Publications by authors named "Ola Landgren"

392 Publications

Carfilzomib, dexamethasone, and daratumumab versus carfilzomib and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (CANDOR): updated outcomes from a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Background: Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, there remains an unmet need for treating patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, especially in those previously exposed or refractory to lenalidomide. This updated efficacy and safety analysis from the phase 3 CANDOR study compared carfilzomib, daratumumab, and dexamethasone (KdD) with carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Kd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Methods: In this updated analysis of the randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 CANDOR study, patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, at least a partial response to between one and three previous therapies, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, were recruited from 102 medical centres globally and randomly assigned (2:1) by interactive voice or web response software to receive KdD or Kd. Participants were stratified by disease stage, previous proteasome inhibitor or anti-CD38 antibody exposure, and number of previous therapies. All patients received intravenous infusions of carfilzomib twice per week at 56 mg/m (20 mg/m on days 1 and 2 during cycle 1) on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle. Daratumumab (8 mg/kg) was administered intravenously on days 1 and 2 of cycle 1 and at 16 mg/kg weekly for the remaining doses of the first two cycles, then every 2 weeks for four cycles (cycles 3-6), and every 4 weeks thereafter. Patients received 40 mg dexamethasone weekly (20 mg for patients >75 years old). This analysis was a preplanned interim analysis for overall survival; however, at the time of data cutoff, overall survival data were not mature. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Here, we provide updated progression-free survival data, assessed centrally by Onyx Response Computer Algorithm in the intention-to-treat population, with 11 months additional follow-up. Adverse events were assessed in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of trial treatment. CANDOR is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03158688, and is active but not recruiting.

Findings: Between June 13, 2017, and June 25, 2018, 466 patients were enrolled, of whom 312 received KdD and 154 received Kd. At data cutoff (June 15, 2020), median follow-up was 27·8 months (IQR 25·6-29·5) for KdD and 27·0 months (13·2-28·6) for Kd. Median progression-free survival was 28·6 months (95% CI 22·7-not estimable [NE]) in the KdD group and 15·2 months (11·1-19·9) in the Kd group (hazard ratio 0·59 [95% CI 0·45-0·78], log-rank p<0·0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events in the safety population were consistent with the primary analysis. Grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 268 (87%) patients in the KdD group and 116 (76%) in the Kd group; most commonly thrombocytopenia (76 [25%] vs 25 [16%], respectively), hypertension (65 [21%] vs 23 [15%]), pneumonia (54 [18%] vs 14 [9%]), and anaemia (53 [17%] vs 23 [15%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 194 (63%) patients with KdD and 76 (50%) with Kd. Adverse events leading to death occurred in 27 (9%) patients in the KdD group and seven (5%) in the Kd group; most commonly septic shock (five [2%] vs one (1%]) and pneumonia (four [1%] vs none). No new treatment-related deaths have occurred since the primary analysis.

Interpretation: A clear, maintained progression-free survival benefit of KdD over Kd with longer follow-up was confirmed, making KdD an emerging standard-of-care for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Funding: Amgen and Janssen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00579-9DOI Listing
December 2021

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and COVID-19: a population-based cohort study.

Blood Cancer J 2021 12 1;11(12):191. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor of MM has been associated with immune dysfunction which may lead to severe COVID-19. No systematic data have been published on COVID-19 in individuals with MGUS. We conducted a large population-based cohort study evaluating the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among individuals with MGUS. We included 75,422 Icelanders born before 1976, who had been screened for MGUS in the Iceland Screens Treats or Prevents Multiple Myeloma study (iStopMM). Data on SARS-CoV-2 testing and COVID-19 severity were acquired from the Icelandic COVID-19 Study Group. Using a test-negative study design, we included 32,047 iStopMM participants who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 1754 had MGUS. Among these participants, 1100 participants, tested positive, 65 of whom had MGUS. Severe COVID-19 developed in 230 participants, including 16 with MGUS. MGUS was not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Odds ratio (OR): 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-1.36; p = 0.72) or severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.52-1.91; p = 0.99). These findings indicate that MGUS does not affect the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 or the severity of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00580-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8635472PMC
December 2021

Survival, causes of death, and the prognostic role of comorbidities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the pre-ibrutinib era: A population-based study.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Objective: To evaluate temporal trends in survival and causes of death in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in a nationwide study.

Methods: The cohort consisted of 13,009 Swedish CLL patients diagnosed 1982-2013. Relative survival (RS) and excess mortality rate ratios (EMRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using flexible parametric survival models. Cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for the linear effect of 10-year increase in year of diagnosis.

Results: The excess mortality decreased comparing 2003-2013 to 1982-1992 (EMRR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.48-0.58). The 5-year RS increased between 1982 and 2012 for patients >51 years at diagnosis and improved for patients ≤51 years after 2002. The rate of CLL-specific deaths decreased over time (HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.81). Compared to patients with no comorbidity, patients with 1 and 2+ Charlson Comorbidity Index points had HR = 1.35 (95% CI 1.25-1.45) and HR = 1.47 (95% CI 1.37-1.57) for CLL-related mortality, respectively.

Conclusion: Survival in CLL patients improved in the era of chemoimmunotherapy, and this was largely explained by reduced CLL-related mortality. The increased rate of CLL-related mortality in patients with comorbidities emphasizes the importance of the newer and better tolerated targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13720DOI Listing
October 2021

Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone Followed by Lenalidomide Maintenance for Prevention of Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma in Patients With High-risk Smoldering Myeloma: A Phase 2 Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Nov;7(11):1678-1685

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: High-risk smoldering myeloma has a 5-year risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma of approximately 75%. Treatment with lenalidomide decreases the risk of progression; however, novel triplet regimens are superior, and earlier disease may be more treatment sensitive.

Objective: To evaluate the use of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) with lenalidomide maintenance therapy as early intervention in high-risk smoldering myeloma and to determine the rates of minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative complete response (CR).

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this single-arm, single-center, phase 2 nonrandomized controlled trial, responses were evaluated at every cycle during KRd treatment and every 3 cycles subsequently. Bone marrow biopsies and imaging were performed by cycle 8 and then annually. The study enrolled patients from May 29, 2012, to July 23, 2020, at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, a highly specialized tertiary cancer center. Patient key eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of high-risk smoldering myeloma based on the Mayo Clinic, Spanish, and/or Rajkumar, Mateos, and Landgren criteria.

Interventions: Patients received eight 4-week cycles of intravenous carfilzomib 36 mg/m2 (first 2 doses, 20 mg/m2), dexamethasone (20 mg, cycles 1-4; 10 mg, cycles 5-8 twice weekly), and lenalidomide 25 mg (days 1-21) followed by twenty-four 28-day cycles of maintenance lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21). Stem cell harvest and storage were optional.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was the MRD-negative CR rate. Key secondary outcomes included duration of MRD-negative CR and progression to multiple myeloma.

Results: A total of 54 patients (median age, 59 years [range, 40-79 years]; 30 men [55.6%]; and 2 Asian [3.7%], 15 Black [27.8%], 1 Hispanic [1.9%], and 36 White [66.7%] patients) were enrolled, with a median potential follow-up time of 31.9 months (range, 6.7-102.9 months). The MRD-negative CR rate was 70.4% (95% CI, 56.4%-82.0%), with a median sustained duration of 5.5 years (95% CI, 3.7 years to not estimable). The 8-year probability of being free from progression to multiple myeloma was 91.2% (95% CI, 67.4%-97.9%), and no deaths occurred. Nonhematologic grade 3 adverse events occurred in 21 patients (38.9%) and included thromboembolism, rash, and lung infection, with no grade 4 events.

Conclusions And Relevance: Results of this phase 2 nonrandomized controlled trial suggest that treatment of high-risk smoldering myeloma with novel triplet regimens, such as KRd and lenalidomide maintenance therapy, may alter the natural history of smoldering myeloma by significantly delaying development of end-organ disease. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this favorable benefit-to-risk profile.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01572480.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.3971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446896PMC
November 2021

Functional Impact of Genomic Complexity on the Transcriptome of Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Dec 15;27(23):6479-6490. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Hematology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Multiple myeloma is a biologically heterogenous plasma-cell disorder. In this study, we aimed at dissecting the functional impact on transcriptome of gene mutations, copy-number abnormalities (CNA), and chromosomal rearrangements (CR). Moreover, we applied a geno-transcriptomic approach to identify specific biomarkers for personalized treatments.

Experimental Design: We analyzed 514 newly diagnosed patients from the IA12 release of the CoMMpass study, accounting for mutations in multiple myeloma driver genes, structural variants, copy-number segments, and raw-transcript counts. We performed an drug sensitivity screen (DSS), interrogating the Cancer Dependency Map (DepMap) dataset after anchoring cell lines to primary tumor samples using the algorithm.

Results: Immunoglobulin translocations, hyperdiploidy and chr(1q)gain/amps were associated with the highest number of deregulated genes. Other CNAs and specific gene mutations had a lower but very distinct impact affecting specific pathways. Many recurrent genes showed a hotspot (HS)-specific effect. The clinical relevance of double-hit multiple myeloma found strong biological bases in our analysis. Biallelic deletions of tumor suppressors and chr(1q)-amplifications showed the greatest impact on gene expression, deregulating pathways related to cell cycle, proliferation, and expression of immunotherapy targets. Moreover, our DSS showed that not only t(11;14) but also chr(1q)gain/amps and inactivation predicted differential expression of transcripts of the BCL2 axis and response to venetoclax.

Conclusions: The multiple myeloma genomic architecture and transcriptome have a strict connection, led by CNAs and CRs. Gene mutations impacted especially with HS-mutations of oncogenes and biallelic tumor suppressor gene inactivation. Finally, a comprehensive geno-transcriptomic analysis allows the identification of specific deregulated pathways and candidate biomarkers for personalized treatments in multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7612071PMC
December 2021

Copy number signatures predict chromothripsis and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Nat Commun 2021 08 27;12(1):5172. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Myeloma Service, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Chromothripsis is detectable in 20-30% of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients and is emerging as a new independent adverse prognostic factor. In this study we interrogate 752 NDMM patients using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate the relationship of copy number (CN) signatures to chromothripsis and show they are highly associated. CN signatures are highly predictive of the presence of chromothripsis (AUC = 0.90) and can be used identify its adverse prognostic impact. The ability of CN signatures to predict the presence of chromothripsis is confirmed in a validation series of WGS comprised of 235 hematological cancers (AUC = 0.97) and an independent series of 34 NDMM (AUC = 0.87). We show that CN signatures can also be derived from whole exome data (WES) and using 677 cases from the same series of NDMM, we are able to predict both the presence of chromothripsis (AUC = 0.82) and its adverse prognostic impact. CN signatures constitute a flexible tool to identify the presence of chromothripsis and is applicable to WES and WGS data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25469-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397708PMC
August 2021

A new era of novel immunotherapies for multiple myeloma.

Lancet 2021 08 10;398(10301):642-643. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Myeloma Service, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01602-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Minimal Residual Disease in Myeloma: Application for Clinical Care and New Drug Registration.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Departamento de Hematologia, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca.

The development of novel agents has transformed the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma (MM), with minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity now achievable across the entire disease spectrum. Bone marrow-based technologies to assess MRD, including approaches using next-generation flow and next-generation sequencing, have provided real-time clinical tools for the sensitive detection and monitoring of MRD in MM patients. Complementary liquid biopsy-based assays are now quickly progressing with some, such as mass spectrometry methods, being very close to clinical use, while others utilizing nucleic acid-based technologies are still developing and will prove important to further our understanding of the biology of MRD. On the regulatory front, multiple retrospective individual patient and clinical trial level meta-analyses have already shown and will continue to assess the potential of MRD as a surrogate for patient outcome. Given all this progress, it is not surprising that a number of clinicians are now considering using MRD to inform real world clinical care of patients across the spectrum from smoldering myeloma to relapsed refractory MM, with each disease setting presenting key challenges and questions that will need to be addressed through clinical trials. The pace of advances in targeted and immune therapies in MM is unprecedented, and novel MRD-driven biomarker strategies are essential to accelerate innovative clinical trials leading to regulatory approval of novel treatments and continued improvement in patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1059DOI Listing
July 2021

Dynamics of minimal residual disease in patients with multiple myeloma on continuous lenalidomide maintenance: a single-arm, single-centre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Jun;8(6):e422-e432

Myeloma Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background Lenalidomide maintenance improves progression-free survival for patients with multiple myeloma, although its optimal duration is unknown. Clearance of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow results in superior outcomes, although its attainment or sustainment does not alter clinical decision-making. Studies that have evaluated MRD serially are limited in length. We therefore aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in MRD-status (dynamics) and their association with progression-free survival in patients with multiple myeloma.

Methods: In this single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years and older from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY, USA) who had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma following unrestricted frontline therapy and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of 2 or lower, including patients who started maintenance before study enrolment. All participants received lenalidomide maintenance at 10 mg for 21 days of 28-day cycles until progression or unacceptable toxic effects for up to 5 years on protocol. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 60 months per protocol and key secondary endpoints were MRD rates after completion of the 12th, 24th, and 36th cycle of maintenance and the association between progression-free survival and annual measurement of MRD status. MRD was assessed from first-pull bone marrow aspirates at baseline and annually by flow cytometry per International Myeloma Working Group criteria, (limit of detection of at least 1 × 10) up to a maximum of 5 years. Patients who completed at least four cycles of treatment were included in the analysis of the primary endpoint, and patients who had completed at least one dose of treatment on protocol were assessable for secondary endpoints. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02538198, and is now closed to accrual.

Findings: Between Sept 8, 2015, and Jan 25, 2019, 108 patients (100 evaluable for the primary endpoint) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 40·7 months (95% CI 38·7-45·0). At 60 months, progression-free survival was 64% (95% CI 52-79). Median progression-free survival was unreached (95% CI unreached-unreached). MRD dynamics were assessed using 340 MRD assessments done over 5 years for 103 evaluable patients. Patients who sustained MRD negativity for 2 years (n=34) had no recorded disease progression at median 19·8 months (95% CI 15·8-22·3) past the 2-year maintenance landmark. By contrast, patients who lost their MRD-negative responses (n=10) were more likely to progress than those with sustained MRD negativity (HR infinite; p<0·0001) and those with persistent MRD positivity (HR 5·88, 95% CI 1·18-33·33; p=0·015) at the 2-year landmark. Haematological and non-haematological serious adverse events occurred in 19 patients (18%). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were decreased lymphocyte count in 48 (44%) patients and decreased neutrophil count in 47 (44%) patients. One death occurred on study due to sepsis and heart failure and was considered unrelated to the study drug.

Interpretation: Serial measurements of MRD allow for dynamic assessment of risk for disease progression. Early intervention should be investigated for patients with loss of MRD negativity. Sustained MRD positivity is not categorically an unfavourable outcome and might portend prolonged stability of low-level disease.

Funding: Memorial Sloan Kettering and Celgene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00130-7DOI Listing
June 2021

The mutagenic impact of melphalan in multiple myeloma.

Leukemia 2021 08 19;35(8):2145-2150. Epub 2021 May 19.

Myeloma Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

The introduction of whole genome and exome sequencing partnered with advanced bioinformatic pipelines has allowed the comprehensive characterization of mutational processes (i.e., mutational signatures) in individual cancer patients. Studies focusing on multiple myeloma have defined several mutational processes, including a recently identified mutational signature (called "SBS-MM1") directly caused by exposure to high-dose melphalan (i.e., autologous stem cell transplant). High-dose melphalan exposure increases both the overall and nonsynonymous mutational burden detected between diagnosis and relapse by ~10-20%. Nevertheless, most of these mutations are acquired within the heterochromatin and late-replicating regions, rarely involving key myeloma driver genes. In this review, we summarize key studies that made this discovery possible, and we discuss potential clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01293-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Iceland screens, treats, or prevents multiple myeloma (iStopMM): a population-based screening study for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and randomized controlled trial of follow-up strategies.

Blood Cancer J 2021 05 17;11(5):94. Epub 2021 May 17.

The Binding Site, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK.

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) precedes multiple myeloma (MM). Population-based screening for MGUS could identify candidates for early treatment in MM. Here we describe the Iceland Screens, Treats, or Prevents Multiple Myeloma study (iStopMM), the first population-based screening study for MGUS including a randomized trial of follow-up strategies. Icelandic residents born before 1976 were offered participation. Blood samples are collected alongside blood sampling in the Icelandic healthcare system. Participants with MGUS are randomized to three study arms. Arm 1 is not contacted, arm 2 follows current guidelines, and arm 3 follows a more intensive strategy. Participants who progress are offered early treatment. Samples are collected longitudinally from arms 2 and 3 for the study biobank. All participants repeatedly answer questionnaires on various exposures and outcomes including quality of life and psychiatric health. National registries on health are cross-linked to all participants. Of the 148,704 individuals in the target population, 80 759 (54.3%) provided informed consent for participation. With a very high participation rate, the data from the iStopMM study will answer important questions on MGUS, including potentials harms and benefits of screening. The study can lead to a paradigm shift in MM therapy towards screening and early therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00480-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128921PMC
May 2021

Pesticide use and kidney function among farmers in the Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture study.

Environ Res 2021 08 11;199:111276. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Pesticides have been reported to be associated with malignant and non-malignant kidney disease. Few studies have examined the relationship between individual pesticides and kidney dysfunction.

Objective: We evaluated the associations of pesticide use with measured kidney function among male pesticide applicators in the Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) study, a subcohort in the Agricultural Health Study.

Methods: Serum creatinine was measured in 1545 BEEA participants and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated with the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Using reported information on lifetime use of 41 pesticides, multivariable linear and logistic regression was used to examine associations with eGFR modeled continuously and with CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m), respectively. Models were adjusted for possible confounding factors related to kidney function and correlated pesticides.

Results: Lower eGFR was observed among pesticide applicators who ever used the herbicides pendimethalin (-3.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8%, -1.5%), atrazine (-3.7%, 95% CI: 6.9%, -0.4%), and dicamba (-2.8%, 95% CI: 5.3%, -0.2%) compared with never users of each pesticide. Ever use of pendimethalin (odds ratio (OR)=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2) and atrazine (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.0) was also associated with elevated odds of CKD, with an exposure-response association between intensity-weighted lifetime days of pendimethalin use and CKD among active farmers (N=1302; p=0.04). Atrazine use within the last year was associated with lower eGFR and elevated odds of CKD when compared with never users, and we observed exposure-response associations with intensity-weighted lifetime days among recent users. Use of several other pesticides was associated with higher eGFR.

Discussion: These results suggest that two widely used herbicides, pendimethalin and atrazine, may be associated with altered kidney function among pesticide applicators. Our findings for these herbicides are consistent with observed associations with end-stage renal disease in the Agricultural Health Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8489787PMC
August 2021

Cumulative exposure to melphalan chemotherapy and subsequent risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with multiple myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Aug 28;107(2):275-282. Epub 2021 May 28.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for development of acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes (AML/MDS) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).

Methods: We identified all patients diagnosed with MM in Sweden from January 1st, 1958 to December 31, 2011. A total of 26 627 patients were diagnosed with MM with during the study period. Of these, 124 patients (0.5%) developed subsequent AML/MDS. For each patient with MM and a subsequent AML/MDS diagnosis, we randomly selected a matched (age, sex, and date of MM diagnosis) MM patient without a subsequent second malignancy diagnosis.

Results: The cumulative melphalan exposure was significantly higher (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-5.2; P < .001) among cases (median 988 mg; IQR 644-1640) compared with controls (median 578 mg; IQR 360-967). Median time to AML/MDS development was 3.8 years (IQR 2.8-5.8). Risk of AML/MDS was not statistically altered by M protein isotype, anemia, renal failure, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, or radiation therapy.

Conclusion: In this nationwide population-based study, we show that increased cumulative doses of alkylating therapy with melphalan increases the subsequent risk of developing AML/MDS in patients with MM. Given improved survival in MM patients over the last decade future studies will be important to better define long-term risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13650DOI Listing
August 2021

Chromothripsis as a pathogenic driver of multiple myeloma.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Analysis of the genetic basis for multiple myeloma (MM) has informed many of our current concepts of the biology that underlies disease initiation and progression. Studying these events in further detail is predicted to deliver important insights into its pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment. Information from whole genome sequencing of structural variation is revealing the role of these events as drivers of MM. In particular, we discuss how the insights we have gained from studying chromothripsis suggest that it can be used to provide information on disease initiation and that, as a consequence, it can be used for the clinical classification of myeloma precursor diseases allowing for early intervention and prognostic determination. For newly diagnosed MM, the integration of information on the presence of chromothripsis has the potential to significantly enhance current risk prediction strategies and to better characterize patients with high-risk disease biology. In this article we summarize the genetic basis for MM and the role played by chromothripsis as a critical pathogenic factor active at early disease phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.04.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and Effectiveness of Weekly Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, Dexamethasone, and Daratumumab Combination Therapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: The MANHATTAN Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jun;7(6):862-868

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Recently, the benefit of adding daratumumab to the proteasome inhibitor-based, 3-drug combination of bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who underwent high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous hemopoietic cell transplant was assessed. Here, we examine the addition of daratumumab to the second-generation proteasome inhibitor-based, 3-drug combination of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone.

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of carfilzomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone-daratumumab combination therapy for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, in the absence of high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous hemopoietic cell transplant.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Clinical and correlative pilot study at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, New York. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were enrolled between October 1, 2018, and November 15, 2019. The median follow-up from start of treatment was 20.3 months (95% CI, 19.2-21.9 months).

Interventions: Eight 28-day cycles with intravenous carfilzomib, 20/56 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, and 15); oral lenalidomide, 25 mg, (days 1-21); dexamethasone, 40 mg weekly, orally or intravenously (cycles 1-4), and 20 mg after cycle 4; and intravenous daratumumab, 16 mg/kg (days 1, 8, 15, and 22 [cycles 1-2]; days 1 and 15 [cycles 3-6]; and day 1 [cycles 7 and 8]).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was the minimal residual disease (MRD) rate, in the absence of high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous hemopoietic cell transplant. Secondary end points included determining safety and tolerability, evaluating rates of clinical response per the International Myeloma Working Group, and estimating progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates.

Results: Forty-one evaluable patients were enrolled (median age, 59 years; range, 30-70 years); 25 (61%) were female, and 20 (49%) had high-risk multiple myeloma. The primary end point (MRD negativity in the bone marrow; 10-5 sensitivity) was achieved in 29 of 41 patients (71%; 95% CI, 54%-83%), and therefore the trial was deemed successful. Median time to MRD negativity was 6 cycles (range, 1-8 cycles). Secondary end points of the overall response rate and the very good partial response or complete response rate were 100% (41 of 41 patients) and 95% (39 of 41 patients), respectively. At 11 months of the median follow-up, the 1-year PFS rate and the OS rate were 98% (95% CI, 93%-100%) and 100%, respectively. Most common (≥2 patients) grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (12 patients [27%]), rash (4 patients [9%]), lung infection (3 patients [7%]), and increased alanine aminotransferase level (2 patients [4%]). There were no deaths.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this nonrandomized clinical trial, carfilzomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone-daratumumab combination therapy was associated with high rates of MRD negativity in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and high rates of PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.0611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050789PMC
June 2021

Untangling fracture risk in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: A population-based cohort study.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Jul 28;107(1):137-144. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Objective: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the asymptomatic precursor of multiple myeloma (MM). Lytic bone lesions and fractures are hallmarks of MM and although there are no lytic lesions in MGUS, it has also been associated with fractures. The causes of fractures in MGUS are currently unclear but potential causes include inherent MGUS bone disease, undiagnosed MM, and peripheral neuropathy (PN). We therefore conducted a large population-based study including 8395 individuals with MGUS and 30 851 matched controls from Sweden.

Methods: Data on fractures, PN, and confounders were acquired from high-quality registers in Sweden.

Results: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and PN were independently associated with fractures (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.21-1.37; P < .001 and HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16-1.55; P < .001). Imminent MGUS progression increased the risk of fractures (odds ratio: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.27-2.16; P < .001). Fractures were not associated with long-term risk of MGUS progression (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.77-1.53; P = .64).

Discussion: Based on these findings, we speculate that MGUS leads to fractures through at least 3 independent mechanisms: undetected MGUS progression to MM, MGUS inherent bone disease, and PN through falls. These findings highlight the need for further study of MGUS inherent bone disease and can inform further research into fracture prevention in MGUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13633DOI Listing
July 2021

mmsig: a fitting approach to accurately identify somatic mutational signatures in hematological malignancies.

Commun Biol 2021 03 29;4(1):424. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Myeloma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Mutational signatures have emerged as powerful biomarkers in cancer patients, with prognostic and therapeutic implications. Wider clinical utility requires access to reproducible algorithms, which allow characterization of mutational signatures in a given tumor sample. Here, we show how mutational signature fitting can be applied to hematological cancer genomes to identify biologically and clinically important mutational processes, highlighting the importance of careful interpretation in light of biological knowledge. Our newly released R package mmsig comes with a dynamic error-suppression procedure that improves specificity in important clinical and biological settings. In particular, mmsig allows accurate detection of mutational signatures with low abundance, such as those introduced by APOBEC cytidine deaminases. This is particularly important in the most recent mutational signature reference (COSMIC v3.1) where each signature is more clearly defined. Our mutational signature fitting algorithm mmsig is a robust tool that can be implemented immediately in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01938-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007623PMC
March 2021

Whole-genome sequencing reveals progressive versus stable myeloma precursor conditions as two distinct entities.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1861. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Myeloma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by precursor conditions recognized clinically as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smoldering myeloma (SMM). We interrogate the whole genome sequence (WGS) profile of 18 MGUS and compare them with those from 14 SMMs and 80 MMs. We show that cases with a non-progressing, clinically stable myeloma precursor condition (n = 15) are characterized by later initiation in the patient's life and by the absence of myeloma defining genomic events including: chromothripsis, templated insertions, mutations in driver genes, aneuploidy, and canonical APOBEC mutational activity. This data provides evidence that WGS can be used to recognize two biologically and clinically distinct myeloma precursor entities that are either progressive or stable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22140-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994386PMC
March 2021

Minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma: defining the role of next generation sequencing and flow cytometry in routine diagnostic use.

Pathology 2021 Apr 3;53(3):385-399. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Haematology Service, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Vic, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia.

For patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM) there have been significant treatment advances over the past decade, reflected in an increasing proportion of patients achieving durable remissions. Clinical trials repeatedly demonstrate that achieving a deep response to therapy, with a bone marrow assessment proving negative for minimal residual disease (MRD), confers a significant survival advantage. To accurately assess for minute quantities of residual cancer requires highly sensitive methods; either multiparameter flow cytometry or next generation sequencing are currently recommended for MM response assessment. Under optimal conditions, these methods can detect one aberrant cell amongst 1,000,000 normal cells (a sensitivity of 10). Here, we will review the practical use of MRD assays in MM, including challenges in implementation for the routine diagnostic laboratory, standardisation across laboratories and clinical trials, the clinical integration of MRD status assessment into MM management and future directions for ongoing research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2021.02.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Comorbidities in multiple myeloma and implications on survival: A population-based study.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Jun 11;106(6):774-782. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

High proportion of patients with multiple myeloma suffer from comorbidities which may alter clinical management. Therefore, our aims were to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities and their impact on survival. We included patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma 1990-2013 in Sweden and all diagnoses from each patient from 1985. A total of 13 656 patients with multiple myeloma were included in the study, thereof 7404 (54%) had comorbidity at diagnosis. The risk of death was increased for those with one comorbidity at diagnosis compared to those without any comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.19; 95% confidence interval:1.14-1.25); this risk was higher for those with two (1.38; 1.30-1.47) and three or more comorbidities (1.72; 1.62-1.83). Furthermore, the risk of death was increased in patients with prior history of cancer, arrhythmia, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, psychological disease, peptic ulcer, neurological disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, dementia, and inflammatory bowel disease. This large study shows that over 50% of multiple myeloma patients have a comorbidity at diagnosis and survival decreased with increasing numbers of comorbidities. This emphasizes the importance of comorbidities when evaluating patients and deciding on treatment strategies for individuals with multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13597DOI Listing
June 2021

Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in peripheral blood for the follow up of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with daratumumab-based combination therapy.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 May 2;516:136-141. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Clinical Chemistry Service, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Daratumumab-based combination therapies have shown high rates of complete response (CR) and minimal residual disease negativity in patients with multiple myeloma. However, daratumumab, an IgGκ monoclonal antibody, interferes with electrophoretic techniques making it difficult to reliably define residual disease versus CR, especially in patients with IgGκ multiple myeloma.

Methods: Enrichment with polyclonal sheep antibody-coated magnetic microparticles combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis was used to detect M-proteins in serial samples from newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with daratumumab-based therapy. The performance of the MALDI-TOF MS assay was compared to that of a routine test panel (serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), immunofixation (IFE) and serum free light chain (FLC)).

Results: Comparison of MALDI-TOF MS to SPEP/IFE/FLC showed a concordance of 84.9% (p < 0.001). When MALDI-TOF MS and FLC results were combined, the M-protein detection rate was the same or better than the routine test panel. For the 9 patients who obtained CR during follow-up, MALDI-TOF MS detected an M-protein in 46% of subsequent samples. Daratumumab could be distinguished from the M-protein in 215/222 samples.

Conclusion: MALDI-TOF MS is useful in assessing CR in patients treated with monoclonal antibody-based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.01.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994191PMC
May 2021

Initial Whole-Genome Sequencing of Plasma Cell Neoplasms in First Responders and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Attack of September 11, 2001.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 04 27;27(7):2111-2118. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Myeloma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: The World Trade Center (WTC) attack of September 11, 2001 created an unprecedented environmental exposure to known and suspected carcinogens. High incidence of multiple myeloma and precursor conditions has been reported among first responders to the WTC disaster. To expand on our prior screening studies, and to characterize the genomic impact of the exposure to known and potential carcinogens in the WTC debris, we were motivated to perform whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of WTC first responders and recovery workers who developed a plasma cell disorder after the attack.

Experimental Design: We performed WGS of nine CD138-positive bone marrow mononuclear samples from patients who were diagnosed with plasma cell disorders after the WTC disaster.

Results: No significant differences were observed in comparing the post-WTC driver and mutational signature landscapes with 110 previously published WGSs from 56 patients with multiple myeloma and the CoMMpass WGS cohort ( = 752). Leveraging constant activity of the single-base substitution mutational signatures 1 and 5 over time, we estimated that tumor-initiating chromosomal gains were windowed to both pre- and post-WTC exposure.

Conclusions: Although limitations in sample size preclude any definitive conclusions, our findings suggest that the observed increased incidence of plasma cell neoplasms in this population is due to complex and heterogeneous effects of the WTC exposure that may have initiated or contributed to progression of malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026670PMC
April 2021

Positive selection as the unifying force for clonal evolution in multiple myeloma.

Leukemia 2021 05 22;35(5):1511-1515. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Myeloma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01130-7DOI Listing
May 2021

The molecular make up of smoldering myeloma highlights the evolutionary pathways leading to multiple myeloma.

Nat Commun 2021 01 12;12(1):293. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Division of Hematology Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Smoldering myeloma (SMM) is associated with a high-risk of progression to myeloma (MM). We report the results of a study of 82 patients with both targeted sequencing that included a capture of the immunoglobulin and MYC regions. By comparing these results to newly diagnosed myeloma (MM) we show fewer NRAS and FAM46C mutations together with fewer adverse translocations, del(1p), del(14q), del(16q), and del(17p) in SMM consistent with their role as drivers of the transition to MM. KRAS mutations are associated with a shorter time to progression (HR 3.5 (1.5-8.1), p = 0.001). In an analysis of change in clonal structure over time we studied 53 samples from nine patients at multiple time points. Branching evolutionary patterns, novel mutations, biallelic hits in crucial tumour suppressor genes, and segmental copy number changes are key mechanisms underlying the transition to MM, which can precede progression and be used to guide early intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20524-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804406PMC
January 2021
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