Publications by authors named "Odd S Gabrielsen"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chromatin occupancy and target genes of the haematopoietic master transcription factor MYB.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 26;11(1):9008. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Blindern, PO Box 1066, 0316, Oslo, Norway.

The transcription factor MYB is a master regulator in haematopoietic progenitor cells and a pioneer factor affecting differentiation and proliferation of these cells. Leukaemic transformation may be promoted by high MYB levels. Despite much accumulated molecular knowledge of MYB, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of its target genes and its chromatin action. In the present work, we performed a ChIP-seq analysis of MYB in K562 cells accompanied by detailed bioinformatics analyses. We found that MYB occupies both promoters and enhancers. Five clusters (C1-C5) were found when we classified MYB peaks according to epigenetic profiles. C1 was enriched for promoters and C2 dominated by enhancers. C2-linked genes were connected to hematopoietic specific functions and had GATA factor motifs as second in frequency. C1 had in addition to MYB-motifs a significant frequency of ETS-related motifs. Combining ChIP-seq data with RNA-seq data allowed us to identify direct MYB target genes. We also compared ChIP-seq data with digital genomic footprinting. MYB is occupying nearly a third of the super-enhancers in K562. Finally, we concluded that MYB cooperates with a subset of the other highly expressed TFs in this cell line, as expected for a master regulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88516-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076236PMC
April 2021

Methylation-dependent SUMOylation of the architectural transcription factor HMGA2.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 05 18;552:91-97. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Radiumhospitalet, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4953 Nydalen, N-0424, Oslo, Norway; Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) is a chromatin-associated protein involved in the regulation of stem cell function, embryogenesis and cancer development. Although the protein does not contain a consensus SUMOylation site, it is shown to be SUMOylated. In this study, we demonstrate that the first lysine residue in the reported KKAE SUMOylation motif in HMGA2 can be methylated in vitro and in vivo by the Set7/9 methyltransferase. By editing the lysine, the increased hydrophobicity of the resulting 6-N-methyl-lysine transforms the sequence into a consensus SUMO motif. This post-translational editing dramatically increases the subsequent SUMOylation of this site. Furthermore, similar putative methylation-dependent SUMO motifs are found in a number of other chromatin factors, and we confirm methylation-dependent SUMOylation of a site in one such protein, the Polyhomeotic complex 1 homolog (PHC1). Together, these results suggest that crosstalk between methylation and SUMOylation is a general mode for regulation of chromatin function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.099DOI Listing
May 2021

The pioneer factor activity of c-Myb involves recruitment of p300 and induction of histone acetylation followed by acetylation-induced chromatin dissociation.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2018 06 28;11(1):35. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, 0316, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The concept of pioneer transcription factors is emerging as an essential part of the epigenetic regulation, taking place during cell development and differentiation. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying pioneer factor activity remains poorly understood. We recently reported that the transcription factor c-Myb acts as a pioneer factor in haematopoiesis, and a point mutation in its DNA binding domain, D152V, is able to abrogate this function.

Results: Here, we show that specific histone modifications, including H3K27ac, prevent binding of c-Myb to histone tails, representing a novel effect of histone modifications, namely restricting binding of a pioneer factor to chromatin. Furthermore, we have taken advantage of the pioneer-defect D152V mutant to investigate mechanisms of c-Myb's pioneer factor activity. We show that c-Myb-dependent transcriptional activation of a gene in inaccessible chromatin relies on c-Myb binding to histones, as well as on c-Myb interacting with the histone acetyltransferase p300. ChIP assays show that both wild type and the D152V mutant of c-Myb bind to a selected target gene at its promoter and enhancer, but only wild-type c-Myb causes opening and activation of the locus. Enhancement of histone acetylation restores activation of the same gene in the absence of c-Myb, suggesting that facilitating histone acetylation is a crucial part of the pioneer factor function of c-Myb.

Conclusions: We suggest a pioneer factor model in which c-Myb binds to regions of closed chromatin and then recruits histone acetyltransferases. By binding to histones, c-Myb facilitates histone acetylation, acting as a cofactor for p300 at c-Myb bound sites. The resulting H3K27ac leads to chromatin opening and detachment of c-Myb from the acetylated chromatin. We propose that the latter phenomenon, acetylation-induced chromatin dissociation, represents a mechanism for controlling the dynamics of pioneer factor binding to chromatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-018-0208-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022509PMC
June 2018

A c-Myb mutant causes deregulated differentiation due to impaired histone binding and abrogated pioneer factor function.

Nucleic Acids Res 2017 Jul;45(13):7681-7696

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

The transcription factor c-Myb is involved in early differentiation and proliferation of haematopoietic cells, where it operates as a regulator of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Deregulated c-Myb plays critical roles in leukaemias and other human cancers. Due to its role as a master regulator, we hypothesized it might function as a pioneer transcription factor. Our approach to test this was to analyse a mutant of c-Myb, D152V, previously reported to cause haematopoietic defects in mice by an unknown mechanism. Our transcriptome data from K562 cells indicates that this mutation specifically affects c-Myb's ability to regulate genes involved in differentiation, causing failure in c-Myb's ability to block differentiation. Furthermore, we see a major effect of this mutation in assays where chromatin opening is involved. We show that each repeat in the minimal DNA-binding domain of c-Myb binds to histones and that D152V disrupts histone binding of the third repeat. ATAC-seq data indicates this mutation impairs the ability of c-Myb to cause chromatin opening at specific sites. Taken together, our findings support that c-Myb acts as a pioneer factor and show that D152V impairs this function. The D152V mutant is the first mutant of a transcription factor specifically destroying pioneer factor function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkx364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5570105PMC
July 2017

PIAS1 interacts with FLASH and enhances its co-activation of c-Myb.

Mol Cancer 2011 Feb 21;10:21. Epub 2011 Feb 21.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

Background: FLASH is a huge nuclear protein involved in various cellular functions such as apoptosis signalling, NF-κB activation, S-phase regulation, processing of histone pre-mRNAs, and co-regulation of transcription. Recently, we identified FLASH as a co-activator of the transcription factor c-Myb and found FLASH to be tightly associated with active transcription foci. As a huge multifunctional protein, FLASH is expected to have many interaction partners, some which may shed light on its function as a transcriptional regulator.

Results: To find additional FLASH-associated proteins, we performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening with FLASH as bait and identified the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as an interaction partner. The association appears to involve two distinct interaction surfaces in FLASH. We verified the interaction by Y2H-mating, GST pulldowns, co-IP and ChIP. FLASH and PIAS1 were found to co-localize in nuclear speckles. Functional assays revealed that PIAS1 enhances the intrinsic transcriptional activity of FLASH in a RING finger-dependent manner. Furthermore, PIAS1 also augments the specific activity of c-Myb, and cooperates with FLASH to further co-activate c-Myb. The three proteins, FLASH, PIAS1, and c-Myb, are all co-localized with active RNA polymerase II foci, resembling transcription factories.

Conclusions: We conclude that PIAS1 is a common partner for two cancer-related nuclear factors, c-Myb and FLASH. Our results point to a functional cooperation between FLASH and PIAS1 in the enhancement of c-Myb activity in active nuclear foci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-10-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050860PMC
February 2011

GSTP1 promoter haplotypes affect DNA methylation levels and promoter activity in breast carcinomas.

Cancer Res 2008 Jul;68(14):5562-71

Department of Genetics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, Norway.

The CpG island spanning the transcription start of the glutathione S-transferase P1 becomes methylated in a variety of human cancers including breast cancer. To study the effect of sequence variation on hypermethylation of the GSTP1 promoter, we analyzed the genetic and epigenetic variability in 90 tumors from patients with locally advanced breast cancer. High-resolution quantitative analysis revealed large variability in the DNA methylation levels. Lack of methylation was more often observed in the basal and normal-like estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors, and methylated GSTP1 was associated with better overall survival (P = 0.00063). Studies of the genetic variation identified 14 different haplotypes. The distribution of methylation levels of tumors homozygous for the most frequent haplotype was significantly different from other haplotype combinations (P = 0.011), the difference being more pronounced in ER-positive (P = 0.005) and progesterone receptor-positive (P = 0.008) tumors. Regression modeling identified the ER status and haplotype as the main determinants of DNA methylation variability. We identified a putative c-Myb response element (MRE) that was present in one of two minimal promoter haplotypes. In vitro analysis showed that c-Myb binds to the MRE, but binding was weakened by the two polymorphisms. Transient cotransfections in luminal-type and basal-like breast cancer cell lines confirmed cell-specific differential binding of c-Myb to the polymorphic sites, leading to a change in the expression from the GSTP1 promoter in vivo. GSTP1 expression was moderately but significantly (P = 0.01) reduced after siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Myb. Our results indicate that haplotype structure of a promoter is important for the extent of DNA methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5828DOI Listing
July 2008

The transcription factor c-Myb affects pre-mRNA splicing.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Jul 20;372(2):309-13. Epub 2008 May 20.

University of Oslo, Department of Molecular Biosciences, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

c-Myb is a transcription factor which plays a key role in haematopoietic proliferation and lineage commitment. We raised the question of whether c-Myb may have abilities beyond the extensively studied transcriptional activation function. In this report we show that c-Myb influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This was seen by its marked effect on the 5'-splice site selection during E1A alternative splicing, while no effect of c-Myb was observed when reporters for the 3'-splice site selection or for the constitutive splicing process were tested. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments provided evidence for interactions between c-Myb and distinct components of the splicing apparatus, such as the general splicing factor U2AF(65) and hnRNPA1 involved in the 5'-splice site selection. The effect on 5'-splice site selection was abolished in the oncogenic variant v-Myb. Altogether, these data provide evidence that c-Myb may serve a previously unappreciated role in the coupling between transcription and splicing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.054DOI Listing
July 2008

Engineering of a Pichia pastoris expression system for secretion of high amounts of intact human parathyroid hormone.

J Biotechnol 2005 Mar 16;116(3):251-60. Epub 2005 Jan 16.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

Human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) is involved in calcium metabolism, and the unique ability of this hormone to stimulate bone growth makes it a promising agent in the treatment of osteoporosis. We have engineered the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris for the production of over 300 mg intact hPTH per liter growth medium. The presence of 10 mM EDTA in the culture medium was essential to obtain this high hormone yield, indicating that metallopeptidases are mainly responsible for the otherwise instability of hPTH. Furthermore, the secretion process of hPTH was considerably improved by coexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein disulphide isomerase (ScPDI). Since hPTH does not contain any cystein residues, this effect may be indirect or ascribed to the chaperone activity of PDI. Contrary to the situation in S. cerevisiae, use of a protease-deficient host strain provided no additional advantage. The hormone secreted by P. pastoris was not subjected to proteolytic processing by Kex2p in the two internal tribasic sites, nor were any C-terminal truncated hPTH forms detected. However, the P. pastoris hPTH producing transformants cosecreted ubiquitin to the culture medium, possibly as a result of a stress-related response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2004.12.004DOI Listing
March 2005

Selective inhibition of c-Myb DNA-binding by RNA polymers.

BMC Biochem 2004 Nov 4;5:15. Epub 2004 Nov 4.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

Background: The transcription factor c-Myb is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and other rapidly proliferating tissues, regulating genes important for proliferation, differentiation and survival. The DNA-binding domain (DBD) of c-Myb contains three tandemly arranged imperfect repeats, designated Myb domain R1, R2 and R3. The three-dimensional structure of the DBD shows that only the second and third Myb domains are directly involved in sequence-specific DNA-binding, while the R1 repeat does not contact DNA and only marginally affects DNA-binding properties. No structural information is available on the N-terminal 30 residues. Since deletion of the N-terminal region including R1 plays an important role in oncogenic activation of c-Myb, we asked whether this region confers properties beyond DNA-binding to the neighbouring c-Myb DBD.

Results: Analysis of a putative RNA-binding function of c-Myb DBD revealed that poly(G) preferentially inhibited c-Myb DNA-binding. A strong sequence-selectivity was observed when different RNA polymers were compared. Most interesting, the poly(G) sensitivity was significantly larger for a protein containing the N-terminus and the R1-repeat than for the minimal DNA-binding domain.

Conclusion: Preferential inhibition of c-Myb DNA binding by poly(G) RNA suggests that c-Myb is able to interact with RNA in a sequence-selective manner. While R2 and R3, but not R1, are necessary for DNA-binding, R1 seems to have a distinct role in enhancing the RNA-sensitivity of c-Myb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2091-5-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533864PMC
November 2004

PML mediates IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis in myeloma by regulating TRAIL induction.

Blood 2005 Feb 30;105(3):1280-7. Epub 2004 Sep 30.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Interferon (IFN) induces expression of proapoptotic genes and has been used in the clinical treatment of multiple myeloma. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene is an IFN-induced target that encodes a tumor suppressor protein. PML protein is typically localized within discrete speckled nuclear structures termed PML nuclear bodies (NBs). Multiple myeloma cells demonstrate differential responses to IFN treatment, the mechanism of which is largely unknown. Herein, we show that growth inhibition effects of IFN-alpha in myeloma cells correlate with PML NBs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induction, whereas known IFN targets including signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1), STAT3, p38, and Daxx cannot account for these differential responses. RNAi silencing of PML blocks IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells and correspondingly down-regulates TRAIL expression. Similarly, stable expression of a dominant negative TRAIL receptor DR5 partially blocks IFN-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PML and TRAIL play important roles in IFN-induced apoptosis and identify TRAIL as a novel downstream transcriptional target of PML. Identification of PML and PML NBs as effectors of IFN responses provides insights into mechanisms by which tumor cells exhibit resistance to this class of agents and may prove useful in assessing treatment regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2004-04-1614DOI Listing
February 2005

Transactivation properties of c-Myb are critically dependent on two SUMO-1 acceptor sites that are conjugated in a PIASy enhanced manner.

Eur J Biochem 2003 Mar;270(6):1338-48

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Norway.

The transcription factor v-Myb is a potent inducer of myeloid leukemias, and its cellular homologue c-Myb plays a crucial role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Recently, Bies and coworkers (Bies, J., Markus, J. & Wolff, L. (2002) J. Biol. Chem, 277, 8999-9009) presented evidence that murine c-Myb can be sumoylated under overexpression conditions in COS7 cells when cotransfected with FLAG-tagged SUMO-1. Here we provide independent evidence that human c-Myb is also subject to SUMO-1 conjugation under more physiological conditions as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis of Jurkat cells and transfected CV-1 cells. Analysis in an in vitro conjugation system showed that modification of the two sites K503 and K527 is interdependent. A two-hybrid screening revealed that the SUMO-1 conjugase Ubc9 is one of a few major Myb-interacting proteins. The moderate basal level of sumoylation was greatly enhanced by cotransfection of PIASy, an E3 ligase for SUMO-1. The functional consequence of abolishing sumoylation was enhanced activation both of a transiently transfected reporter gene and of a resident Myb-target gene. When single and double mutants were compared, we found a clear correlation between reduction in sumoylation and increase in transcriptional activation. Enhancing sumoylation by contransfection of PIASy had a negative effect on both Myb-induced and basal level reporter activation. Furthermore, PIASy caused a shift in nuclear distribution of c-Myb towards the insoluble matrix fraction. We propose that the negative influence on transactivation properties by the negative regulatory domain region of c-Myb depends on the sumoylation sites located here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03504.xDOI Listing
March 2003

The human neuroendocrine thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor promoter is activated by the haematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb.

Biochem J 2003 Jun;372(Pt 3):851-9

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, Norway.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor playing a crucial role in the anterior pituitary where it controls the synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Its widespread presence not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues, including thymus, indicates other important, but unknown, functions. One hypothesis is that the neuropeptide TRH could play a role in the immune system. We report here that the human TRHR promoter contains 11 putative response elements for the haematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb and is highly Myb-responsive in transfection assays. Analysis of Myb binding to putative response elements revealed one preferred binding site in intron 1 of the receptor gene. Transfection studies of promoter deletions confirmed that this high-affinity element is necessary for efficient Myb-dependent transactivation of reporter plasmids in CV-1 cells. The Myb-dependent activation of the TRHR promoter was strongly suppressed by expression of a dominant negative Myb-Engrailed fusion. In line with these observations, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of rat tissues showed that the TRHR gene is expressed both in thymocytes and bone marrow. Furthermore, specific, high-affinity TRH agonist binding to cell-surface receptors was demonstrated in thymocytes and a haematopoietic cell line. Our findings imply a novel functional link between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems at the level of promoter regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20030057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1223435PMC
June 2003

Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of c-Myb DNA binding is abrogated by a point mutation in the v-myb oncogene.

J Biol Chem 2003 Feb 26;278(6):3816-24. Epub 2002 Nov 26.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Norway.

The viral Myb (v-Myb) oncoprotein of the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is an activated form of the cellular transcription factor c-Myb causing acute monoblastic leukemia in chicken. Oncogenic v-Myb alterations include N- and C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations. Whereas truncations in Myb cause loss of various protein modifications, none of the point mutations in v-Myb has been directly linked to protein modifications. Here we show that the DNA-binding domain of c-Myb can be phosphorylated on serine 116 by the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Phosphorylation of Ser(116) differentially destabilizes a subtype of c-Myb-DNA complexes. The V117D mutation of the AMV v-Myb oncoprotein abolishes phosphorylation of the adjacent Ser(116) residue. Modification of Ser(116) was also detected in live cells in c-Myb, but not in AMV v-Myb. Phosphorylation-mimicking mutants of c-Myb failed to activate the resident mim-1 gene. Our data imply that protein kinase A or a kinase with similar specificity negatively regulates c-Myb function, including collaboration with C/EBP, and that the leukemogenic AMV v-Myb version evades inactivation by a point mutation that abolishes a phosphoacceptor consensus site. This suggests a novel link between Myb, a signal transduction pathway, cooperativity with C/EBP, and a point mutation in the myb oncogene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M209404200DOI Listing
February 2003