Publications by authors named "Okon Ekwere Essien"

3 Publications

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Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients in Uyo, Nigeria: Are the Demographics Changing?

Niger Med J 2020 Nov-Dec;61(6):345-350. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection poses a great health and economic burden, especially in developing nations where a high burden of disease has been described. A previous study in Uyo shows that some characteristics associated with a higher prevalence of HIV infection include female gender, exposure to tertiary level of education, and late disease presentation. This study aimed at determining the sociodemographic and the clinical characteristics of highly active antiretroviral treatment-naïve (HAART-naïve) HIV-seropositive patients at Uyo, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative study of 210 respondents, composed of 105 HAART-naïve HIV-seropositive patients (subjects) and an equal number of sex- and age-matched HIV-negative individuals (controls). Data were collected using pretested interviewer-administered questionnaires and hospital records. Anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were measured for all the respondents, while clinical and immunologic staging were done for subjects. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS v 20. ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34.5 ± 9.2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.3, with no difference between the subjects and controls ( = 0.880 for age and = 0.943 for gender). Mean body mass index and mean diastolic BP were significantly lower in the subjects ( < 0.001 and 0.037, respectively). Female gender, secondary level of educational attainment, and unskilled employment were significantly associated with HIV infection. Majority of the respondents presented in clinical Stage 1 or 2 disease, with CD4 count >350 cells/ml.

Conclusion: The burden of HIV infection is higher in females and in those with sociodemographic characteristics suggestive of lower socioeconomic status, however, majority of these appeared to present in early disease.
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December 2020

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: How Relevant in African Men With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy?

J Glob Oncol 2017 Feb 25;3(1):7-14. Epub 2016 May 25.

, , , and , University of Calabar College of Medical Sciences; , University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar; and , University of Maiduguri College of Medical Sciences, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Purpose: Cardiovascular disease risk factors have been associated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in white and Hispanic populations. It is therefore relevant to determine if there exists a relationship between these parameters in the African population.

Patients And Methods: The design of the study was cross sectional. Prostate-specific antigen concentration, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, glucose level, and insulin level were determined in 153 patients with prostate cancer and 80 controls. The patients with prostate cancer were divided into subgroups of treatment-naïve patients and those receiving ADT.

Results: Mean total cholesterol ( = .010), LDL cholesterol ( = .021), BMI ( = .001), and waist circumference ( = .029) values were significantly higher in patients treated with ADT when compared with treatment-naïve patients. In patients treated with ADT for up to 1 year, only mean BMI was significantly higher than in treatment-naïve patients, whereas those treated with ADT for more than 1 year had significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol values when compared with treatment-naïve patients. There were no significant differences in insulin or glucose levels. Those undergoing hormone manipulation after orchiectomy had fewer cardiovascular risk factors compared with those undergoing hormone manipulation alone.

Conclusion: This study shows that ADT results in elevated total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, BMI, and waist circumference values, all of which are risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors should be included in treatment plans for patients with prostate cancer.
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February 2017

Coronary artery disease and the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in South South Nigeria: a clinical and autopsy study.

Cardiol Res Pract 2014 10;2014:804751. Epub 2014 Mar 10.

Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1278, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Introduction. Death from coronary artery disease (CAD) has been until recently considered rare in Nigeria. We present a report of a study of CAD with its predisposing cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in South South Nigeria. Methods. We examined the autopsy reports of 747 coroner cases and 41 consecutive clinically diagnosed cases of ischemic heart disease seen in South South Nigeria. Results. CAD was diagnosed in 13 (1.6%) of 747 autopsies. They were predominantly males, urban residents, and of high social class with combination of CVD risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activities, and obesity. The mean serum cholesterol of the clinical subjects was 4.7 ± 1.57 mmol/L and 5.07 ± 1.94 mmol/L for angina and myocardial infarction, respectively, which was higher than the mean total cholesterol for locality of 3.1 mmol/L. Conclusion. CAD and its risk factors are contributing to mortality and morbidity in South South Nigeria. These risk factors include hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activity, and obesity. Nigerians in this locality with CAD have raised serum lipids.
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April 2014