Publications by authors named "Ole K Olstad"

33 Publications

Unilateral acute anterior uveitis is associated with ipsilateral changes in the tear fluid proteome that involves the LXR/RXR pathway.

J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2020 May 27;10(1):13. Epub 2020 May 27.

Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To determine whether unilateral acute anterior uveitis (AAU) induces ipsilateral changes in the tear fluid proteome.

Methods: Five patients (25-77 years old) with unilateral AAU were included. Tear fluid samples were obtained using Schirmer's test strips. The healthy eye served as control. Proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: Two hundred forty-two tear fluid sample proteins were identified, of which 75 were present in at least three patients. Nine proteins were at least 1.5-fold increased, whereas eight were at least 1.5-fold decreased in tears from the diseased eye compared with the healthy eye. APOBEC3A was significantly increased (1.43-fold; P = 0.04), whereas TGM2 was significantly decreased (- 1.21-fold; P = 0.03) in tears from the diseased eye relative to the healthy eye. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified LXR/RXR (P < 1.02E-4) as a top canonical pathway.

Conclusion: Unilateral AAU induced detectable changes in the ipsilateral tear fluid proteome and involvement of the inflammation-associated LXR/RXR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12348-020-00204-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250997PMC
May 2020

Distinct Subsets of Noncoding RNAs Are Strongly Associated With BMD and Fracture, Studied in Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Human Bone.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 06 2;35(6):1065-1076. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

We investigated mechanisms resulting in low bone mineral density (BMD) and susceptibility to fracture by comparing noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in biopsies of non-weight-bearing (NWB) iliac (n = 84) and weight bearing (WB) femoral (n = 18) postmenopausal bone across BMDs varying from normal (T-score > -1.0) to osteoporotic (T-score ≤ -2.5). Global bone ncRNA concentrations were determined by PCR and microchip analyses. Association with BMD or fracture, adjusted by age and body mass index, were calculated using linear and logistic regression and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) analysis. At 10% false discovery rate (FDR), 75 iliac bone ncRNAs and 94 femoral bone ncRNAs were associated with total hip BMD. Eight of the ncRNAs were common for the two sites, but five of them (miR-484, miR-328-3p, miR-27a-5p, miR-28-3p, and miR-409-3p) correlated positively to BMD in femoral bone, but negatively in iliac bone. Of predicted pathways recognized in bone metabolism, ECM-receptor interaction and proteoglycans in cancer emerged at both sites, whereas fatty acid metabolism and focal adhesion were only identified in iliac bone. Lasso analysis and cross-validations identified sets of nine bone ncRNAs correlating strongly with adjusted total hip BMD in both femoral and iliac bone. Twenty-eight iliac ncRNAs were associated with risk of fracture (FDR < 0.1). The small nucleolar RNAs, RNU44 and RNU48, have a function in stabilization of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and their association with fracture and BMD suggest that aberrant processing of rRNAs may be involved in development of osteoporosis. Cis-eQTL (expressed quantitative trait loci) analysis of the iliac bone biopsies identified two loci associated with microRNAs (miRNAs), one previously identified in a heel-BMD genomewide association study (GWAS). In this comprehensive investigation of the skeletal genetic background in postmenopausal women, we identified functional bone ncRNAs associated to fracture and BMD, representing distinct subsets in WB and NWB skeletal sites. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3974DOI Listing
June 2020

Identification of a novel locus on chromosome 2q13, which predisposes to clinical vertebral fractures independently of bone density.

Ann Rheum Dis 2018 03 23;77(3):378-385. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Translational Research Institute, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: To identify genetic determinants of susceptibility to clinical vertebral fractures, which is an important complication of osteoporosis.

Methods: Here we conduct a genome-wide association study in 1553 postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures and 4340 controls, with a two-stage replication involving 1028 cases and 3762 controls. Potentially causal variants were identified using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data from transiliac bone biopsies and bioinformatic studies.

Results: A locus tagged by rs10190845 was identified on chromosome 2q13, which was significantly associated with clinical vertebral fracture (P=1.04×10) with a large effect size (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.6). Bioinformatic analysis of this locus identified several potentially functional SNPs that are associated with expression of the positional candidate genes (tubulin tyrosine ligase) and (solute carrier family 20 member 1). Three other suggestive loci were identified on chromosomes 1p31, 11q12 and 15q11. All these loci were novel and had not previously been associated with bone mineral density or clinical fractures.

Conclusion: We have identified a novel genetic variant that is associated with clinical vertebral fractures by mechanisms that are independent of BMD. Further studies are now in progress to validate this association and evaluate the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912156PMC
March 2018

Multicellular tumor spheroids of human uveal melanoma induce genes associated with anoikis resistance, lipogenesis, and SSXs.

Mol Vis 2017 3;23:680-694. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Center for Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) has a high propensity for metastatic spread, and approximately 40-50% of patients die of metastatic disease. Metastases can be found at the time of diagnosis but also several years after the tumor has been removed. The survival of disseminated cancer cells is known to be linked to anchorage independence, anoikis resistance, and an adaptive cellular metabolism. The cultivation of cancer cells as multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by anchorage-independent growth enriches for a more aggressive phenotype. The present study examines the differential gene expression of adherent cell cultures, non-adherent MCTS cultures, and uncultured tumor biopsies from three patients with UM. We elucidate the biochemical differences between the culture conditions to find whether the culture of UM as non-adherent MCTS could be linked to an anchorage-independent and more aggressive phenotype, thus unravelling potential targets for treatment of UM dissemination.

Methods: The various culture conditions were evaluated with microarray analysis, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), RNAscope, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) followed by gene expression bioinformatics.

Results: The MCTS cultures displayed traits associated with anoikis resistance demonstrated by upregulation, and a shift toward a lipogenic profile by upregulation of (lipid metabolism), (biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids), , , (cholesterol biosynthesis), (intracellular lipid receptor), and (lipid storage). Additionally, the present study shows marked upregulation of synovial sarcoma X breakpoint proteins (SSXs), transcriptional repressors related to the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins that modulate epigenetic silencing of genes.

Conclusions: The MCTS cultures displayed traits associated with anoikis resistance, a metabolic shift toward a lipogenic profile, and upregulation of SSXs, related to the PcG proteins.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632686PMC
April 2018

Distinct DNA methylation profiles in bone and blood of osteoporotic and healthy postmenopausal women.

Epigenetics 2017 08 26;12(8):674-687. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

b Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Unger-Vetlesen Institute , Oslo , Norway.

DNA methylation affects expression of associated genes and may contribute to the missing genetic effects from genome-wide association studies of osteoporosis. To improve insight into the mechanisms of postmenopausal osteoporosis, we combined transcript profiling with DNA methylation analyses in bone. RNA and DNA were isolated from 84 bone biopsies of postmenopausal donors varying markedly in bone mineral density (BMD). In all, 2529 CpGs in the top 100 genes most significantly associated with BMD were analyzed. The methylation levels at 63 CpGs differed significantly between healthy and osteoporotic women at 10% false discovery rate (FDR). Five of these CpGs at 5% FDR could explain 14% of BMD variation. To test whether blood DNA methylation reflect the situation in bone (as shown for other tissues), an independent cohort was selected and BMD association was demonstrated in blood for 13 of the 63 CpGs. Four transcripts representing inhibitors of bone metabolism-MEPE, SOST, WIF1, and DKK1-showed correlation to a high number of methylated CpGs, at 5% FDR. Our results link DNA methylation to the genetic influence modifying the skeleton, and the data suggest a complex interaction between CpG methylation and gene regulation. This is the first study in the hitherto largest number of postmenopausal women to demonstrate a strong association among bone CpG methylation, transcript levels, and BMD/fracture. This new insight may have implications for evaluation of osteoporosis stage and susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2017.1345832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687328PMC
August 2017

Decreased IL7Rα and TdT expression underlie the skewed immunoglobulin repertoire of human B-cell precursors from fetal origin.

Sci Rep 2016 Sep 23;6:33924. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Newborns are unable to mount antibody responses towards certain antigens. This has been related to the restricted repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of their B cells. The mechanisms underlying the restricted fetal Ig gene repertoire are currently unresolved. We here addressed this with detailed molecular and cellular analysis of human precursor-B cells from fetal liver, fetal bone marrow (BM), and pediatric BM. In the absence of selection processes, fetal B-cell progenitors more frequently used proximal V, D and J genes in complete IGH gene rearrangements, despite normal Ig locus contraction. Fewer N-nucleotides were added in IGH gene rearrangements in the context of low TdT and XRCC4 expression. Moreover, fetal progenitor-B cells expressed lower levels of IL7Rα than their pediatric counterparts. Analysis of progenitor-B cells from IL7Rα-deficient patients revealed that TdT expression and N-nucleotides additions in Dh-Jh junctions were dependent on functional IL7Rα. Thus, IL7Rα affects TdT expression, and decreased expression of this receptor underlies at least in part the skewed Ig repertoire formation in fetal B-cell precursors. These new insights provide a better understanding of the formation of adaptive immunity in the developing fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep33924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5034271PMC
September 2016

Neil3-dependent base excision repair regulates lipid metabolism and prevents atherosclerosis in Apoe-deficient mice.

Sci Rep 2016 06 22;6:28337. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Department of Experimental Vascular Pathology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative DNA damage accumulates in atherosclerosis. Recently, we showed that a genetic variant in the human DNA repair enzyme NEIL3 was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Here, we explored the role of Neil3/NEIL3 in atherogenesis by both clinical and experimental approaches. Human carotid plaques revealed increased NEIL3 mRNA expression which significantly correlated with mRNA levels of the macrophage marker CD68. Apoe(-/-)Neil3(-/-) mice on high-fat diet showed accelerated plaque formation as compared to Apoe(-/-) mice, reflecting an atherogenic lipid profile, increased hepatic triglyceride levels and attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity. Apoe(-/-)Neil3(-/-) mice showed marked alterations in several pathways affecting hepatic lipid metabolism, but no genotypic alterations in genome integrity or genome-wide accumulation of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a novel role for the DNA glycosylase Neil3 in atherogenesis in balancing lipid metabolism and macrophage function, potentially independently of genome-wide canonical base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep28337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4916448PMC
June 2016

Impact of Storage Temperature on the Expression of Cell Survival Genes in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells.

Curr Eye Res 2017 01 3;42(1):134-144. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

a Department of Medical Biochemistry , Oslo University Hospital , Oslo , Norway.

Purpose: The development of a suitable storage method for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is necessary in the establishment of future RPE replacement therapy, and storage temperature has proven to be pivotal for cell survival. ARPE-19, a widely used model for RPE, has been shown to yield the greatest number of viable cells when stored at 16°C compared to other storage temperatures. In this study, we analyze the gene expression profile of cultured ARPE-19 cells after seven days of storage at different temperatures in an effort to predict the gene-level consequences of storage of RPE transplants.

Materials And Methods: ARPE-19 cells were cultured until confluence and then stored in minimum essential medium at 4°C, 16°C, and 37°C for seven days. The total RNA was isolated and the gene expression profile was determined using DNA microarrays. The Results were validated using qPCR.

Results: Principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses show that the gene expression profiles of cell cultures stored at different temperatures cluster into separate groups. Cultures stored at 4°C cluster closest to the control cultures that were not stored and display the least change in gene expression after storage (157 differentially expressed genes). Cultures stored at 16°C and 37°C display a much larger change in differential gene expression (1787 and 1357 differentially expressed genes, respectively). At 16°C, the expression of several genes with proposed tumor suppressor functions was markedly increased. Changes in regulation of several known signaling pathways and of oxidative stress markers were discovered at both 16°C and 37°C, and activation of the angiogenesis marker vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was discovered at 37°C. There was no evidence of the activation of inflammatory processes in stored cell cultures.

Conclusion: ARPE-19 cultures stored at 16°C show the greatest propensity to modulate their gene expression profile in a manner that supports cell survival during storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2016.1145236DOI Listing
January 2017

Storage Temperature Alters the Expression of Differentiation-Related Genes in Cultured Oral Keratinocytes.

PLoS One 2016 29;11(3):e0152526. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Storage of cultured human oral keratinocytes (HOK) allows for transportation of cultured transplants to eye clinics worldwide. In a previous study, one-week storage of cultured HOK was found to be superior with regard to viability and morphology at 12°C compared to 4°C and 37°C. To understand more of how storage temperature affects cell phenotype, gene expression of HOK before and after storage at 4°C, 12°C, and 37°C was assessed.

Materials And Methods: Cultured HOK were stored in HEPES- and sodium bicarbonate-buffered Minimum Essential Medium at 4°C, 12°C, and 37°C for one week. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression profile was determined using DNA microarrays and analyzed with Partek Genomics Suite software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differentially expressed genes (fold change > 1.5 and P < 0.05) were identified by one-way ANOVA. Key genes were validated using qPCR.

Results: Gene expression of cultures stored at 4°C and 12°C clustered close to the unstored control cultures. Cultures stored at 37°C displayed substantial change in gene expression compared to the other groups. In comparison with 12°C, 2,981 genes were differentially expressed at 37°C. In contrast, only 67 genes were differentially expressed between the unstored control and the cells stored at 12°C. The 12°C and 37°C culture groups differed most significantly with regard to the expression of differentiation markers. The Hedgehog signaling pathway was significantly downregulated at 37°C compared to 12°C.

Conclusion: HOK cultures stored at 37°C showed considerably larger changes in gene expression compared to unstored cells than cultured HOK stored at 4°C and 12°C. The changes observed at 37°C consisted of differentiation of the cells towards a squamous epithelium-specific phenotype. Storing cultured ocular surface transplants at 37°C is therefore not recommended. This is particularly interesting as 37°C is the standard incubation temperature used for cell culture.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152526PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811429PMC
August 2016

Massive Organ Inflammation in Experimental and in Clinical Meningococcal Septic Shock.

Shock 2015 Nov;44(5):458-69

*Department of Pediatrics, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, and University of Oslo, Oslo †Department of Immunology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo ‡Department of Immunology, K.G. Jebsen IRC, University of Oslo, Oslo §Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, and University of Oslo, Oslo ||Department of Anesthesiology, Nordland Hospital, and University of Nordland, Bodø ¶Department of Anesthesiology, University of Tromsø, Tromso #Department of Medical Biochemistry, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger **Department of Research and Development in Forensic Pathology, The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo ††Research Laboratory, Nordland Hospital, Bodø ‡‡Faculty of Health Sciences, K.G. Jebsen TREC, University of Tromsø, Tromso §§Centre of Molecular Inflammation Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim ||||Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Fulminant meningococcal sepsis is characterized by a massive growth of bacteria in the circulation, regarded as the primary inflammatory site, with no specific solid organ focus. Here we aimed to study the local inflammatory response in organs using a porcine model of fulminant meningococcal septic shock challenged with exponentially increasing doses of heat inactivated Neisseria meningitidis. The results were compared with those obtained in organs post mortem from three patients with lethal meningococcal septic shock. Nine patients with lethal pneumococcal disease and 14 patients with sudden infant death syndrome served as controls. Frozen tissue were thawed, homogenized and prepared for quantification of bacterial DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and key inflammatory mediators were measured by ELISA in the pig material and by multiplex in the human material. In addition, gene expression assayed by Affymetrix gene expression profiling was performed in the pig study. The porcine model revealed a major influx of N. meningitidis in lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys accompanied with major production of cardinal inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, far exceeding the amount detected in blood. Genes encoding for these mediators revealed a similar profile. By comparing the wild-type with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient meningococcal strain, we documented that LPS was the dominant group of molecules inducing organ inflammation and was required for IL-8 production. IL-10 production was predominantly stimulated by non-LPS molecules. The massive organ inflammation in the porcine model was present in the three patients dying of meningococcal shock and differed markedly from the patients with lethal pneumococcal infections and sudden infant death syndrome. In conclusion, in meningococcal sepsis, a massive local inflammatory response occurs in specific organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000441DOI Listing
November 2015

The α2β1 binding domain of chondroadherin inhibits breast cancer-induced bone metastases and impairs primary tumour growth: a preclinical study.

Cancer Lett 2015 Mar 18;358(1):67-75. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

cyclicCHAD is a peptide representing the α2β1 integrin binding sequence of the matrix protein chondroadherin (CHAD), which in our hands proved effective at counteracting bone loss in ovariectomised mice by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Given that bone metastases are characterised by exacerbated osteoclast activity as well, we tested this therapy in mice intracardiacally injected with the osteotropic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Treatment with cyclicCHAD significantly decreased cachexia and incidence of bone metastases, and induced a trend of reduction of visceral metastasis volume, while in orthotopically injected mice cyclicCHAD reduced tumour volume. In vitro studies showed its ability to impair tumour cell motility and invasion, suggesting a direct effect not only on osteoclasts but also on the tumour cell phenotype. Interestingly, when administered together with a suboptimal, poorly effective, dose of doxorubicin (DXR), cyclicCHAD improved survival and reduced visceral metastases volume to a level similar to that of the optimal dose of DXR alone. Taken together, these preclinical data suggest that cyclicCHAD is a new inhibitor of bone metastases, with an appreciable direct effect also on tumour growth and a synergistic activity in combination with low dose chemotherapy, underscoring an important translational impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2014.12.032DOI Listing
March 2015

The C-terminal domain of chondroadherin: a new regulator of osteoclast motility counteracting bone loss.

J Bone Miner Res 2014 Aug;29(8):1833-46

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

Chondroadherin (CHAD) is a leucine-rich protein promoting cell attachment through binding to integrin α2 β1 and syndecans. We observed that CHAD mRNA and protein were lower in bone biopsies of 50-year-old to 65-year-old osteoporotic women and in bone samples of ovariectomized mice versus gender/age-matched controls, suggesting a role in bone metabolism. By the means of an internal cyclic peptide (cyclicCHAD), we observed that its integrin binding sequence impaired preosteoclast migration through a nitric oxide synthase 2-dependent mechanism, decreasing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in a concentration-dependent fashion, whereas it had no effect on osteoblasts. Consistently, cyclicCHAD reduced transcription of two nitric oxide downstream genes, migfilin and vasp, involved in cell motility. Furthermore, the nitric oxide donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine, stimulated preosteoclast migration and prevented the inhibitory effect of cyclicCHAD. Conversely, the nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine, decreased both preosteoclast migration and differentiation, confirming a role of the nitric oxide pathway in the mechanism of action triggered by cyclicCHAD. In vivo, administration of cyclicCHAD was well tolerated and increased bone volume in healthy mice, with no adverse effect. In ovariectomized mice cyclicCHAD improved bone mass by both a preventive and a curative treatment protocol, with an effect in line with that of the bisphosphonate alendronate, that was mimicked by the NOS2 inhibitor [L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine.2 dihydrochloride]. In both mouse models, cyclicCHAD reduced osteoclast and bone resorption without affecting osteoblast parameters and bone formation. In conclusion, CHAD is a novel regulator of bone metabolism that, through its integrin binding domain, inhibits preosteoclast motility and bone resorption, with a potential translational impact for the treatment of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2206DOI Listing
August 2014

Transcriptional profiling of mRNAs and microRNAs in human bone marrow precursor B cells identifies subset- and age-specific variations.

PLoS One 2013 30;8(7):e70721. Epub 2013 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Molecular mechanisms explaining age-related changes in the bone marrow with reduced precursor B cell output are poorly understood.

Methods: We studied the transcriptome of five precursor B cell subsets in individual bone marrow samples from 4 healthy children and 4 adults employing GeneChip® Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (Affymetrix®) and TaqMan® Array MicroRNA Cards (Life Technologies™).

Results: A total of 1796 mRNAs (11%) were at least once differentially expressed between the various precursor B cell subsets in either age group (FDR 0.1%, p≤1.13×10(-4)) with more marked cell stage specific differences than those related to age. In contrast, microRNA profiles of the various precursor B cell subsets showed less hierarchical clustering as compared to the corresponding mRNA profiles. However, 17 of the 667 microRNA assays (2.5%) were at least once differentially expressed between the subsets (FDR 10%, p≤0.004). From target analysis (Ingenuity® Systems), functional assignment between postulated interacting mRNAs and microRNAs showed especially association to cellular growth, proliferation and cell cycle regulation. One functional network connected up-regulation of the differentiation inhibitor ID2 mRNA to down-regulation of the hematopoiesis- or cell cycle regulating miR-125b-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-24-3p and miR-320d in adult PreBII large cells. Noteworthy was also the stage-dependent expression of the growth promoting miR-17-92 cluster, showing a partly inverse trend with age, reaching statistical significance at the PreBII small stage (up 3.1-12.9 fold in children, p = 0.0084-0.0270).

Conclusions: The global mRNA profile is characteristic for each precursor B cell developmental stage and largely similar in children and adults. The microRNA profile is much cell stage specific and not changing much with age. Importantly, however, specific age-dependent differences involving key networks like differentiation and cellular growth may indicate biological divergence and possibly also altered production potential with age.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0070721PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728296PMC
April 2014

miRNA and mRNA expression profiling identifies members of the miR-200 family as potential regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pterygium.

Exp Eye Res 2013 Oct 19;115:189-98. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

The current study investigates whether microRNA (miRNA) regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tissue fibrosis, and angiogenesis are differentially expressed in human primary pterygium. Genome-wide miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of paired pterygium and normal conjunctiva was performed in the context of conventional excision of pterygium with autotransplantation of conjunctiva (n = 8). Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the expression of key molecules previously detected by microarray. In pterygium, 25 miRNAs and 31 mRNAs were significantly differentially expressed by more than two-fold compared to normal conjunctiva. 14 miRNAs were up-regulated (miR-1246, -486, -451, -3172, -3175, -1308, -1972, -143, -211, -665, -1973, -18a, 143, and -663b), whereas 11 were down-regulated (miR-675, -200b-star, -200a-star, -29b, -200b, -210, -141, -31, -200a, -934, and -375). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that members of the miR-200 family were coexpressed and down-regulated in pterygium. The molecular and cellular functions that were most significant to the miRNA data sets were cellular development, cellular growth and proliferation, and cellular movement. qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of 15 of the 16 genes tested and revealed that miR-429 was down-regulated by more than two-fold in pterygium. The concerted down-regulation of four members from both clusters of the miR-200 family (miR-200a/-200b/-429 and miR-200c/-141), which are known to regulate EMT, and up-regulation of the predicted target and mesenchymal marker fibronectin (FN1), suggest that EMT could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of pterygium and might constitute promising new targets for therapeutic intervention in pterygium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2013.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4278354PMC
October 2013

Increased ID2 levels in adult precursor B cells as compared with children is associated with impaired Ig locus contraction and decreased bone marrow output.

J Immunol 2013 Aug 3;191(3):1210-9. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway.

Precursor B cell production from bone marrow in mice and humans declines with age. Because the mechanisms behind are still unknown, we studied five precursor B cell subsets (ProB, PreBI, PreBII large, PreBII small, immature B) and their differentiation-stage characteristic gene expression profiles in healthy individual toddlers and middle-aged adults. Notably, the composition of the precursor B cell compartment did not change with age. The expression levels of several transcripts encoding V(D)J recombination factors were decreased in adults as compared with children: RAG1 expression was significantly reduced in ProB cells, and DNA-PKcs, Ku80, and XRCC4 were decreased in PreBI cells. In contrast, TdT was 3-fold upregulated in immature B cells of adults. Still, N-nucleotides, P-nucleotides, and deletions were similar for IGH and IGK junctions between children and adults. PreBII large cells in adults, but not in children, showed highly upregulated expression of the differentiation inhibitor, inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2), in absence of changes in expression of the ID2-binding partner E2A. Further, we identified impaired Ig locus contraction in adult precursor B cells as a likely mechanism by which ID2-mediated blocking of E2A function results in reduced bone marrow B cell output in adults. The reduced B cell production was not compensated by increased proliferation in adult immature B cells, despite increased Ki67 expression. These findings demonstrate distinct regulatory mechanisms in B cell differentiation between adults and children with a central role for transcriptional regulation of ID2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1203462DOI Listing
August 2013

Identification of transcriptional macromolecular associations in human bone using browser based in silico analysis in a giant correlation matrix.

Bone 2013 Mar 27;53(1):69-78. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Norway.

Intracellular signaling is critically dependent on gene regulatory networks comprising physical molecular interactions. Presently, there is a lack of comprehensive databases for most human tissue types to verify such macromolecular interactions. We present a user friendly browser which helps to identify functional macromolecular interactions in human bone as significant correlations at the transcriptional level. The molecular skeletal phenotype has been characterized by transcriptome analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies from 84 postmenopausal women through quantifications of ~23,000 mRNA species. When the signal levels were inter-correlated, an array containing >260 million correlations was generated, thus recognizing the human bone interactome at the RNA level. The matrix correlation and p values were made easily accessible by a freely available online browser. We show that significant correlations within the giant matrix are reproduced in a replica set of 13 male vertebral biopsies. The identified correlations differ somewhat from transcriptional interactions identified in cell culture experiments and transgenic mice, thus demonstrating that care should be taken in extrapolating such results to the in vivo situation in human bone. The current giant matrix and web browser are a valuable tool for easy access to the human bone transcriptome and molecular interactions represented as significant correlations at the RNA-level. The browser and matrix should be a valuable hypothesis generating tool for identification of regulatory mechanisms and serve as a library of transcript relationships in human bone, a relatively inaccessible tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2012.11.015DOI Listing
March 2013

Stress associated gene expression in blood cells is related to outcome in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients.

BMC Cancer 2012 Sep 25;12:426. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316, Norway.

Background: We previously observed that a radiotherapy-induced biochemical response in plasma was associated with favourable outcome in head and neck squamous carcinoma cancer (HNSCC) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare stress associated blood cell gene expression between two sub-groups of HNSCC patients with different biochemical responses to radiotherapy.

Methods: Out of 87 patients (histologically verified), 10 biochemical 'responders' having a high relative increase in plasma oxidative damage and a concomitant decrease in plasma antioxidants during radiotherapy and 10 'poor-responders' were selected for gene-expression analysis and compared using gene set enrichment analysis.

Results: There was a significant induction of stress-relevant gene-sets in the responders following radiotherapy compared to the poor-responders. The relevance of the involvement of similar stress associated gene expression for HNSCC cancer and radioresistance was verified using two publicly available data sets of 42 HNSCC cases and 14 controls (GEO GSE6791), and radiation resistant and radiation sensitive HNSCC xenografts (E-GEOD-9716).

Conclusions: Radiotherapy induces a systemic stress response, as revealed by induction of stress relevant gene expression in blood cells, which is associated to favourable outcome in a cohort of 87 HNSCC patients. Whether these changes in gene expression reflects a systemic effect or are biomarkers of the tumour micro-environmental status needs further study.

Trial Registration: Raw data are available at ArrayExpress under accession number E-MEXP-2460.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3517770PMC
September 2012

Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for total body BMD in children and adults reveals allelic heterogeneity and age-specific effects at the WNT16 locus.

PLoS Genet 2012 Jul 5;8(7):e1002718. Epub 2012 Jul 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

To identify genetic loci influencing bone accrual, we performed a genome-wide association scan for total-body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) variation in 2,660 children of different ethnicities. We discovered variants in 7q31.31 associated with BMD measurements, with the lowest P = 4.1 × 10(-11) observed for rs917727 with minor allele frequency of 0.37. We sought replication for all SNPs located ± 500 kb from rs917727 in 11,052 additional individuals from five independent studies including children and adults, together with de novo genotyping of rs3801387 (in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs917727) in 1,014 mothers of children from the discovery cohort. The top signal mapping in the surroundings of WNT16 was replicated across studies with a meta-analysis P = 2.6 × 10(-31) and an effect size explaining between 0.6%-1.8% of TB-BMD variance. Conditional analyses on this signal revealed a secondary signal for total body BMD (P = 1.42 × 10(-10)) for rs4609139 and mapping to C7orf58. We also examined the genomic region for association with skull BMD to test if the associations were independent of skeletal loading. We identified two signals influencing skull BMD variation, including rs917727 (P = 1.9 × 10(-16)) and rs7801723 (P = 8.9 × 10(-28)), also mapping to C7orf58 (r(2) = 0.50 with rs4609139). Wnt16 knockout (KO) mice with reduced total body BMD and gene expression profiles in human bone biopsies support a role of C7orf58 and WNT16 on the BMD phenotypes observed at the human population level. In summary, we detected two independent signals influencing total body and skull BMD variation in children and adults, thus demonstrating the presence of allelic heterogeneity at the WNT16 locus. One of the skull BMD signals mapping to C7orf58 is mostly driven by children, suggesting temporal determination on peak bone mass acquisition. Our life-course approach postulates that these genetic effects influencing peak bone mass accrual may impact the risk of osteoporosis later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3390371PMC
July 2012

Excessive innate immune response and mutant D222G/N in severe A (H1N1) pandemic influenza.

J Infect 2011 Oct 19;63(4):308-16. Epub 2011 Jul 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, Nordbyhagen 1474, Lorenskog, Norway.

Aim: Explore the role of viral factors and immune response in patients with severe pandemic pdmH1N1 illness without significant co-morbidity.

Materials: Seven patients with pdmH1N1 influenza, bilateral chest X-rays infiltrates, requiring mechanical ventilator support were consecutively recruited. Seven age- and gender-matched healthy individuals served as controls.

Results: Four patients were viremic, two with the mutant D222G/N pdmH1N1.Microarray analyses of peripheral blood leukocytes suggested a marked granulocytes activation, but no up-regulation of inflammatory cytokine mRNA. Patients with severe pdmH1NI had a marked systemic complement activation, and in contrast to the lack of cytokine mRNA up-regulation in blood leukocytes, plasma levels of a broad range of inflammatory mediators, including IP-10, and mediators involved in pulmonary remodelling were markedly elevated. Patients with mutant virus had particularly high IP-10 levels, and the most pronounced complement activation.

Conclusions: In severe pdmH1N1, viremia was common and the D222G/N mutant was found in half of the viremic patients. Host immune response was characterized by strong activation of the innate immune system, including complement and granulocytes activation, increased serum levels of inflammation and pulmonary remodelling markers, possibly contributing to the observed tissue damage. However, few patients were included and further studies are needed to characterize the immune response in severe pdmH1N1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2011.07.004DOI Listing
October 2011

Molecular disease map of bone characterizing the postmenopausal osteoporosis phenotype.

J Bone Miner Res 2011 Aug;26(8):1793-801

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Genome-wide gene expressions in bone biopsies from patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy controls were profiled, to identify osteoporosis candidate genes. All osteoporotic patients (n = 27) in an unbiased cohort of Norwegian women presented with bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores of less than -2.5 SD and one or more confirmed low-energy fracture(s). A validation group (n = 18) had clinical and laboratory parameters intermediate to the control (n = 39) and osteoporosis groups. RNA from iliac crest bone biopsies were analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Differentially expressed genes in osteoporosis versus control groups were identified using the Bayesian ANOVA for microarrays (BAMarray) method, whereas the R-package Limma (Linear Models for Microarray Data) was used to determine whether these transcripts were explained by disease, age, body mass index (BMI), or combinations thereof. Laboratory tests showed normal ranges for the cohort. A total of 609 transcripts were differentially expressed in osteoporotic patients relative to controls; 256 transcripts were confirmed for disease when controlling for age or BMI. Most of the osteoporosis susceptibility genes (80%) also were confirmed to be regulated in the same direction in the validation group. Furthermore, 217 of 256 transcripts were correlated with BMD (adjusted for age and BMI) at various skeletal sites (|r| > 0.2, p < .05). Among the most distinctly expressed genes were Wnt antagonists DKK1 and SOST, the transcription factor SOX4, and the bone matrix proteins MMP13 and MEPE, all reduced in osteoporosis versus control groups. Our results identify potential osteoporosis susceptibility candidate genes adjusted for confounding factors (ie, age and BMI) with or without a significant correlation with BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.396DOI Listing
August 2011

Skeletal site-related variation in human trabecular bone transcriptome and signaling.

PLoS One 2010 May 18;5(5):e10692. Epub 2010 May 18.

Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Background: The skeletal site-specific influence of multiple genes on bone morphology is recognised, but the question as to how these influences may be exerted at the molecular and cellular level has not been explored.

Methodology: To address this question, we have compared global gene expression profiles of human trabecular bone from two different skeletal sites that experience vastly different degrees of mechanical loading, namely biopsies from iliac crest and lumbar spinal lamina.

Principal Findings: In the lumbar spine, compared to the iliac crest, the majority of the differentially expressed genes showed significantly increased levels of expression; 3406 transcripts were up- whilst 838 were down-regulated. Interestingly, all gene transcripts that have been recently demonstrated to be markers of osteocyte, as well as osteoblast and osteoclast-related genes, were markedly up-regulated in the spine. The transcriptome data is consistent with osteocyte numbers being almost identical at the two anatomical sites, but suggesting a relatively low osteocyte functional activity in the iliac crest. Similarly, osteoblast and osteoclast expression data suggested similar numbers of the cells, but presented with higher activity in the spine than iliac crest. This analysis has also led to the identification of expression of a number of transcripts, previously known and novel, which to our knowledge have never earlier been associated with bone growth and remodelling.

Conclusions And Significance: This study provides molecular evidence explaining anatomical and micro-architectural site-related changes in bone cell function, which is predominantly attributable to alteration in cell transcriptional activity. A number of novel signaling molecules in critical pathways, which have been hitherto not known to be expressed in bone cells of mature vertebrates, were identified.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0010692PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872667PMC
May 2010

Zic1 transcription factor in bone: neural developmental protein regulates mechanotransduction in osteocytes.

FASEB J 2010 Aug 30;24(8):2893-903. Epub 2010 Mar 30.

Musculoskeletal Research Group, ICM, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

A transcriptome analysis compared gene expression in human bone biopsy samples taken from lumbar spine and iliac crest, sites that experience high and low levels of mechanical stress, respectively. The analysis revealed that the zinc finger protein of cerebellum (Zic) family member transcription factor Zic1 was the most up-regulated gene in the lumbar spine (202-fold; P<10(-7)) in comparison with the iliac crest. Software analysis of differential gene expression in the biopsy samples identified the ciliary-related proteins PATCH1 and GLI-Kruppel family members Gli1 and Gli3 as part of a potential molecular network associated with Zic1. RT-PCR confirmed the expression of Zic1, Gli1, and Gli3 and other related key signaling mediators in osteoblastic cells and osteocytes in vitro. Zic1 was immunolocalized in the cytosol and nucleus of the murine osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 and osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1 and in primary rat osteoblasts. MLO-Y4 cells subjected to prolonged oscillatory fluid flow showed increased localization of Zic1 in the nucleus with diminished levels in the cytosol, but no such changes were seen in MC3T3-E1 cells. A shear stress-induced increase in T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor transcriptional activity was abolished by Zic1 gene silencing. These results suggest that Zic1, perhaps together with Gli1 and Gli3, may act as a link between mechanosensing and Wnt signaling. We conclude that Zic1, a neural developmental transcription factor, plays an important role in shear flow mechanotransduction in osteocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.09-148908DOI Listing
August 2010

Striking decrease in the total precursor B-cell compartment during early childhood as evidenced by flow cytometry and gene expression changes.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2010 Feb;27(1):31-45

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty Division Ullevål, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The number of circulating B-cells in peripheral blood plateaus between 2 and 24 months of age, and thereafter declines gradually. How this reflects the kinetics of the precursor B-cell pool in the bone marrow is of clinical interest, but has not been studied thoroughly in humans. The authors analyzed bone marrow (n = 37) from healthy children and adults (flow cytometry) searching for age-related changes in the total precursor B-cell compartment. In an age-matched cohort (n = 25) they examined age-related global gene expression changes (Affymetrix) in unsorted bone marrow with special reference to the recombination activating gene 1, RAG1. Subsequently, they searched the entire gene set for transcripts correlating to the RAG1 profile to discover other known and possibly new precursor B-cell related transcripts. Both methods disclosed a marked, transient increase of total precursor B-cells at 6-20 months, followed by a rapid decrease confined to the first 2 years. The decline thereafter was considerably slower, but continued until adulthood. The relative composition of total precursor B-cells, however, did not change significantly with age. The authors identified 54 genes that were highly correlated to the RAG1 profile (r >or= .9, p < 1 x 10(-8)). Of these 54 genes, 15 were characteristically B-lineage associated like CD19, CD79, VPREB, EBF1, and PAX5; the remaining 39 previously not described as distinctively B-lineage related. The marked, transient increase in precursor B-cells and RAG1 transcriptional activity is not reflected by a similar peak in B-cells in peripheral blood, whereas the sustained plateau concurs in time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08880010903420687DOI Listing
February 2010

Eight genes are highly associated with BMD variation in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

Bone 2010 Mar 14;46(3):604-12. Epub 2009 Nov 14.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for skeletal fractures which occur in about 40% of women >/=50 years in the western world. We describe the transcriptional changes in 84 trans-iliacal bone biopsies associated with BMD variations in postmenopausal females (50 to 86 years), aiming to identify genetic determinants of bone structure. The women were healthy or having a primary osteopenic or osteoporotic status with or without low energy fractures. The total cohort of 91 unrelated women representing a wide range of BMDs, were consecutively registered and submitted to global gene Affymetrix microarray expression analysis or histomorphometry. Among almost 23,000 expressed transcripts, a set represented by ACSL3 (acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3), NIPSNAP3B (nipsnap homolog 3B), DLEU2 (Deleted in lymphocytic leukemia, 2), C1ORF61 (Chromosome 1 open reading frame 61), DKK1 (Dickkopf homolog 1), SOST (Sclerostin), ABCA8, (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 8), and uncharacterized (AFFX-M27830-M-at), was significantly correlated to total hip BMD (5% false discovery rate) explaining 62% of the BMD variation expressed as T-score, 53% when adjusting for the influence of age (Z-score) and 44% when further adjusting for body mass index (BMI). Only SOST was previously associated to BMD, and the majority of the genes have previously not been associated with a bone phenotype. In molecular network analyses, SOST shows a strong, positive correlation with DKK1, both being members of the Wnt signaling pathway. The results provide novel insight in the underlying biology of bone metabolism and osteoporosis which is the ultimate consequence of low BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2009.11.007DOI Listing
March 2010

Comparison of the histology, gene expression profile, and phenotype of cultured human limbal epithelial cells from different limbal regions.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009 Nov 2;50(11):5165-72. Epub 2009 Jul 2.

Center for Clinical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To investigate whether human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) derived from various regions of the limbus exhibit differences in gene expression and epithelial characteristics.

Methods: HLECs were derived from explants taken from the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal limbus and cultured for 21 days. Whole genome transcript profiling was performed with a gene microarray. The microarray results were validated by using RT-PCR. Epithelial morphology was studied with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and phenotype was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Epithelial outgrowth was present in most cultures of superior origin (88%) in contrast to cultures of temporal origin (38%). The epithelial thickness and number of cell layers were significantly greater in cultures of superior origin than in cultures from inferior and temporal areas. TRIM36, OSR2, and RHOU, which are involved in morphogenesis, were significantly differentially expressed in the superior region, compared with the other regions. Proposed limbal stem cell, progenitor, and differentiation markers were not differentially expressed. The uniform gene expression of ocular surface markers correlated with homogeneous immunostaining of corresponding protein markers in HLEC cultures from all regions, demonstrating an undifferentiated phenotype (p63(+), DeltaNp63alpha(+), ABCG2(+), K19(+), vimentin(+), integrin beta1(+), nestin(-), K3(-), K5(+), and E-cadherin(+)).

Conclusions: No major transcriptional or phenotypic differences were observed in cultured HLECs derived from different regions of the limbus. However, explants of superior origin demonstrated the highest outgrowth success rate and generated epithelia with greater epithelial thickness and number of cell layers, which may prove useful for transplantation purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2884DOI Listing
November 2009

Abnormal adipokine levels and leptin-induced changes in gene expression profiles in multiple myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2009 Nov 31;83(5):460-70. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Studies have revealed an association between overweight/obesity and multiple myeloma. However, the factors linking a dysregulated energy metabolism to this disease have not been identified. Adipose tissue produces and secretes the adipokines leptin, adiponectin and resistin, involved in metabolism and cell growth.

Methods: We measured the plasma concentrations of these three adipokines in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma as well as in patients with relapse. We further explored the importance of leptin in multiple myeloma by performing gene expression profiling in two myeloma cell lines.

Results: At diagnosis, leptin was increased (P < 0.05) in both female and male patients compared with controls. Adiponectin was reduced (P < 0.05) among male patients, whereas no significant changes in resistin were noted among any patients. In patients with relapse and treated with thalidomide, no particular adipokine pattern was revealed. Leptin induced the expression of several genes important for cell signaling, growth and viability.

Conclusions: The plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, but not resistin, were abnormal in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Adipose tissue may modify the growth and metabolism of myeloma cells through adipokine-mediated effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2009.01311.xDOI Listing
November 2009

Genome-wide linkage analysis with clustered SNP markers.

J Biomol Screen 2009 Jan;14(1):92-6

Institute of Medical Genetics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have recently replaced microsatellites as the genetic markers of choice in linkage analysis, primarily because they are more abundant and the genotypes more amenable for automatic calling. One of the most recently launched linkage mapping sets (LMS) is the Applied Biosystems Human LMS 4K, which is a genome-wide linkage set based on the SNPlex technology and the use of clustered SNPs. In this article the authors report on their experience with this set and the associated genotyping software GeneMapper version 4.0, which they have used for linkage analyses in 17 moderate to large families with assumed monogenic disease. For comparison of methods, they also performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in 1 of the 17 families using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 10K 2.0 array. The conclusion is that both methods performed technically well, with high call rates and comparable and low rates of Mendelian inconsistencies. However, genotyping is less automated in GeneMapper version 4.0 than in the Affymetrix software and thus more time consuming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057108327327DOI Listing
January 2009

Expression of genes in normal human monocytes in response to Aspergillus fumigatus.

Med Mycol 2008 Jun;46(4):327-36

Research Institute for Internal Medicine, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Medical Department, Section of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Oslo, Norway.

The objective of these studies was to investigate genes of importance in the pathogenesis of Aspergillus infections. To do so, we employed microarray methodology to explore gene expression in human monocytes infected with Aspergillus conidia as compared with unstimulated monocytes and those stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling through TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We found 997 (P
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13693780701874507DOI Listing
June 2008

Abnormal muscle and hematopoietic gene expression may be important for clinical morbidity in primary hyperparathyroidism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007 May 16;292(5):E1465-73. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), excess PTH secretion by adenomatous or hyperplastic parathyroid glands leads to elevated serum [Ca(2+)]. Patients present complex symptoms of muscular fatigue, various neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular, and cardiovascular manifestations, and, in advanced disease, kidney stones and metabolic bone disease. Our objective was to characterize changes in muscle and hematopoietic gene expression in patients with reversible mild PHPT after parathyroidectomy and possibly link molecular pathology to symptoms. Global mRNA profiling using Affymetrix gene chips was carried out in biopsies obtained before and 1 yr after parathyroidectomy in seven patients discovered by routine blood [Ca(2+)] screening. The tissue distribution of PTH receptor (PTHR1 and PTHR2) mRNAs were quantitated using real-time RT-PCR in unrelated persons to define PTH target tissues. Of about 10,000 expressed genes, 175 muscle, 169 hematological, and 99 bone-associated mRNAs were affected. Notably, the major part of muscle-related mRNAs was increased whereas hematological mRNAs were predominantly decreased during disease. Functional and molecular network analysis demonstrated major alterations of several tissue characteristic groups of mRNAs as well as those belonging to common cell signaling and major metabolic pathways. PTHR1 and PTHR2 mRNAs were more abundantly expressed in muscle and brain than in hematopoietic cells. We suggest that sustained stimulation of PTH receptors present in brain, muscle, and hematopoietic cells have to be considered as one independent, important cause of molecular disease in PHPT leading to profound alterations in gene expression that may help explain symptoms like muscle fatigue, cardiovascular pathology, and precipitation of psychiatric illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00487.2006DOI Listing
May 2007

The human ortholog of the rodent testis-specific ABC transporter Abca17 is a ubiquitously expressed pseudogene (ABCA17P) and shares a common 5' end with ABCA3.

BMC Mol Biol 2006 Sep 12;7:28. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

R&D Group, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ulleval University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway.

Background: During the past years, we and others discovered a series of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, now referred to as ABC A-subfamily transporters. Recently, a novel testis-specific ABC A transporter, Abca17, has been cloned in rodent. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the human ortholog of rodent Abca17.

Results: The novel human ABC A-transporter gene on chromosome 16p13.3 is ubiquitously expressed with highest expression in glandular tissues and the heart. The new ABC transporter gene exhibits striking nucleotide sequence homology with the recently cloned mouse (58%) and rat Abca17 (51%), respectively, and is located in the syntenic region of mouse Abca17 indicating that it represents the human ortholog of rodent Abca17. However, unlike in the mouse, the full-length ABCA17 transcript (4.3 kb) contains numerous mutations that preclude its translation into a bona fide ABC transporter protein strongly suggesting that the human ABCA17 gene is a transcribed pseudogene (ABCA17P). We identified numerous alternative ABCA17P splice variants which are transcribed from two distinct transcription initiation sites. Genomic analysis revealed that ABCA17P borders on another ABC A-subfamily transporter - the lung surfactant deficiency gene ABCA3. Surprisingly, we found that both genes overlap at their first exons and are transcribed from opposite strands. This genomic colocalization and the observation that the ABCA17P and ABCA3 genes share significant homologies in several exons (up to 98%) suggest that both genes have evolved by gene duplication.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that ABCA17P and ABCA3 form a complex of overlapping genes in the human genome from which both non-coding and protein-coding ABC A-transporter RNAs are expressed. The fact that both genes overlap at their 5' ends suggests interdependencies in their regulation and may have important implications for the functional analysis of the disease gene ABCA3. Moreover, this is the first demonstration of the expression of a pseudogene and its parent gene from a common overlapping DNA region in the human genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-7-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579226PMC
September 2006