Publications by authors named "Olga A Danilova"

6 Publications

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First Report of Causing Garlic clove Rot in Russian Federation.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

FSI Federal Research Centre Fundamentals of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 442108, Laboratory of plant system biology , Moscow, Moscow, Russian Federation;

Garlic () is a widely consumed bulbous crop both worldwide and in Russia. About 200,000 tons of garlic is produced in Russia annually (https://rosstat.gov.ru/). Significant pre- and post-harvest losses of garlic regularly occur due to (Taylor et al., 2013). Since September 2018, rotting has been observed in Russia during garlic bulb storage (data of the Federal Scientific Vegetable Center, FSVC, Moscow Region). The outer bulb surface looked healthy, but underneath the integumentary scales, the cloves had light brown and brown spots. When grown, diseased plants were characterized by root and bulb disruption and leaf drying; for some cultivars, up to 100% of plants died. In January 2020, cv. Strelets and Dubkovsky bulbs, collected in July 2019, with rot symptoms, were taken from the FSVC storage. Necrotic clove tissue fragments (0.2-0.5 cm) were cut, sanitized with 70% ethanol for 3 min, rinsed with sterile water, and incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) with 1 mg/ml ampicillin at 22°C in the dark. Four single-spore cultures were obtained from four diseased bulbs. After 6 days of incubation, the isolates produced abundant aerial white mycelia and acquired a purple pigmentation. The hyphae were hyaline with septation. All isolates (Dubkovsky, Dubkovsky 2, Strelets, and Strelets 2) produced numerous oval unicellular microconidia without septa, 4.1 to 11.6 × 1.3 to 3.4 µm (n = 50) and very few macroconidia with 3-4 septa (21 to 26 × 3 to 4 µm (n = 30)), narrowed at both ends. The cultural and conidial characteristics of the isolates corresponded to species (Leslie and Summerell 2006). To determine the species, DNA was extracted from four isolates, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and genes of translation elongation factor 1α () and subunits 1 and 2 of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II ( and ) were amplified and sequenced with primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), EF1/EF2 (O'Donnell et al. 1998a), RPB1-F5/RPB1-R8 (O'Donnell et al. 2010) and fRPB2-5F/fRPB2-7cR (Liu et al. 1999). The obtained sequences were identical for all four isolates. The isolate Strelets sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank (MW149129 (ITS), MW161161 (), MW413302 () and MW413303 ()); their analysis in MLST (http://fusarium.mycobank.org) showed 98.8-99.8% similarity to (NRRL 13582, 13598 and others), which is part of the complex (O'Donnell et al. 1998b). The test on pathogenicity was performed two times according to (Leyronas et al. 2018). For this, three replicates of 10 cloves (cv. Strelets) were soaked in a conidial suspension (~10 conidia/ml; Strelets isolate) for 24 h. Ten control cloves were soaked in sterile water. The cloves were incubated on Petri dishes (5 cloves on a dish; on filter paper wettened with sterile water) in the dark at 23°C. After 5 days, brown lesions and white mycelium developed on the surface of the treated cloves. The taxonomic status of the fungus isolated from necrotic tissue was determined as according to the ITS, , and analysis. Garlic basal and bulb rot is known to be caused by f. sp. and (Snowdon 1990). This study is the first report of causing rot of garlic bulbs during storage in Russia. produces a variety of mycotoxins during bulb infestation, and our findings are important for diagnosing a disease and the use of garlic crop in culinary and medicine. Funding The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project number 20-316-70009. References: Leslie, J. F., and Summerell, B. A. 2006. Page 224 in: The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470278376 Leyronas, C., et al. 2018. Plant Dis. 102:2658 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-18-0962-PDN Liu, Y.J. et al. 1999. Mol. Biol. Evol. 16: 1799 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026092 O'Donnell, K, et al. 1998a. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95(5):2044. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.5.2044. O'Donnell, et al. 1998b. Mycologia 90:465 O'Donnell, K., et al. 2010. J. Clin. Microbiol., 48: 3708 https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00989-10 Snowdon, A. L. Pages 250-252 in: A Color Atlas of Post-Harvest Diseases and Disorders of Fruits and Vegetables. Vol. 1. 1990. Wolfe Scientific, London. Taylor, A, et al. 2013. Plant Pathol. 62:103. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02624.x White, T. J., et al. 1990. Page 315 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2743-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

Osmolytes and membrane lipids in the adaptation of micromycete Emericellopsis alkalina to ambient pH and sodium chloride.

Fungal Biol 2020 10 29;124(10):884-891. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 33, Bld. 2, Leninsky Ave., Moscow, 119071, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

The accumulation of low molecular weight cytoprotective compounds (osmolytes) and changes in the membrane lipids composition are of key importance for the adaptation to stress impacts. However, the reason behind the wide variety of osmolytes present in the cell remains unclear. We suggest that specific functions of osmolytes can be revealed by studying the adaptation mechanisms of the mycelial fungus Emericellopsis alkalina (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) that is resistant to both alkaline pH values and high sodium chloride concentrations. It has been established that the fungus uses different osmolytes to adapt to ambient pH and NaCl concentration. Arabitol was predominant osmolyte in alkaline conditions, while mannitol prevailed in acidic conditions. On the salt-free medium mannitol was the main osmolyte; under optimal conditions (pH 10.2; 0.4 M NaCl) arabitol and mannitol were both predominant. Higher NaCl concentrations (1.0-1.5 M) resulted in the accumulation of low molecular weight polyol - erythritol, which amounted up to 12-14%, w/w. On the contrary, changes in the composition of membrane lipids were limited under pH and NaCl impacts; only higher NaCl concentrations led to the increase in the degree of unsaturation of membrane lipids. Results obtained indicated the key role of the osmolytes in the adaptation to the ambient pH and osmotic impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.07.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Osmolytes and membrane lipids in adaptive response of thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei to cold, osmotic and oxidative shocks.

Extremophiles 2020 May 6;24(3):391-401. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 33, bld. 2 Leninsky Ave., Moscow, 119071, Russian Federation.

In contrast to mesophiles, in which levels of trehalose and phosphatidic acids (PA) increased only under heat shock (HS), in thermophiles trehalose and PA were predominant under optimal growth conditions. To study the role of trehalose protection in the adaptation of thermophiles to various stressors, the composition of osmolytes and membrane lipids in the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei was studied under cold (CS), osmotic (OS) and oxidative (OxS) shocks. CS resulted in no accumulation of glycerol in the mycelium, while the amount of trehalose decreased. The main lipid changes were the increase in the PA proportion with simultaneous decrease of sterols (St), the increase of the unsaturation degree of polar lipids and the decrease of the ergosterol proportion in total St. OS did not cause changes in the lipid composition, but led to the decrease of ergosterol proportion too. Despite the low ability of Mucorales to produce polyols, increase in the level of arabitol and glycerol was observed under OS. OxS led to the decrease of trehalose level and had no effect on the lipid composition. Thus, our results show the similarity (OS) and the difference (CS and OxS) between adaptation mechanisms of thermophiles and mesophiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00792-020-01163-3DOI Listing
May 2020

Lipids and soluble carbohydrates in the mycelium and ascomata of alkaliphilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus.

Extremophiles 2019 Jul 10;23(4):487-494. Epub 2019 May 10.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 33, bld. 2 Leninsky Ave., Moscow, 119071, Russian Federation.

Alkaliphilic fungi are fundamentally different from alkalitolerant ones in terms of mechanisms of adaptation. They accumulate trehalose in cytosol and phosphatidic acids (PA) in the membrane lipids, whereas alkalitolerants contain these compounds in low amounts. But it is unclear how the composition of osmolytes and lipids changes during cytodifferentiation. In this article the composition of lipids and soluble cytosol carbohydrates in the mycelium and fruit bodies of the alkaliphilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus was studied. In the mycelium, mannitol and trehalose dominated, while in fruit bodies only trehalose was predominant. Phosphatidylcholines (PC), PA and sterols were major membrane lipids of the mycelium, while PC and sterols were predominant in fruit bodies. The degree of fatty acids unsaturation of the main mycelium phospholipids (PC and PA) increased with age, while that of PC did not change regardless of the developmental stage. In young mycelium, storage lipids were represented mainly by free fatty acids, and in mature mycelium and fruit bodies-by triacylglycerols. Fruit bodies contained three times less membrane lipids and twice as many storage lipids as mycelium. Trehalose was the main cytosol carbohydrate in the mycelium and fruit bodies, which confirms its key value for alkaliphily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00792-019-01100-zDOI Listing
July 2019

Membrane lipids and soluble sugars dynamics of the alkaliphilic fungus Sodiomyces tronii in response to ambient pH.

Extremophiles 2017 Jul 6;21(4):743-754. Epub 2017 May 6.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 33, bld. 2 Leninsky Ave., Moscow, 119071, Russian Federation.

Alkaliphily, the ability of an organism to thrive optimally at high ambient pH, has been well-documented in several lineages: archaea, bacteria and fungi. The molecular mechanics of such adaptation has been extensively addressed in alkaliphilic bacteria and alkalitolerant fungi. In this study, we consider an additional property that may have enabled fungi to prosper at alkaline pH: altered contents of membrane lipids and cytoprotectant molecules. In the alkaliphilic Sodiomyces tronii, we showed that at its optimal growth pH 9.2, the fungus accumulates abundant cytosolic trehalose (4-10% dry weight) and phosphatidic acids in the membrane lipids, properties not normally observed in neutrophilic species. At a very high pH 10.2, the major carbohydrate, glucose, was rapidly substituted by mannitol and arabitol. Conversely, lowering the pH to 5.4-7.0 had major implications both on the content of carbohydrates and membrane lipids. It was shown that trehalose dominated at pH 5.4. Fractions of sphingolipids and sterols of plasma membranes rapidly elevated possibly indicating the formation of membrane structures called rafts. Overall, our results reveals complex dynamics of the contents of membrane lipids and cytoplasmic sugars in alkaliphilic S. tronii, suggesting their adaptive functionality against pH stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00792-017-0940-4DOI Listing
July 2017

Heat shock response of thermophilic fungi: membrane lipids and soluble carbohydrates under elevated temperatures.

Microbiology (Reading) 2016 06 15;162(6):989-999. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Experimental Mycology, Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Building 2, Leninsky Avenue 33, Moscow 119071, Russian Federation.

The heat shock (HS) response is an adaptation of organisms to elevated temperature. It includes substantial changes in the composition of cellular membranes, proteins and soluble carbohydrates. To protect the cellular macromolecules, thermophilic organisms have evolved mechanisms of persistent thermotolerance. Many of those mechanisms are common for thermotolerance and the HS response. However, it remains unknown whether thermophilic species respond to HS by further elevating concentrations of protective components. We investigated the composition of the soluble cytosol carbohydrates and membrane lipids of the thermophilic fungi Rhizomucor tauricus and Myceliophthora thermophilaat optimum temperature conditions (41-43 °С), and under HS (51-53 °С). At optimum temperatures, the membrane lipid composition was characterized by a high proportion of phosphatidic acids (PA) (20-35 % of the total), which were the main components of the membrane lipids, together with phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and sterols (St). In response to HS, the proportion of PA and St increased, and the amount of PC and PE decreased. No decrease in the degree of fatty acid desaturation in the major phospholipids under HS was detected. The mycelium of all fungi at optimum temperatures contained high levels of trehalose (8-10 %, w/w; 60-95 % of the total carbohydrates), which is a hallmark of thermophilia. In contrast to mesophilic fungi, heat exposure decreased the trehalose level and the fungi did not acquire thermotolerance to lethal HS, indicating that trehalose plays a key role in this process. This pattern of changes appears to be conserved in the studied filamentous thermophilic fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.000279DOI Listing
June 2016