Publications by authors named "Olga Mulas"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and risk of arterial occlusive events in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with nilotinib.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Hematology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Recommendations for dyslipidemia management aimed at reducing arterial occlusive events (AOEs) have been recently published. So far, no data have been reported on the management of dyslipidemia in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with nilotinib. We investigated 369 CML adult patients, stratified according to the new Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scoring system. Plasma levels of cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides were measured prior to the start of nilotinib and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of AOEs was 15.9%. Patients with cholesterol levels > 200 mg/dL and LDL > 70 mg/dL 3 months after treatment showed a significantly higher incidence of AOEs (21.9 ± 4.6% vs 6.2 ± 2.5, P = 0.003). Patients belonging to the high and very high SCORE risk group showed a significant increase of AOEs (34.4 ± 6% vs 10 ± 2.1%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, both high cholesterol and LDL levels and a high and very high SCORE risk remained significantly associated with the risk of AOEs (P = 0.008; HR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.4-8.7 and P < 0.001; HR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2-9.8, respectively). Overall, 78 patients (21.1%) presented dyslipidemia at the time of CML diagnosis and 88 (23.3%) after starting nilotinib, but only 26 of them (29.5%) were treated with statins.Low LDL and cholesterol plasma levels are associated with a significant lower risk of AOEs in CML patients treated with nilotinib in the real life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04392-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Risk and Response-Adapted Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 24;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Toulouse, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1037, 31059 Toulouse, France.

Myeloma therapeutic strategies have been adapted to patients' age and comorbidities for a long time. However, although cytogenetics and clinical presentations (plasmablastic cytology; extramedullary disease) are major prognostic factors, until recently, all patients received the same treatment whatever their initial risk. No strong evidence allows us to use a personalized treatment according to one cytogenetic abnormality in newly diagnosed myeloma. Retrospective studies showed a benefit of a double autologous transplant in high-risk cytogenetics according to the International Myeloma Working Group definition (t(4;14), t(14;16) or del(17p)). Moreover, this definition has to be updated since other independent abnormalities, namely gain 1q, del(1p32), and trisomies 5 or 21, as well as TP53 mutations, are also prognostic. Another very strong predictive tool is the response to treatment assessed by the evaluation of minimal residual disease (MRD). We are convinced that the time has come to use it to adapt the strategy to a dynamic risk. Many trials are ongoing to answer many questions: when and how should we adapt the therapy, its intensity and duration. Nevertheless, we also have to take into account the clinical outcome for one patient, especially adverse events affecting his or her quality of life and his or her preferences for continuous/fixed duration treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760158PMC
November 2020

Rituximab Monotherapy or in Combination with Bendamustine Is Not Inferior to Rituximab-CHOP Regimen in the Treatment of Patients with Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma in the Real Life.

Acta Haematol 2020 Sep 4:1-5. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Ematologia e CTMO, Ospedale Businco, AOB, Cagliari, Italy.

Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare lymphoma belonging to the marginal zone lymphoproliferative disorders. Usually, SMZL occurs with indolent presentation and, when required, the standard of care is represented by rituximab-based regimens. No direct comparison of different rituximab-based combinations and polychemotherapy regimens has been conducted to date. In a monocentric cohort of 68 SMLZ patients, we showed that rituximab in monotherapy or in combination with bendamustine, compared with rituximab associated with the polychemotherapy cycle cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP), resulted in a higher 5-year progression-free survival (91.3 ± 9% and 75 ± 15.7% vs. 30.8 ± 12.1%, p < 0.001). Platelets at diagnosis <100 ×109/L (p = 0.034, HR = 4.3) and transformation into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (p = 0.031, HR = 4.3) were associated with a lower overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509596DOI Listing
September 2020

Renin angiotensin system inhibitors reduce the incidence of arterial thrombotic events in patients with hypertension and chronic myeloid leukemia treated with second- or third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jul 30;99(7):1525-1530. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Hematology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Hypertension is a commonly reported comorbidity in patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and its management represents a challenge in patients treated with 2nd- or 3rd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), considering their additional cardiovascular (CV) toxicity. The renin angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to hypertension genesis and plays an important role in atherosclerosis development, proliferation, and differentiation of myeloid hematopoietic cells. We analyzed a cohort of 192 patients with hypertension at CML diagnosis, who were treated with 2nd- or 3rd-generation TKIs, and evaluated the efficacy of RAS inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs)) in the prevention of arterial occlusive events (AOEs), as compared with other drug classes. The 5-year cumulative incidence of AOEs was 32.7 ± 4.2%. Patients with SCORE ≥ 5% (high-very-high) showed a significantly higher incidence of AOEs (33.7 ± 7.6% vs 13.6 ± 4.8%, p = 0.006). The AOE incidence was significantly lower in patients treated with RAS inhibitors (14.8 ± 4.2% vs 44 ± 1%, p < 0.001, HR = 0.283). The difference in the low and intermediate Sokal risk group was confirmed but not in the high-risk group, where a lower RAS expression has been reported. Our data suggest that RAS inhibitors may represent an optimal treatment in patients with hypertension and CML, treated with 2nd or 3rd TKIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04102-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Metabolomic Analysis of Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Cardiovascular Adverse Events after Treatment with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

J Clin Med 2020 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Cardiovascular adverse events (CV-AEs) are considered critical complications in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between metabolic profiles and CV-AEs in CML patients treated with TKIs.

Methods: We investigated 39 adult CML patients in chronic-phase (mean age 49 years, range 24-70 years), with no comorbidities evidenced at baseline, who were consecutively identified with CML and treated with imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and ponatinib. All patients performed Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis and were divided into two groups (with and without CV-AEs).

Results: Ten CV-AEs were documented. Seven CV-AEs were rated as 3 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria, and one patient died of a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The patients' samples were clearly separated into two groups after analysis and the main discriminant metabolites were tyrosine, lysine, glutamic acid, ornithine, 2-piperdinecarboxylic acid, citric acid, proline, phenylalanine, threonine, mannitol, leucine, serine, creatine, alanine, and 4-hydroxyproline, which were more abundant in the CV-AE group. Conversely, myristic acid, oxalic acid, arabitol, 4-deoxy rithronic acid, ribose, and elaidic acid were less represented in the CV-AE group.

Conclusions: CML patients with CV-AEs show a different metabolic profile, suggesting probable mechanisms of endothelial damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231160PMC
April 2020

Increased incidence of infection in patients with myelofibrosis and transfusion-associated iron overload in the clinical setting.

Int J Hematol 2020 May 23;111(5):614-618. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

SC Ematologia e CTMO, Ospedale Businco, AOB, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Sanità Pubblica, Università di Cagliari, Via Jenner, sn, 09124, Cagliari, Italy.

Transfusion-associated iron overload may lead to increased risk of infection, but its role in myelofibrosis (MF) has been scarcely explored. We evaluated 106 consecutive patients with primary or secondary MF. Up to 38% of patients were transfusion-dependent (TD) with a median of 14 RBC units received. Median observation time was 36 months (range 3-203). Forty-five percent of patients experienced one or more infectious episodes for a total of 69 infectious events, 13 (19%) of which were severe. The 60-month cumulative incidence of infection was 64.1 ± 6.5%. TD patients showed a higher incidence of infection (HR = 2.13, p = 0.019). Transfusion burden was markedly greater in TD patients with infectious complication (median 24 RBC units vs 15 RBC units; p = 0.012). The 60-month overall survival was 40 ± 5.9%. Lower International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk (p < 0.0001) and ruxolitinib (p = 0.027) were significantly correlated with higher survival. This real-world study showed increased infections in patients with higher transfusion burden. It may therefore be interesting to further investigate the role of iron chelation in improving infection-free survival in MF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02861-6DOI Listing
May 2020

Long-term mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in 656 chronic myeloid leukaemia patients treated with second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Int J Cardiol 2020 02 24;301:163-166. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Hematology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Background: Limited information is available regarding the rate of long-term cardiovascular (CV) mortality in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients treated with second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2/3 TKIs) in the real-life practice.

Methods: We identified 656 consecutive CML patients treated with nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib.

Results: The 15-year CV-mortality free survival was 93 ± 2.8%. Age ≥65 years (p = 0.005) and a positive history of CV disease (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with a lower CV-mortality free survival. CV disease accounted for 16.5% and 5% of potential years of life lost (PYLL) in male and female patients, respectively. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) following ischemic heart disease (IHD) was 3.9 in males and 3.8 in female patients, meaning an excess of IHD deaths observed, in comparison with the population of control.

Conclusion: Prevention strategies based on CV risk factors, in particular in those patients with a previous history of CV disease, should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.10.036DOI Listing
February 2020

Incidence and evaluation of predisposition to cardiovascular toxicity in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with bosutinib in the real-life practice.

Ann Hematol 2019 Aug 1;98(8):1885-1890. Epub 2019 May 1.

Division of Hematology, Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

There is little information about cardiovascular adverse event (CV-AE) incidence in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with bosutinib in the real-life practice. We identified 54 consecutive CML patients treated with bosutinib, stratified according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) assessment, based on sex, age, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels. The 40-month cumulative incidence of CV-AEs was 25.2 ± 8.1%. Patients with the SCORE of high-very high showed a significantly higher incidence of CV-AEs (55 ± 12.9% vs 9 ± 9.5%; p = 0.002). Overall, 9 CV-AEs were reported, with 2 deaths attributed to CV-AE. In conclusion, the SCORE assessment before starting treatment is helpful in identifying CV-AE high-risk patients during bosutinib treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03705-yDOI Listing
August 2019

Recurrent arterial occlusive events in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and role of secondary prevention.

Int J Cardiol 2019 08 17;288:124-127. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Hematology, Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Background: Risk of death is particularly high in patients with a previous history of arterial occlusive events (AOEs) and the probability for a recurrent event is around 20%. Little is known about recurrent AOE and the role of secondary prevention in patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) with previous AOE, treated with second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2/3 TKIs), nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib.

Methods: We identified a real-life cohort of 57 consecutive adult CML patients treated with 2/3 TKI. All patients had a previous history of AOE. Ongoing use of secondary prevention of AOE (including antiplatelet agents, anticoagulant therapy, and statins) before starting a 2/3 TKI was recorded, as well as CV risk factors.

Results: The 60-month cumulative incidence rate of recurrent AOEs was 47.8 ± 10.9%. Despite a history of AOE, 10 patients (16%) were not receiving secondary preventative measures. Patients treated with nilotinib and ponatinib showed a higher incidence of recurrent AOEs (76.7 ± 14.3% and 64 ± 20.1%, respectively) than those treated with dasatinib and bosutinib (44 ± 24.2% and 30.5 ± 15.5%, respectively) (p = 0.01). Only treatment with a 2/3 TKI given as second or subsequent line therapy showed a significant association with an increased incidence of recurrent AOE (p = 0.039). Overall, 17 recurrent AOEs were observed; 3 CV-related deaths were reported.

Conclusion: CML patients with a previous history of AOE treated with 2/3 TKI represent a particular patient population with a higher probability of experiencing a recurrent AOE; individualized treatment is needed to optimize secondary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.04.051DOI Listing
August 2019

Arterial occlusive events in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with ponatinib in the real-life practice are predicted by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) chart.

Hematol Oncol 2019 Aug 17;37(3):296-302. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Hematology, Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Arterial occlusive events (AOEs) represent emerging complications in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with ponatinib. We identified 85 consecutive CML adult patients who were treated with ponatinib in 17 Italian centers. Patients were stratified according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) assessment, based on sex, age, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels. The 60-month cumulative incidence rate of AOEs excluding hypertension was 25.7%. Hypertension was reported in 14.1% of patients. The median time of exposure to ponatinib was 28 months (range, 3-69 months). Patients with a high to very high SCORE risk showed a significantly higher incidence rate of AOEs (74.3% vs 15.2%, P < 0.001). Patients aged ≥60 years showed a significantly higher incidence rate of AOEs (51.5% vs 16.9%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, no association was found between AOEs and positive history of CV disease, age, dose of ponatinib, previous exposure to nilotinib, and comorbidities. Only the SCORE risk was confirmed as a significant predictive factor (P = 0.01; HR = 10.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-67.8). Patients aged ≥60 years who were treated with aspirin had a lower incidence rate of AOEs (33.3% vs 61.8%). Among the 14 reported AOEs, 78.6% of them showed grade 3 to 4 toxicity. This real-life study confirmed the increased incidence of AOEs in CML patients treated with ponatinib, with high to very high SCORE risk. We suggest that patients aged ≥60 years who were treated with ponatinib should undergo prophylaxis with 100 mg/day of aspirin. Our findings emphasize personalized prevention strategies based on CV risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766852PMC
August 2019

Residual Peripheral Blood CD26 Leukemic Stem Cells in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients During TKI Therapy and During Treatment-Free Remission.

Front Oncol 2018 30;8:194. Epub 2018 May 30.

Hematology Unit, Ospedale Oncologico A. Businco, Cagliari, Italy.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in sustained "deep molecular response" may stop TKI treatment without disease recurrence; however, half of them lose molecular response shortly after TKI withdrawing. Well-defined eligibility criteria to predict a safe discontinuation up-front are still missing. Relapse is probably due to residual quiescent TKI-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs) supposedly transcriptionally low/silent and not easily detectable by BCR-ABL1 qRT-PCR. Bone marrow Ph+ CML CD34/CD38 LSCs were found to specifically co-express CD26 (dipeptidylpeptidase-IV). We explored feasibility of detecting and quantifying CD26 LSCs by flow cytometry in peripheral blood (PB). Over 400 CML patients (at diagnosis and during/after therapy) entered this cross-sectional study in which CD26 expression was evaluated by a standardized multiparametric flow cytometry analysis on PB CD45/CD34/CD38 stem cell population. All 120 CP-CML patients at diagnosis showed measurable PB CD26 LSCs (median 19.20/μL, range 0.27-698.6). PB CD26 LSCs were also detectable in 169/236 (71.6%) CP-CML patients in first-line TKI treatment (median 0.014 cells/μL; range 0.0012-0.66) and in 74/112 (66%), additional patients studied on treatment-free remission (TFR) (median 0.015/μL; range 0.006-0.76). Notably, no correlation between BCR-ABL/ABL ratio and number of residual LSCs was found both in patients on or off TKIs. This is the first evidence that "circulating" CML LSCs persist in the majority of CML patients in molecular response while on TKI treatment and even after TKI discontinuation. Prospective studies evaluating the dynamics of PB CD26 LSCs during TKI treatment and the role of a "stem cell response" threshold to achieve and maintain TFR are ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2018.00194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988870PMC
May 2018

HLA-G molecules and clinical outcome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

Leuk Res 2017 10 18;61:1-5. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Hematology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Bone Marrow Transplant Center, R. Binaghi Hospital, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes a tolerogenic protein known to promote tumor immune-escape. We investigated HLA-G polymorphisms and soluble molecules (sHLA-G) in 68 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Patients with G*01:01:01 or G*01:01:02 allele had higher value of sHLA-G compared to G*01:01:03 (109.2±39.5 vs 39.9±8.8 units/ml; p=0.03), and showed lower event free survival (EFS) (62.3% vs 90.0%; p=0.02). The G*01:01:03 allele was associated with higher rates and earlier achievement of deep molecular response (MR) (100% vs 65%, median of 8 vs 58 months, p=0.001). HLA-G alleles with higher secretion of sHLA-G seem associated with lower EFS, possibly because of an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Conversely, lower levels of sHLA-G promoted achievement of MR, suggesting increased cooperation with immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2017.08.005DOI Listing
October 2017

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors can predict TKI treatment-free remission in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

Exp Hematol 2015 Dec 22;43(12):1015-1018.e1. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

Hematology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Bone Marrow Transplant Center, R. Binaghi Hospital, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Several factors are predictive of treatment-free remission (TFR) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but few data exist on the role of natural killer (NK) cells and their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). KIR and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes were investigated in 36 CML patients who discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment after achieving deep molecular response (MR(4.5)). Cumulative TFR was significantly higher in patients homozygous for KIR A haplotype (85.7% vs. 45.5%; p = 0.029). Younger age, Bx haplotype, and the combination KIR3DS1/KIR3DL1 present/HLA-Bw4 present were significantly associated with relapse. KIR genotypes could prove useful in identifying patients that are likely to maintain MR(4.5) after discontinuing TKI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2015.08.004DOI Listing
December 2015

Homozygosity for killer immunoglobin-like receptor haplotype A predicts complete molecular response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

Exp Hematol 2013 May 1;41(5):424-31. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

Bone Marrow Transplant Center, R. Binaghi Hospital - ASL 8, Cagliari, Italy.

Several recent reports suggest a possible role for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in the onset of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and response to therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). To explore this hypothesis, we studied KIRs and their human leukocyte antigen class I ligands in 59 consecutive patients with chronic-phase CML (mean age, 53 years; range, 23-81 years) and a group of 121 healthy control participants belonging to the same ethnic group as the patients. The 2-year cumulative incidence of complete molecular response, obtained after a median of 27 months (range, 4-52 months), was 51.2%. An increased frequency of the activating receptor KIR2DS1 (pm = 0.05) and a reduced frequency of the KIR-ligand combination KIR2DS2/2DL2 absent/C1 present (pm = 0.001) were significantly associated with CML. Moreover, KIR repertoires in patients appeared to influence response to TKI therapy. Homozygosity for KIR haplotype A (pm = 0.01), a decreased frequency of the inhibitory KIR gene KIR2DL2 (pm = 0.02), and low numbers of inhibitory KIR genes (pm = 0.05) were all significantly associated with achievement of complete molecular remission. These data suggest that a decrease in properly stimulated and activated NK cells might contribute to the occurrence of CML and indicate homozygosity for KIR haplotype A as a promising immunogenetic marker of complete molecular response that could help clinicians decide whether to withdraw treatment in patients with CML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2013.01.008DOI Listing
May 2013