in on-tumor diversity were observed between tumor locations. Comparing the off-tumor microbiota showed the right colon to be enriched with species of the Lachnoclostridium, Selenomonas, and Ruminococcus genera. Whereas the left colon is enriched with Epsilonbacteraeota phylum, Campylobacteria class, and Pasteurellales and Campylobacterales orders, in contrast, the on-tumor microbiota showed relatively fewer differences in bacterial taxonomy between tumor sites, with left tumors being enriched with Methylophilaceae and Vadin BE97 families and Alloprevotella, Intestinibacter, Romboutsia, and Ruminococcus 2 genera. Patients with left-sided colorectal cancer had large taxonomic differences between their paired on- and off-tumor microbiota, while patients with right-sided colorectal cancer showed relatively fewer taxonomic differences. Collectively, this suggests that the right and left colon show distinctive bacterial populations; however, the presence of a colonic tumor leads to a more consistent microbiota between locations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160982PMC
May 2021

Oral and Intravenous Iron Therapy Differentially Alter the On- and Off-Tumor Microbiota in Anemic Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Research Institute in Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK.

Iron deficiency anemia is a common complication of colorectal cancer and may require iron therapy. Oral iron can increase the iron available to gut bacteria and may alter the colonic microbiota. We performed an intervention study to compare oral and intravenous iron therapy on the colonic tumor-associated (on-tumor) and paired non-tumor-associated adjacent (off-tumor) microbiota. Anemic patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma received either oral ferrous sulphate ( = 16) or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose ( = 24). On- and off-tumor biopsies were obtained post-surgery and microbial profiling was performed using 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Off-tumor α- and β-diversity were significantly different between iron treatment groups. No differences in on-tumor diversity were observed. Off-tumor microbiota of oral iron-treated patients showed higher abundances of the orders Clostridiales, Cytophagales, and Anaeroplasmatales compared to intravenous iron-treated patients. The on-tumor microbiota was enriched with the orders Lactobacillales and Alteromonadales in the oral and intravenous iron groups, respectively. The on- and off-tumor microbiota associated with intravenous iron-treated patients infers increased abundances of enzymes involved in iron sequestration and anti-inflammatory/oncogenic metabolite production, compared to oral iron-treated patients. Collectively, this suggests that intravenous iron may be a more appropriate therapy to limit adverse microbial outcomes compared to oral iron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002270PMC
March 2021

Influence of Iron on the Gut Microbiota in Colorectal Cancer.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 20;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Research Institute in Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK.

Perturbations of the colonic microbiota can contribute to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer, leading to an increase in pathogenic bacteria at the expense of protective bacteria. This can contribute to disease through increasing carcinogenic metabolite/toxin production, inducing inflammation, and activating oncogenic signaling. To limit disease progression, external factors that may influence the colonic microbiota need to be considered in patients with colorectal cancer. One major factor that can influence the colonic microbiota is iron. Iron is an essential micronutrient that is required by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for cellular function. Most pathogenic bacteria have heightened iron acquisition mechanisms and therefore tend to outcompete protective bacteria for free iron. Colorectal cancer patients often present with anemia due to iron deficiency, and thus they require iron therapy. Depending upon the route of administration, iron therapy has the potential to contribute to a procarciongenic microbiota. Orally administered iron is the common treatment for anemia in these patients but can lead to an increased gut iron concentration. This suggests the need to reassess the route of iron therapy in these patients. Currently, this has only been assessed in murine studies, with human trials being necessary to unravel the potential microbial outcomes of iron therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551435PMC
August 2020

Iron deficiency, immunology, and colorectal cancer.

Nutr Rev 2021 01;79(1):88-97

O. Phipps, M.J. Brookes, and H.O. Al-Hassi are with the Research Institute in Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.

Excessive gut luminal iron contributes to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence suggests that reduced iron intake and low systemic iron levels are also associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. This is important because patients with colorectal cancer often present with iron deficiency. Iron is necessary for appropriate immunological functions; hence, iron deficiency may hinder cancer immunosurveillance and potentially modify the tumor immune microenvironment, both of which may assist cancer development. This is supported by studies showing that patients with colorectal cancer with iron deficiency have inferior outcomes and reduced response to therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the immunological consequences of iron deficiency and suggest ensuring adequate iron therapy to limit these outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa040DOI Listing
January 2021
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