Publications by authors named "Oi Kuan Choong"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Immune cell shuttle for precise delivery of nanotherapeutics for heart disease and cancer.

Sci Adv 2021 04 23;7(17). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Ph.D. Program in Translational Medicine, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

The delivery of therapeutics through the circulatory system is one of the least arduous and less invasive interventions; however, this approach is hampered by low vascular density or permeability. In this study, by exploiting the ability of monocytes to actively penetrate into diseased sites, we designed aptamer-based lipid nanovectors that actively bind onto the surface of monocytes and are released upon reaching the diseased sites. Our method was thoroughly assessed through treating two of the top causes of death in the world, cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with or without liver metastasis, and showed a significant increase in survival and healing with no toxicity to the liver and kidneys in either case, indicating the success and ubiquity of our platform. We believe that this system provides a new therapeutic method, which can potentially be adapted to treat a myriad of diseases that involve monocyte recruitment in their pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf2400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064633PMC
April 2021

Cardiac-specific microRNA-125b deficiency induces perinatal death and cardiac hypertrophy.

Sci Rep 2021 01 27;11(1):2377. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Cardiovascular Division, Institute of Biomedical Science, Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 128 Academia Road, Sec. 2, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan.

MicroRNA-125b, the first microRNA to be identified, is known to promote cardiomyocyte maturation from embryonic stem cells; however, its physiological role remains unclear. To investigate the role of miR-125b in cardiovascular biology, cardiac-specific miR-125b-1 knockout mice were generated. We found that cardiac-specific miR-125b-1 knockout mice displayed half the miR-125b expression of control mice resulting in a 60% perinatal death rate. However, the surviving mice developed hearts with cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiomyocytes in both neonatal and adult mice displayed abnormal mitochondrial morphology. In the deficient neonatal hearts, there was an increase in mitochondrial DNA, but total ATP production was reduced. In addition, both the respiratory complex proteins in mitochondria and mitochondrial transcription machinery were impaired. Mechanistically, using transcriptome and proteome analysis, we found that many proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism were significantly downregulated in miR-125b knockout mice which resulted in reduced fatty acid metabolism. Importantly, many of these proteins are expressed in the mitochondria. We conclude that miR-125b deficiency causes a high mortality rate in neonates and cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice. The dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism may be responsible for the cardiac defect in the miR-125b deficient mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81700-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840921PMC
January 2021

Hypoxia-induced H19/YB-1 cascade modulates cardiac remodeling after infarction.

Theranostics 2019 21;9(22):6550-6567. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Taiwan International Graduate Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) has been identified as a pivotal novel regulators in cardiac development as well as cardiac pathogenesis. lncRNA H19 is known as a fetal gene but it is exclusively abundant in the heart and skeletal muscles in adulthood, and is evolutionarily conserved in humans and mice. It has been reported to possess a significant correlation with the risk of coronary artery diseases. However, the function of H19 is not well characterized in heart. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function mouse models with left anterior descending coronary artery-ligation surgery were utilized to evaluate the functionality of H19 . For mechanistic studies, hypoxia condition were exerted in models to mimic cardiac ischemic injury. Chromatin isolation by RNA immunoprecipitation (ChIRP) was performed to reveal the interacting protein of lncRNA H19. lncRNA H19 was significantly upregulated in the infarct area post-surgery day 4 in mouse model. Ectopic expression of H19 in the mouse heart resulted in severe cardiac dilation and fibrosis. Several extracellular matrix (ECM) genes were significantly upregulated. While genetic ablation of H19 by CRISPR-Cas9 ameliorated post-MI cardiac remodeling with reduced expression in ECM genes. Through chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP), we identified Y-box-binding protein (YB)-1, a suppressor of Collagen 1A1, as an interacting protein of H19. Furthermore, H19 acted to antagonize YB-1 through direct interaction under hypoxia, which resulted in de-repression of Collagen 1A1 expression and cardiac fibrosis. Together these results demonstrate that lncRNA H19 and its interacting protein YB-1 are crucial for ECM regulation during cardiac remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.35218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771230PMC
October 2020

MicroRNA let-7-TGFBR3 signalling regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis after infarction.

EBioMedicine 2019 Aug 7;46:236-247. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Institute of Biomedical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; Institute of Medical Genomics and Proteomics, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening disease, often leading to heart failure. Defining therapeutic targets at an early time point is important to prevent heart failure.

Methods: MicroRNA screening was performed at early time points after MI using paired samples isolated from the infarcted and remote myocardium of pigs. We also examined the microRNA expression in plasma of MI patients and pigs. For mechanistic studies, AAV9-mediated microRNA knockdown and overexpression were administrated in mice undergoing MI.

Findings: MicroRNAs let-7a and let-7f were significantly downregulated in the infarct area within 24 h post-MI in pigs. We also observed a reduction of let-7a and let-7f in plasma of MI patients and pigs. Inhibition of let-7 exacerbated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, induced a cardiac hypertrophic phenotype, and resulted in worsened left ventricular ejection fraction. In contrast, ectopic let-7 overexpression significantly reduced those phenotypes and improved heart function. We then identified TGFBR3 as a target of let-7, and found that induction of Tgfbr3 in cardiomyocytes caused apoptosis, likely through p38 MAPK activation. Finally, we showed that the plasma TGFBR3 level was elevated after MI in plasma of MI patients and pigs.

Interpretation: Together, we conclude that the let-7-Tgfbr3-p38 MAPK signalling plays an important role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI. Furthermore, microRNA let-7 and Tgfbr3 may serve as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for myocardial damage. FUND: Ministry of Science and Technology, National Health Research Institutes, Academia Sinica Program for Translational Innovation of Biopharmaceutical Development-Technology Supporting Platform Axis, Thematic Research Program and the Summit Research Program, Taiwan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712055PMC
August 2019

The roles of non-coding RNAs in cardiac regenerative medicine.

Noncoding RNA Res 2017 Jun 7;2(2):100-110. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Taiwan International Graduate Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

The emergence of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has challenged the central dogma of molecular biology that dictates that the decryption of genetic information starts from transcription of DNA to RNA, with subsequent translation into a protein. Large numbers of ncRNAs with biological significance have now been identified, suggesting that ncRNAs are important in their own right and their roles extend far beyond what was originally envisaged. ncRNAs do not only regulate gene expression, but are also involved in chromatin architecture and structural conformation. Several studies have pointed out that ncRNAs participate in heart disease; however, the functions of ncRNAs still remain unclear. ncRNAs are involved in cellular fate, differentiation, proliferation and tissue regeneration, hinting at their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review the current understanding of both the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of ncRNAs in heart disease and describe some of the ncRNAs that have potential heart regeneration effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncrna.2017.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096405PMC
June 2017

In vitro antiviral activity of circular triple helix forming oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus replication.

Biomed Res Int 2014 20;2014:654712. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia ; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO) RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5), which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 10(14) in the virus-inoculated cells to 10(9) in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/654712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3950953PMC
December 2014
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