Publications by authors named "Oladimeji Adebayo"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 9;427:117535. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Post-stroke seizures (PSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. There is a paucity of data on PSS in Africa.

Purpose: To assess the frequency and factors associated with PSS by stroke types across 15 hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana.

Methods: We analyzed data on all stroke cases recruited into the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN). We included adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PSS were defined as acute symptomatic seizures occurring at stroke onset and/or during acute hospitalization up until discharge. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3344 stroke patients, 499 (14.9%) had PSS (95% CI: 13.7-16.2%). The mean duration of admission in days for those with PSS vs no PSS was 17.4 ± 28.6 vs 15.9 ± 24.7, p = 0.72. There were 294(14.1%) PSS among 2091 ischemic strokes and 159(17.7%) among 897 with ICH, p = 0.01. The factors associated with PSS occurrence were age < 50 years, aOR of 1.59 (1.08-2.33), National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), 1.29 (1.16-1.42) for each 5 units rise and white cell count 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for each 10^3 mm rise. Factors associated with PSS in ischemic were NIHSS score, aOR of 1.17 (1.04-1.31) and infarct volume of 10-30 cm aOR of 2.17(1.37-3.45). Among ICH, associated factors were alcohol use 5.91 (2.11-16.55) and lobar bleeds 2.22 (1.03-4.82).

Conclusion: The burden of PSS among this sample of west Africans is substantial and may contribute to poor outcomes of stroke in this region. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the impact on morbidity and mortality arising from PSS in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117535DOI Listing
August 2021

Factors Driving the Acquisition of University Postgraduate Degrees among Resident Doctors in Nigeria.

Hosp Top 2021 May 20:1-7. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria.

The study examined the characteristics and factors driving the acquisition of postgraduate academic degrees among resident doctors in Nigeria. About 10% of the respondents had a form of university postgraduate degree with majority being master's degree. Having more than seven years of professional practice was the only factor predicting the acquisition of postgraduate academic degrees amongst the respondents [AOR: 0.243 (95% CI: 0.069,0.856;  = 0.028)]. The acquisition of postgraduate degree is not common among the surveyed resident doctors; and those that will acquire it do so in the later part of their career.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00185868.2021.1926382DOI Listing
May 2021

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Evaluating the Relationship between Duty Hours and Quality of Life of Nigerian Early Career Doctors.

Hosp Top 2020 Jul-Sep;98(3):118-126. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria.

This study explored association between early career doctors (ECDs) duty hours and their quality of life (QoL). Information was collected on socio-demographics, duty hours and QoL of 391 Nigerian ECDs. Results showed median of 70 duty-hours weekly, 10 call-days monthly and 6 sleep-hours daily. Weekly duty-hours and daily sleep-hours were significantly negatively and positively correlated respectively with all four domains of WHOQoL. QoL potentially affects health of ECDs especially mental health. Policies targeted at improving ECDs workforce, working conditions should improve QoL and curtail the potential impact of brain drain and attrition among ECDs in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00185868.2020.1789521DOI Listing
May 2021

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Effect of tomato consumption on fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2020 Aug 3;34(8):1956-1965. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China.

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) phytochemicals, which include phytoene, phytofluene, beta-carotene, flavonoids, lycopene, and polyphenols, have been shown to improve the effects of fasting on plasma triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting blood sugar (FBS). The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effects of Tomato TC, TG, HDL, LDL, and FBS in humans. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of sciences, and SCOPUS databases by two researchers for studies published until August of 2019 without language and time limitations. Results were combined with random effect models. Six studies were included in this meta-analysis. Combined results reveal a significant reduction in cholesterol (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -4.39 mg/dl, 95% CI: -7.09, -1.68, I = % 48, p heterogeneity: .05), TG (WMD: -3.94 mg/dl, 95% CI: -7.67, -0.21, I = % 90, p heterogeneity: .001), LDL levels (WMD: -2.09 mg/dl, 95% CI: -3.73, -0.81, I = % 78, p heterogeneity: .001), and increasing in HDL levels (WMD: 2.25 mg/dl, 95% CI: 0.41, 4.10, I = % 97, p heterogeneity: .001). Tomato was found to have a higher reduction effect on TG and LDL in younger participants. While pooled results indicate no significant effect on FBS levels (WMD: 0.59 mg/dl, 95% CI: -0.28, 1.46, I = % 95, p heterogeneity: .001). In conclusion, the results indicate a significant reduction in total cholesterol, TG, and LDL and increase in HDL levels that is caused by tomato consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6660DOI Listing
August 2020

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Calcific Aortic Valve and Degenerative Mitral Valve Diseases, 1990-2017.

Circulation 2020 05 29;141(21):1670-1680. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia (M.J.).

Background: Nonrheumatic valvular diseases are common; however, no studies have estimated their global or national burden. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, mortality, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), degenerative mitral valve disease, and other nonrheumatic valvular diseases were estimated for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017.

Methods: Vital registration data, epidemiologic survey data, and administrative hospital data were used to estimate disease burden using the Global Burden of Disease Study modeling framework, which ensures comparability across locations. Geospatial statistical methods were used to estimate disease for all countries, because data on nonrheumatic valvular diseases are extremely limited for some regions of the world, such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Results accounted for estimated level of disease severity as well as the estimated availability of valve repair or replacement procedures. DALYs and other measures of health-related burden were generated for both sexes and each 5-year age group, location, and year from 1990 to 2017.

Results: Globally, CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease caused 102 700 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 82 700-107 900) and 35 700 (95% UI, 30 500-42 500) deaths, and 12.6 million (95% UI, 11.4 million-13.8 million) and 18.1 million (95% UI, 17.6 million-18.6 million) prevalent cases existed in 2017, respectively. A total of 2.5 million (95% UI, 2.3 million-2.8 million) DALYs were estimated as caused by nonrheumatic valvular diseases globally, representing 0.10% (95% UI, 0.09%-0.11%) of total lost health from all diseases in 2017. The number of DALYs increased for CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease between 1990 and 2017 by 101% (95% UI, 79%-117%) and 35% (95% UI, 23%-47%), respectively. There is significant geographic variation in the prevalence, mortality rate, and overall burden of these diseases, with highest age-standardized DALY rates of CAVD estimated for high-income countries.

Conclusions: These global and national estimates demonstrate that CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease are important causes of disease burden among older adults. Efforts to clarify modifiable risk factors and improve access to valve interventions are necessary if progress is to be made toward reducing, and eventually eliminating, the burden of these highly treatable diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043391DOI Listing
May 2020

Prevalence of ECG abnormalities among adults with metabolic syndrome in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital.

Afr Health Sci 2019 Dec;19(4):2829-2838

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine.

Background: Co-existence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities heightens the risk of sudden cardiac death. However, there is a gap in evidence of how ECG changes cluster among continental Africans with or without MetS.

Methods: We included 491 participants with interpretable ECG tracings who were consecutively recruited into the Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Registry (CRP). CRP is a registry of newly presenting patients into cardiology clinic of the University College Hospital, Nigeria, with a main objective of cardiovascular risk stratification to prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Using the International Diabetic Federation (IDF) criteria they were divided into those with metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome.

Results: Four hundred and ninety-one participants comprising 48.3% women with mean age 53.72±15.2 years who met the IDF criteria with complete ECG interpretations were analyzed with 44.2% (men 38.6%; women 50.2%) of the participants having MetS while 74% had ECG abnormalities. Compared to women, men had higher mean serum total cholesterol, creatinine, smoking, and alcohol use, family history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, QT prolongation, LVH plus or minus strain pattern, and ECG abnormalities in general. Women were heavier, had higher heart rate and proportions of MetS. ECG findings among those with or without MetS were not significantly different. In men, IDF metabolic score was associated with conduction abnormalities (p=0.039) and combined ECG abnormality (p=0.042) which became more significant with an exclusion of QT prolongation (p=0.004). Also, IDF abdominal obesity was associated with QT prolongation (p=0.017), combined ECG abnormality (p=0.034) while HDLc correlated with ECG abnormalities (0.037) in men. There was no significant associations of components of metabolic syndrome with ECG abnormalities among women.

Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of MetS and abnormal ECG among the studied population. Abnormal ECG findings were more common in men with no differential association in people with or without MetS. However, a significant association existed between certain components of MetS and ECG abnormalities in men only. Male gender and HDLc were independent predictors of ECG Abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v19i4.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040350PMC
December 2019

Antibiotic resistance in patients with clinical features of healthcare-associated infections in an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2020 02 22;9(1):38. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington, DC, 20005, USA.

Background: Available data on antibiotic resistance in sub-Saharan Africa is limited despite its increasing threat to global public health. As there is no previous study on antibiotic resistance in patients with clinical features of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Sierra Leone, research is needed to inform public health policies. Our study aimed to assess antibiotic resistance rates from isolates in the urine and sputum samples of patients with clinical features of HAIs.

Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult inpatients aged ≥18 years at Connaught Hospital, an urban tertiary care hospital in Freetown between February and June 2018.

Results: Over the course of the study, we enrolled 164 patients. Risk factors for HAIs were previous antibiotic use (93.3%), comorbidities (58.5%) and age (≥65 years) (23.9%). Of the 164 samples, 89.6% were urine. Bacterial growth was recorded in 58.8% of cultured specimens; the type of specimen was an independent predictor of bacterial growth (p < 0.021). The most common isolates were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 29.2% and 19.0% in urine samples and 18.8% and 31.3% in sputum samples, respectively. The overall resistance rates were 58% for all extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, 13.4% for carbapenem-resistant non-lactose fermenting gram-negative bacilli, 8.7% for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and 1.3% for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). There were no carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) isolates but all Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

Conclusion: We demonstrated a high prevalence rate of ESBL-producing organisms which are a significant burden at the main tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone. Urgent action is needed to strengthen microbiological diagnostic infrastructure, initiate surveillance on antibiotic resistance and develop and implement policy framework on antibiotic stewardship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-0701-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036224PMC
February 2020

Unraveling the risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among West Africans.

Neurology 2020 03 19;94(10):e998-e1012. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

From Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S., L.A., A. Singh, D.O.), Kumasi, Ghana; University of California (B.O.), San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina (M.G., D.L., C.J., F.M.), Charleston; College of Medicine (O. Akpa, G. Ogbole, M.O., J.A., A.O., A. Adeoye, L. Ogunjimi, O. Arulogun, F.A., O. Ogah, A. Makanjuola, O. Adebayo, A. Agunloye, S.L., S.D., M.F., C.E.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; University of Ghana Medical School (A. Akpalu, R.L., B.C.-T.), Accra; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (K.W., L. Oyinloye, P.K., E.S.); Federal Medical Centre (R.A., O. Adeleye), Abeokuta; Ahmadu Bello University (R.O., O.B., V.S., H.I.), Zaria; Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (M.K., B.F., O. Ajose, S.O.), Ile-Ife; Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (L. Owolabi, A. Mande), Kano, Nigeria; University of Kentucky (D.A.), Lexington; University of Alabama at Birmingham (H.T.); University of Cambridge (H.S.M.), UK; Delta State University Teaching Hospital (O. Olugbo); Jos Teaching Hospital (G. Osaigbovo, A. Salaam, G.A., C.I.), Plateau State; Federal Medical Centre (I.C.), Umuahia, Abia State; Federal Medical Centre (T.S.), Owo, Ondo State; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (A. Akintunde), Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Objective: To characterize risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) occurrence and severity among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicenter case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Patients were adults ≥18 years old with CT-confirmed sICH with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched stroke-free community controls. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. Factors associated with sICH and its severity were assessed using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors.

Results: Of 2,944 adjudicated stroke cases, 854 were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Mean age of patients with ICH was 54.7 ± 13.9 years, with a male preponderance (63.1%), and 77.3% were nonlobar. Etiologic subtypes of sICH included hypertension (80.9%), structural vascular anomalies (4.0%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (0.7%), systemic illnesses (0.5%), medication-related (0.4%), and undetermined (13.7%). Eight factors independently associated with sICH occurrence by decreasing order of PAR with their adjusted OR (95% CI) were hypertension, 66.63 (20.78-213.72); dyslipidemia, 2.95 (1.84-4.74); meat consumption, 1.55 (1.01-2.38); family history of CVD, 2.22 (1.41-3.50); nonconsumption of green vegetables, 3.61 (2.07-6.31); diabetes mellitus, 2.11 (1.29-3.46); stress, 1.68 (1.03-2.77); and current tobacco use, 14.27 (2.09-97.47). Factors associated with severe sICH using an NIH Stroke Scale score >15 with adjusted OR (95% CI) were nonconsumption of leafy green vegetables, 2.03 (1.43-2.88); systolic blood pressure for each mm Hg rise, 1.01 (1.00-1.01); presence of midline shift, 1.54 (1.11-2.13); lobar ICH, 1.72 (1.16-2.55); and supratentorial bleeds, 2.17 (1.06-4.46).

Conclusions: Population-level control of the dominant factors will substantially mitigate the burden of sICH in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238923PMC
March 2020

The Association Between Selected Molecular Biomarkers and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Patterns in African Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertensive Patients Compared With Normotensive Controls: Protocol for a Longitudinal Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Jan 17;9(1):e14820. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a burgeoning epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Abnormal blood pressure variations are prevalent in CKD and potentiate the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Certain genetic variants (angiotensin II receptor type 1 1166 A>C and angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion and deletion polymorphisms) and biomarkers such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, soluble (s) E-selectin, homocysteine, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein have been shown to affect blood pressure variability among non-African CKD, hypertensive. and nonhypertensive CKD population. However, the contributions of the pattern, genetic, and environmental determinants of ambulatory blood pressure in African CKD have not been characterized. Understanding these interactions may help to develop interventions to prevent major cardiovascular events among people with CKD.

Objective: The overarching objective of this study is to identify, document, and develop approaches to address related phenomic, genetic, and environmental determinants of ambulatory blood pressure patterns in African CKD and non-CKD hypertensive patients compared with normotensive controls.

Methods: This is a longitudinal short-term follow-up study of 200 adult subjects with CKD and 200 each of age-matched hypertensives without CKD and apparently healthy controls. Demographic information, detailed clinical profile, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure measurements will be obtained. Blood samples will be collected to determine albumin-creatinine ratio, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, electrolytes, urea and creatinine, C-reactive protein, serum homocysteine, fibroblast growth factor-23, and complete blood count, while 2 mL blood aliquot will be collected in EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) tubes and mixed using an electronic rolling system to prevent blood clots and subsequently used for DNA extraction and genetic analysis.

Results: A total of 239 participants have been recruited so far, and it is expected that the recruitment phase will be complete in June 2020. The follow-up phase will continue with data analysis and publications of results.

Conclusions: This study will help stratify Nigerian CKD patients phenotypically and genotypically in terms of their blood pressure variations with implications for targeted interventions and timing of medications to improve prognosis.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/14820.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996765PMC
January 2020

Morbidity and mortality from road injuries: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 8;26(Supp 1):i46-i56. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Public Health, Mizan-Tepi University, Teppi, Ethiopia.

Background: The global burden of road injuries is known to follow complex geographical, temporal and demographic patterns. While health loss from road injuries is a major topic of global importance, there has been no recent comprehensive assessment that includes estimates for every age group, sex and country over recent years.

Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study to report incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, deaths, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life years for all locations in the GBD 2017 hierarchy from 1990 to 2017 for road injuries. Second, we measured mortality-to-incidence ratios by location. Third, we assessed the distribution of the natures of injury (eg, traumatic brain injury) that result from each road injury.

Results: Globally, 1 243 068 (95% uncertainty interval 1 191 889 to 1 276 940) people died from road injuries in 2017 out of 54 192 330 (47 381 583 to 61 645 891) new cases of road injuries. Age-standardised incidence rates of road injuries increased between 1990 and 2017, while mortality rates decreased. Regionally, age-standardised mortality rates decreased in all but two regions, South Asia and Southern Latin America, where rates did not change significantly. Nine of 21 GBD regions experienced significant increases in age-standardised incidence rates, while 10 experienced significant decreases and two experienced no significant change.

Conclusions: While road injury mortality has improved in recent decades, there are worsening rates of incidence and significant geographical heterogeneity. These findings indicate that more research is needed to better understand how road injuries can be prevented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571357PMC
October 2020

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 8;26(Supp 1):i12-i26. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

School of Public Health, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571356PMC
October 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Determinants of 1-Month Outcome of Stroke Among West Africans in the SIREN Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 06 30;8(11):e010814. Epub 2019 May 30.

1 Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria.

Background Little is known about the relationship between echocardiographic abnormalities and outcome among patients with acute stroke. We investigated the pattern and association of baseline echocardiographic variables with 1-month disability and mortality among patients with stroke in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study. Methods and Results We enrolled and followed up consecutive 1020 adult patients with acute stroke with baseline transthoracic echocardiography from west Africa. To explore the relationship between echocardiographic variables and 1-month disability (using modified Rankin scale >3) and fatality, regression models were fitted. Relative risks were computed with 95% CIs. The participants comprised 60% men with a mean age of 59.2±14.6 years. Ischemic stroke was associated with smaller aortic root diameter (30.2 versus 32.5, P=0.018) and septal (16.8 versus 19.1, P<0.001) and posterior wall thickness at systole (18.9 versus 21.5, P=0.004). Over 90% of patients with stroke had abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry with eccentric hypertrophy predominating (56.1%). Of 13 candidate variables investigated, only baseline abnormal LV geometry (concentric hypertrophy) was weakly associated with 1-month disability (unadjusted relative risk, 1.80; 95% CI , 0.97-5.73). Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with increased 1-month mortality (unadjusted relative risk, 3.05; 95% CI , 1.36-6.83). Conclusions Nine of 10 patients with acute stroke had abnormal LV geometry and a third had systolic dysfunction. Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with 1 month mortality. Larger studies are required to establish the independent effect and unravel predictive accuracy of this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585359PMC
June 2019

Medication adherence and 24-h blood pressure in apparently uncontrolled hypertensive Nigerian patients.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2019 Jan-Mar;26(1):18-24

Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, badan, Nigeria.

Background: Uncontrolled hypertension is a major risk for major cardiovascular events. While medication adherence determines blood pressure (BP) control, studies on treatment adherence among apparently uncontrolled hypertensives are sorely lacking in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the pattern and correlate of medication adherence among the uncontrolled hypertensive population.

Materials And Methods: We investigated 148 age- and sex-matched hypertensive adults on anti-hypertensive medication for a minimum of 1 year. Apparent uncontrolled BP was defined as clinic BP ≥140/90 mmHg, whereas 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring was used to determine the true uncontrolled hypertension and other BP phenotypes. Using the 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale participants were classified into high, moderate and low adherence while Modified Morisky Scale was used to assess knowledge and motivation.

Results: The mean age and BP were 61 ± 13.3 years and 158/91 mmHg, respectively. High adherence was found in 4.1% of the participants while 68.9% and 27% had moderate and low adherence, respectively. A third had true uncontrolled hypertension. A high proportion of the study participants also had a high motivation (68.9%) and knowledge (89.2%). Medication adherence was associated with motivation (P = 0.0001), knowledge (P = 0.002) and obesity (P = 0.036). Knowledge was an independent determinant of medication adherence with no significant effect on BP control.

Conclusion: High medication adherence was low and a third had true uncontrolled hypertension. Knowledge was an independent predictor of medication adherence with no significant effect on blood control. High medication adherence rather than moderate adherence, and knowledge are indeed needed for adequate BP control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/npmj.npmj_147_18DOI Listing
May 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria: A SIREN call to action.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0206548. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Stroke is a prominent cause of death, disability, and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network works collaboratively with stroke survivors and individuals serving as community controls to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic and behavioral risk factors for stroke in SSA.

Purpose: In this paper, we aim to: i) explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria using the process of qualitative description; and ii) propose actions for future research and community-based participation and education.

Methods: Stroke survivors, their caregivers, health care professionals, and community representatives and faith-based leaders participated in one of twenty-six focus groups, which qualitatively explored community beliefs, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria. Arthur Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness and the Social Ecological Model guided the questions and/or thematic analysis of the qualitative data. We hereby describe our focus group methods and analyses of qualitative data, as well as the findings and suggestions for improving stroke outcomes.

Results And Discussion: The major findings illustrate the fears, causes, chief problems, treatment, and recommendations related to stroke through the views of the participants, as well as recommendations for working effectively with the SIREN communities. Findings are compared to SIREN quantitative data and other qualitative studies in Africa. As far as we are aware, this is the first paper to qualitatively explore and contrast community beliefs, attitudes, and practices among stroke survivors and their caregivers, community and faith-based leaders, and health professionals in multiple communities within Nigeria and Ghana.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239297PMC
April 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

Prevalence and Prognostic Features of ECG Abnormalities in Acute Stroke: Findings From the SIREN Study Among Africans.

Glob Heart 2017 06 14;12(2):99-105. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans.

Objectives: The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study.

Methods: We included 890 patients from Nigeria and Ghana with acute stroke who had 12-lead ECG recording within first 24 h of admission and stroke classified based on brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke severity at baseline was assessed using the Stroke Levity Scale (SLS), whereas 1-month outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: Patients' mean age was 58.4 ± 13.4 years, 490 were men (55%) and 400 were women (45%), 65.5% had ischemic stroke, and 85.4% had at least 1 ECG abnormality. Women were significantly more likely to have atrial fibrillation, or left ventricular hypertrophy with or without strain pattern. Compared to ischemic stroke patients, hemorrhagic stroke patients were less likely to have atrial fibrillation (1.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.002), but more likely to have left ventricular hypertrophy (64.4% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.004). Odds of severe disability or death at 1 month were higher with severe stroke (AOR: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 3.50), or atrial enlargement (AOR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.02).

Conclusions: About 4 in 5 acute stroke patients in this African cohort had evidence of a baseline ECG abnormality, but presence of any atrial enlargement was the only independent ECG predictor of death or disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582979PMC
June 2017

Exploring Overlaps Between the Genomic and Environmental Determinants of LVH and Stroke: A Multicenter Study in West Africa.

Glob Heart 2017 06 13;12(2):107-113.e5. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is determined by similar genomic and environmental risk factors with stroke, or is simply an intermediate stroke marker, is unknown.

Objectives: We present a research plan and preliminary findings to explore the overlap in the genomic and environmental determinants of LVH and stroke among Africans participating in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study.

Methods: SIREN is a transnational, multicenter study involving acute stroke patients and age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched control subjects recruited from 9 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Genomic and environmental risk factors and other relevant phenotypes for stroke and LVH are being collected and compared using standard techniques.

Results: This preliminary analysis included only 725 stroke patients (mean age 59.1 ± 13.2 years; 54.3% male). Fifty-five percent of the stroke subjects had LVH with greater proportion among women (51.6% vs. 48.4%; p < 0.001). Those with LVH were younger (57.9 ± 12.8 vs. 60.6 ± 13.4; p = 0.006) and had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (167.1/99.5 mm Hg vs 151.7/90.6 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Uncontrolled blood pressure at presentation was prevalent in subjects with LVH (76.2% vs. 57.7%; p < 0.001). Significant independent predictors of LVH were age <45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 3.19), female sex (AOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.81), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg (AOR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.39 to 3.19; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of LVH was high among stroke patients especially the younger ones, suggesting a genetic component to LVH. Hypertension was a major modifiable risk factor for stroke as well as LVH. It is envisaged that the SIREN project will elucidate polygenic overlap (if present) between LVH and stroke among Africans, thereby defining the role of LVH as a putative intermediate cardiovascular phenotype and therapeutic target to inform interventions to reduce stroke risk in populations of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583025PMC
June 2017

Effect of education and training on patient referral by public primary health care workers in Mushin Local Government Area to State General Hospitals.

Niger J Med 2016 Apr-Jun;25(2):164-75

Background: Poor referral linkages had been noted and documented by various researchers on the health care delivery system in Nigeria. This study is designed to find out the situation of referral practices and make recommendations on how to improve the situation.

Materials And Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out to determine the effect of health education and training on the Knowledge, attitude and practices of patient referral by primary health care workers in Mushin and Surulere Local Government Areas of Lagos State of Nigeria. A total sample of 170 primary health care workers was involved in the study: 85 in each of the Local Government Areas. The study involved three stages, the pre-intervention, the intervention phase, and a post intervention phase of the study.

Results: Analysis of the responses of the two groups showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the responses in the areas concerning their attitude towards, and knowledge of patient referral at the pre-intervention phase. In the post-intervention phase the differences in the responses between the two groups in the area of practice of patient referral were statistically significant. In the control group 18.8% of the workers used the two-way referral form in the pre-intervention phase. This rose to 27.1% in the post intervention phase. In the experimental group, 17.5% used the two-way referral form in the pre-intervention phase, and this rose to 69.4% in the post intervention phase.

Conclusion: The conclusion was that education and training on patient referral could improve the patient referral activities of primary health care workers.
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July 2018

Effect of education and training on patient referral by public primary health care workers in Mushin Local Government Area to state general hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria.

Niger J Med 2016 Jan-Mar;25(1):38-48

Background: Poor referral linkages had been noted and documented by various researchers on the health care delivery system in Nigeria. This study is designed to find out the situation of referral practices and make recommendations on how to improve the situation.

Material And Method: A total sample of 170 primary health care workers was involved in the study:85 in each of the Local Government Areas. The study involved three stages, the pre-intervention, the intervention phase, and a post intervention phase of the study.

Results: In the post-intervention phase the differences in the responses between the two groups in the area of practice of patient referral were statistically significant. In the control group 18.8% of the workers used the two-way referral form in the pre-intervention phase. This rose to 27.1% in the post intervention phase. In the experimental group, 17.5% used the two-way referral form in the pre intervention phase, and this rose to 69.4% in the post intervention phase.

Conclusion: The conclusion was that education and training on patient referral could improve the patient referral activities of primary health care workers.
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July 2018
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