Publications by authors named "Oliver Busby"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cyclin A triggers Mitosis either via the Greatwall kinase pathway or Cyclin B.

EMBO J 2020 06 30;39(11):e104419. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Genome Damage and Stability Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Two mitotic cyclin types, cyclin A and B, exist in higher eukaryotes, but their specialised functions in mitosis are incompletely understood. Using degron tags for rapid inducible protein removal, we analyse how acute depletion of these proteins affects mitosis. Loss of cyclin A in G2-phase prevents mitotic entry. Cells lacking cyclin B can enter mitosis and phosphorylate most mitotic proteins, because of parallel PP2A:B55 phosphatase inactivation by Greatwall kinase. The final barrier to mitotic establishment corresponds to nuclear envelope breakdown, which requires a decisive shift in the balance of cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 and PP2A:B55 activity. Beyond this point, cyclin B/Cdk1 is essential for phosphorylation of a distinct subset of mitotic Cdk1 substrates that are essential to complete cell division. Our results identify how cyclin A, cyclin B and Greatwall kinase coordinate mitotic progression by increasing levels of Cdk1-dependent substrate phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020104419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265243PMC
June 2020

UCP1-independent glucose-lowering effect of leptin in type 1 diabetes: only in conditions of hypoleptinemia.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 01 19;318(1):E72-E86. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The possibility to use leptin therapeutically for lowering glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes has attracted interest. However, earlier animal models of type 1 diabetes are severely catabolic with very low endogenous leptin levels, unlike most patients with diabetes. Here, we aim to test glucose-lowering effects of leptin in novel, more human-like murine models. We examined the glucose-lowering potential of leptin in diabetic models of two types: streptozotocin-treated mice and mice treated with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. To prevent hypoleptinemia, we used combinations of thermoneutral temperature and high-fat feeding. Leptin fully normalized hyperglycemia in standard chow-fed streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. However, more humanized physiological conditions (high-fat diets or thermoneutral temperatures) that increased adiposity - and thus also leptin levels - in the diabetic mice abrogated the effects of leptin, i.e., the mice developed leptin resistance also in this respect. The glucose-lowering effect of leptin was not dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein-1 and was not associated with alterations in plasma insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, food intake or corticosterone but fully correlated with decreased plasma glucagon levels and gluconeogenesis. An important implication of these observations is that the therapeutic potential of leptin as an additional treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes is probably limited. This is because such patients are treated with insulin and do not display low leptin levels. Thus, the potential for a glucose-lowering effect of leptin would already have been attained with standard insulin therapy, and further effects on blood glucose level through additional leptin cannot be anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00253.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985793PMC
January 2020