Publications by authors named "Ogala William"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Maternal Instruction About Jaundice and the Incidence of Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Nigeria.

J Pediatr 2020 06 4;221:47-54.e4. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Objective: To evaluate whether teaching mothers about neonatal jaundice will decrease the incidence of acute bilirubin encephalopathy among infants admitted for jaundice.

Study Design: This was a multicenter, before-after and cross-sectional study. Baseline incidences of encephalopathy were obtained at 4 collaborating medical centers between January 2014 and May 2015 (Phase 1). Structured jaundice instruction was then offered (May to November 2015; Phase 2) in antenatal clinics and postpartum. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models compared 3 groups: 843 Phase 1 controls, 338 Phase 2 infants whose mothers received both antenatal and postnatal instruction (group A), and 215 Phase 2 infants whose mothers received no instruction (group B) either because the program was not offered to them or by choice.

Results: Acute bilirubin encephalopathy occurred in 147 of 843 (17%) Phase 1 and 85 of 659 (13%) Phase 2 admissions, which included 63 of 215 (29%) group B and 5 of 338 (1.5%) group A infants. OR for having acute bilirubin encephalopathy, comparing group A and group B infants adjusted for confounding risk factors, was 0.12 (95% CI 0.03-0.60). Delayed care-seeking (defined as an admission total bilirubin ≥18 mg/dL at age ≥48 hours) was the strongest single predictor of acute bilirubin encephalopathy (OR 11.4; 6.6-19.5). Instruction decreased delay from 49% to 17%. Other major risk factors were home births (OR 2.67; 1.69-4.22) and hemolytic disease (hematocrit ≤35% plus bilirubin ≥20 mg/dL) (OR 3.03; 1.77-5.18). The greater rate of acute bilirubin encephalopathy with home vs hospital birth disappeared if mothers received jaundice instruction.

Conclusions: Providing information about jaundice to mothers was associated with a reduction in the incidence of bilirubin encephalopathy per hospital admission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.01.050DOI Listing
June 2020

Declining responsiveness of childhood Plasmodium falciparum infections to artemisinin-based combination treatments ten years following deployment as first-line antimalarials in Nigeria.

Infect Dis Poverty 2019 Aug 6;8(1):69. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: The development and spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Greater Mekong Subregion has created impetus for continuing global monitoring of efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This post analyses is aimed to evaluate changes in early treatment response markers 10 years after the adoption of ACTs as first-line treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nigeria.

Methods: At 14 sentinel sites in six geographical areas of Nigeria, we evaluated treatment responses in 1341 children under 5 years and in additional 360 children under 16 years with uncomplicated malaria enrolled in randomized trials of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate-amodiaquine at 5-year interval in 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 and at 2-year interval in 2009-2010 and 2012-2015, respectively after deployment in 2005.

Results: Asexual parasite positivity 1 day after treatment initiation (APPD1) rose from 54 to 62% and 2 days after treatment initiation from 5 to 26% in 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 (P = 0.002 and P <  0.0001, respectively). Parasite clearance time increased significantly from 1.6 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55-1.64) to 1.9 days (95% CI, 1.9-2.0) and geometric mean parasite reduction ratio 2 days after treatment initiation decreased significantly from 11 000 to 4700 within the same time period (P <  0.0001 for each). Enrolment parasitaemia > 75 000 μl, haematocrit > 27% 1 day post-treatment initiation, treatment with artemether-lumefantrine and enrolment in 2014-2015 independently predicted APPD1. In parallel, Kaplan-Meier estimated risk of recurrent infections by day 28 rose from 8 to 14% (P = 0.005) and from 9 to 15% (P = 0.02) with artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine, respectively. Mean asexual parasitaemia half-life increased significantly from 1.1 h to 1.3 h within 2 years (P <  0.0001).

Conclusions: These data indicate declining parasitological responses through time to the two ACTs may be due to emergence of parasites with reduced susceptibility or decrease in immunity to the infections in these children.

Trial Registration: Pan African Clinical Trial Registration PACTR201508001188143 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201508001191898 , 7 July 2015 and PACTR201508001193368 , 8 July 2015 PACTR201510001189370 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201709002064150 , 1 March 2017; https://www.pactr.samrca.ac.za.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0577-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683392PMC
August 2019

Anaemia following Artemisinin-Based Combination Treatments of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children: Temporal Patterns of Haematocrit and the Use of Uncomplicated Hyperparasitaemia as a Model for Evaluating Late-Appearing Anaemia.

Chemotherapy 2017 28;62(4):231-238. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Antimalarial Therapeutic Efficacy Monitoring Group, National Malaria Elimination Programme, The Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: In severe malaria, intravenous artesunate may cause delayed haemolytic anaemia but there has been little evaluation of the propensity of oral artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) to cause late-appearing anaemia.

Methods: The frequency of anaemia (haematocrit <30%), and temporal changes in haematocrit were evaluated in 1,191 malarious children following ACTs. "Haematocrit conservation" was evaluated by using the fall in haematocrit/1,000 asexual parasites cleared from the peripheral blood (FIH/1,000 asexual parasites cpb), and the ratio of the average haematocrit (on the first 3 days of starting treatment):total parasitaemia cleared.

Results: The frequency of anaemia decreased significantly following treatment. FIH/1,000 asexual parasites cpb, average haematocrit:total parasitaemia cleared, and mean haematocrit 5 weeks after treatment began were significantly lower in hyperparasitaemic children than in children without hyperparasitaemia, suggesting haematocrit conservation during treatment followed later by a loss of haematocrit. Asymptomatic late-appearing anaemia occurred in 6% of the children.

Conclusion: Artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine contribute to haematocrit conservation at high parasitaemias but may cause late-appearing anaemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000449366DOI Listing
September 2017

Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artemisinin-based combination treatments on uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria -associated anaemia in Nigerian children during seven years of adoption as first-line treatments.

Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Feb 7;6(1):36. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer's University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

Background: Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) are the first-line treatments of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many endemic areas but there are few evaluation of their efficacy in anaemic malarious children.

Methods: Therapeutic efficacy of 3-day regimens of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine was evaluated in 437 anaemic and 909 non-anaemic malarious children following treatment during a seven-year period (2008-2014). Patterns of temporal changes in haematocrit were classified based on haematocrit values <30% and ≥30%. Kinetics of the disposition of the deficit in haematocrit from 30% following treatment were evaluated using a non-compartment model.

Results: PCR-corrected parasitological efficacy 28 days after start of treatment was significantly higher in artesunate-amodiaquine- compared to artemether-lumefantrine-treated children [97% (95%CI: 92.8-100) versus 96.4% (95%CI: 91.3-99.4), P = 0.02], but it was similar in non-anaemic and anaemic children. Fall in haematocrit/1 000 asexual parasites cleared from peripheral blood was significantly greater at lower compared to higher parasitaemias (P < 0.0001), and in non-anaemic compared to anaemic children (P = 0.007). In anaemic children at presentation, mean anaemia recovery time (AnRT) was 15.4 days (95%CI: 13.3-17.4) and it did not change over the years. Declines in haematocrit deficits from 30% were monoexponential with mean estimated half-time of 1.4 days (95%CI: 1.2-1.6). Anaemia half-time (t) correlated positively with AnRT in the same patients (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman analysis of 10 multiples of t and AnRT showed narrow limit of agreement with insignificant bias (P = 0.07) suggesting both can be used interchangeably in the same patients.

Conclusions: Artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine remain efficacious treatments of uncomplicated P. falciparum infections in non-anaemic and anaemic Nigerian children in the last 7 years of adoption as first-line treatments. These ACTs may also conserve haematocrit at high parasitaemias and in anaemic children.

Trials Registration: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201508001188143 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201510001189370 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201508001191898 , 7 July 2015 and PACTR201508001193368 , 8 July 2015.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-016-0217-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294876PMC
February 2017

Oral amoxicillin compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with fast breathing when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

Lancet 2015 May 1;385(9979):1758-1766. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: WHO recommends referral to hospital for possible serious bacterial infection in young infants aged 0-59 days. We aimed to assess whether oral amoxicillin treatment for fast breathing, in the absence of other signs, is as efficacious as the combination of injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin.

Methods: In a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial at five sites in DR Congo, Kenya, and Nigeria, community health workers followed up all births in the community, identified unwell young infants, and referred them to study nurses. We randomly assigned infants with fast breathing as a single sign of illness or possible serious bacterial infection, whose parents did not accept referral to hospital, to receive either injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin once per day or oral amoxicillin treatment twice per day for 7 days. A person who was off-site generated randomisation lists using computer software. Trained health professionals gave injections, but outcome assessors were masked to group allocations. The primary outcome was treatment failure by day 8 after enrolment, defined as clinical deterioration, development of a serious adverse event including death, persistence of fast breathing on day 4, or recurrence up to day 8. The primary analysis was per protocol and we used a prespecified similarity margin of 5% to assess equivalence between regimens. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12610000286044.

Findings: From April 4, 2011, to March 29, 2013, we enrolled 2333 infants aged 0-59 days with fast breathing as the only sign of possible serious bacterial infection at the five study sites. We assigned 1170 infants to receive injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin and 1163 infants to receive oral amoxicillin. In the per-protocol analysis, from which 137 infants were excluded, we included 1061 (91%) infants who fulfilled predefined criteria of adherence to treatment and adequate follow-up in the injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin group and 1145 (98%) infants in the oral amoxicillin group. In the procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin group, 234 infants (22%) failed treatment, compared with 221 (19%) infants in the oral amoxicillin group (risk difference -2·6%, 95% CI -6·0 to 0·8). Four infants died within 15 days of follow-up in each group. We detected no drug-related serious adverse events.

Interpretation: Young infants with fast breathing alone can be effectively treated with oral amoxicillin on an outpatient basis when referral to a hospital is not possible.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grant to WHO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62285-6DOI Listing
May 2015

Simplified antibiotic regimens compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

Lancet 2015 May 1;385(9979):1767-1776. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: WHO recommends hospital-based treatment for young infants aged 0-59 days with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection, but most families in resource-poor settings cannot accept referral. We aimed to assess whether use of simplified antibiotic regimens to treat young infants with clinical signs of severe infection was as efficacious as an injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin combination for 7 days for situations in which hospital referral was not possible.

Methods: In a multisite open-label equivalence trial in DR Congo, Kenya, and Nigeria, community health workers visited all newborn babies at home, identifying and referring unwell young infants to a study nurse. We stratified young infants with clinical signs of severe infection whose parents did not accept referral to hospital by age (0-6 days and 7-59 days), and randomly assigned each individual within these strata to receive one of the four treatment regimens. Randomisation was stratified by age group of infants. An age-stratified randomisation scheme with block size of eight was computer-generated off-site at WHO. The outcome assessor was masked. We randomly allocated infants to receive injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin for 7 days (group A, reference group); injectable gentamicin and oral amoxicillin for 7 days (group B); injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin for 2 days, then oral amoxicillin for 5 days (group C); or injectable gentamicin for 2 days and oral amoxicillin for 7 days (group D). Trained health professionals gave daily injections and the first dose of oral amoxicillin. Our primary outcome was treatment failure by day 8 after enrolment, defined as clinical deterioration, development of a serious adverse event (including death), no improvement by day 4, or not cured by day 8. Independent outcome assessors, who did not know the infant's treatment regimen, assessed study outcomes on days 4, 8, 11, and 15. Primary analysis was per protocol. We used a prespecified similarity margin of 5% to assess equivalence between regimens. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12610000286044.

Findings: In Kenya and Nigeria, we started enrolment on April 4, 2011, and we enrolled the necessary number of young infants aged 7 days or older from Oct 17, 2011, to April 30, 2012. At these sites, we continued to enrol infants younger than 7 days until March 29, 2013. In DR Congo, we started enrolment on Sept 17, 2012, and continued until June 28, 2013. We randomly assigned 3564 young infants to either group A (n=894), group B (n=884), group C (n=896), or group D (n=890). We excluded 200 randomly assigned infants, who did not fulfil the predefined criteria of adherence to treatment and adequate follow-up. In the per-protocol analysis, 828 infants were included in group A, 826 in group B, 862 in group C, and 848 in group D. 67 (8%) infants failed treatment in group A compared with 51 (6%) infants in group B (risk difference -1·9%, 95% CI -4·4 to 0·1), 65 (8%) in group C (-0·6%, -3·1 to 2·0), and 46 (5%) in group D (-2·7%, -5·1 to 0·3). Treatment failure in groups B, C, and D was within the similarity margin compared with group A. During the 15 days after random allocation, 12 (1%) infants died in group A, compared with ten (1%) infants in group B, 20 (2%) infants in group C, and 11 (1%) infants in group D. An infant in group A had a serious adverse event other than death (injection abscess).

Interpretation: The three simplified regimens were as effective as injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin for 7 days on an outpatient basis in young infants with clinical signs of severe infection, without signs of critical illness, and whose caregivers did not accept referral for hospital admission.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grant to WHO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62284-4DOI Listing
May 2015

Efficacy of artemisinin-based combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in under-five-year-old Nigerian children.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Nov 22;91(5):925-935. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

The efficacy of 3-day regimens of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine were evaluated in 747 children < 5 years of age with uncomplicated malaria from six geographical areas of Nigeria. Fever clearance was significantly faster (P = 0.006) and the proportion of children with parasitemia 1 day after treatment began was significantly lower (P = 0.016) in artesunate-amodiaquine-compared with artemether-lumefantrine-treated children. Parasite clearance times were similar with both treatments. Overall efficacy was 96.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.5-97.6%), and was similar for both regimens. Polymerase chain reaction-corrected parasitologic cure rates on Day 28 were 96.9% (95% CI 93.9-98.2%) and 98.3% (95% CI 96.1-99.3%) for artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine, respectively. Gametocyte carriage post treatment was significantly lower than pretreatment (P < 0.0001). In anemic children, mean time to recovery from anemia was 10 days (95% CI 9.04-10.9) and was similar for both regimens. Both treatments were well tolerated and are safe and efficacious treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young Nigerian children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228889PMC
November 2014

Scientific rationale for study design of community-based simplified antibiotic therapy trials in newborns and young infants with clinically diagnosed severe infections or fast breathing in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 Sep;32 Suppl 1:S7-11

Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Newborns and young infants suffer high rates of infections in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Timely access to appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential for reducing mortality. In an effort to develop community case management guidelines for young infants, 0-59 days old, with clinically diagnosed severe infections, or with fast breathing, 4 trials of simplified antibiotic therapy delivered in primary care clinics (Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria) or at home (Bangladesh and Nigeria) are being conducted.

Methods: This article describes the scientific rationale for these trials, which share major elements of trial design. All the trials are in settings of high neonatal mortality, where hospitalization is not feasible or frequently refused. All use procaine penicillin and gentamicin intramuscular injections for 7 days as reference therapy and compare this to various experimental arms utilizing comparatively simpler combination regimens with fewer injections and oral amoxicillin.

Conclusion: The results of these trials will inform World Health Organization policy regarding community case management of young infants with clinical severe infections or with fast breathing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31829ff5fcDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3814626PMC
September 2013

Diagnosing renal failure due to diethylene glycol in children in a resource-constrained setting.

Pediatr Nephrol 2012 Jun 15;27(6):1021-8. Epub 2012 Jan 15.

Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.

Background: In 2008, several Nigerian children developed acute kidney injury (AKI) after ingesting teething syrup contaminated with diethylene glycol (DEG). Because there are limited diagnostic facilities in resource-constrained countries, this study investigated whether AKI associated with DEG could be identified by other means.

Methods: This was a multicenter study. Information was obtained from hospital records. Clinicopathological features of all children with AKI over a 6-month period were reviewed.

Results: Sixty (50.4%) of 119 children ingested "My pikin" teething syrup. Compared to children who had not ingested it, they were significantly (p < 0.05) younger (11.95 vs. 31 months), more were anuric (98.3 vs. 74.6%), hypertensive (84 vs. 52%), had severe metabolic acidosis (46.7 vs. 20.5%), and died (96.6 vs. 71.2%). They developed increasing metabolic acidosis and multiorgan dysfunction despite peritoneal dialysis. Late presentation, financial difficulties, inadequate facilities for toxicology, and hemodialysis complicated management.

Conclusions: Identifying AKI associated with DEG is difficult. Detailed drug history, increasing metabolic acidosis, and multiorgan deterioration despite peritoneal dialysis should arouse suspicion. Simple diagnostic tests need to be developed and facilities for hemodialysis of infants and financial support provided. Recurrences can be prevented by creating awareness, improving manufacturing practices, field-testing of drugs, and international monitoring of pharmaceuticals imported for manufacture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-2082-8DOI Listing
June 2012

Hindmilk and weight gain in preterm very low-birthweight infants.

Pediatr Int 2007 Apr;49(2):156-60

Department of Paediatrics, Jos University Teaching Hospital, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

Background: Feeding of own mother's milk to preterm very low-birthweight infants often results in suboptimal weight gain in these infants for whom energy requirements are high but in whom volume tolerance is limited. Therefore the purpose of the present paper was to investigate the effect of selective hindmilk feeding on the growth of preterm very low-birthweight babies.

Methods: Preterm very low-birthweight babies admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between April 2000 and July 2001 were randomized to hindmilk and composite breast milk feeding for 2 weeks. End-points were weight, occipitofrontal head circumference and length.

Results: For small-for-gestational-age babies, the infants fed on hindmilk gained weight at a mean rate of 12.92 +/- 10.95 g/kg per day as compared with a mean rate of 5.01 +/- 17.37 g/kg per day for their controls on composite milk (P < 0.0001). For appropriate-for-gestational-age babies, the mean rate of weight gain for the hindmilk group was 12.99 +/- 10.75 g/kg per day while that for their controls on composite milk was 8.29 +/- 20.56 g/kg per day (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of increase in length and occipitofrontal head circumference between the groups. The lipid content of the hindmilk was 1.6-fold that of composite milk.

Conclusion: Preterm very low-birthweight babies fed hindmilk had a higher rate of weight gain compared to those fed composite milk. It is recommended that the hindmilk fraction of expressed breast milk be predominantly used for the feeding of preterm very low-birthweight babies while in hospital to help shorten their duration of hospital stay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.2007.02336.xDOI Listing
April 2007