Publications by authors named "Oliver A Darwish"

3 Publications

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Adherence to Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Health-Care Personnel: A Louisiana Case Study.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jun 8:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the extent that appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance, was used during the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by health-care personnel (HCP) in Louisiana in 5 clinical settings.

Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to the LA Nursery registry. Appropriate use of PPE in each of the 5 clinical scenarios was defined by the authors based on CDC guidelines. The scenarios ranged from communal hospital space to carrying out aerosol generating procedures (AGPs). A total of 1760 HCP participated between June and July 2020.

Results: The average adherence in LA was lowest for the scenario of carrying out AGPs at 39.5% compliance and highest for the scenario of patient contact when COVID-19 not suspected at 82.8% compliance. Adherence among parishes varied widely. Commentary to suggest a shortage of PPE supply and the practice of re-using PPE was strong.

Conclusions: Use of appropriate PPE varied by setting. It was higher in scenarios where only face masks (or respirators) were the standard (ie, community hospital or when COVID-19 not suspected) and lower in scenarios where additional PPE (eg, gloves, eye protection, and isolation gown) was required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314049PMC
June 2021

Adherence to Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Health Care Personnel in the United States.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jan 8:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: Protecting frontline health care workers with personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Through an online survey, we demonstrated variable adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) PPE guidelines among health care personnel (HCP).

Methods: CDC guidelines for optimal and acceptable PPE usage in common situations faced by frontline health care workers were referenced to create a short online survey. The survey was distributed to national, statewide, and local professional organizations across the United States and to HCP, using a snowball sampling technique. Responses were collected between June 15 and July 17, 2020.

Results: Responses totaling 2245 were received from doctors, nurses, midwives, paramedics, and medical technicians in 44 states. Eight states with n > 20 (Arizona, California, Colorado, Louisiana, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, and Washington) and a total of 436 responses are included in the quantitative analysis. Adherence to CDC guidelines was observed to be highest in the scenario of patient contact when COVID-19 was not suspected (86.47%) and lowest when carrying out aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) (42.47%).

Conclusions: Further research is urgently needed to identify the reasons underlying variability between professions and regions to pinpoint strategies for maximizing adherence and improving the safety of HCPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010287PMC
January 2021

Measuring visual attention to faces with cleft deformity.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2019 Jun 14;72(6):982-989. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Chief, Plastic and Craniofacial Surgery, Sidra Medicine and Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

Background: Limited data are available regarding observers' visual attention to faces with congenital difference. We implemented eye tracking technology to examine this issue, as it pertains particularly to faces with cleft deformity.

Method: Four hundred three observers assessed 273 clinical images, while their eye movements were unobtrusively tracked using an infrared sensor. Forty-one facial images of the repaired cleft lip, 137 images of other facial conditions, and 95 images of matched controls were assessed. Twenty facial regions of interest ("lookzones") were considered for all images observed. A separate cohort of 720 raters evaluated the images for attractiveness. Observer and image demographic information was collected. Visual fixation counts and durations were computed across all 20 lookzones for all images. The effect of a variety of variables on lookzone fixation was analyzed using factorial ANOVA testing.

Results: Cleft-repaired faces were rated as less attractive and drew observers' attention preferentially to the affected upper lip lookzone (p<.001). Images rated as less attractive garnered greater visual attention in the cleft-affected lookzones (p<.001). The eye tracking methodology demonstrated exquisite sensitivity to laterality of cleft deformity (p<.001). Individuals reporting a personal or a family history of facial deformity fixated more on the perioral region of cleft-repaired faces than did naïve observers (p<.001).

Conclusion: These findings highlight the utility of eye tracking measures for understanding critical variables that influence the visual processing of faces with cleft deformity. The data may provide analytical tools for assessing surgical outcome and direct priority setting during surgeons' conversations with patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2018.12.024DOI Listing
June 2019
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