Publications by authors named "Octavio Martinez-Manzanera"

7 Publications

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Paediatric motor phenotypes in early-onset ataxia, developmental coordination disorder, and central hypotonia.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2020 01 17;62(1):75-82. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Aims: To investigate the accuracy of phenotypic early-onset ataxia (EOA) recognition among developmental conditions, including developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and hypotonia of central nervous system origin, and the effect of scientifically validated EOA features on changing phenotypic consensus.

Method: We included 32 children (4-17y) diagnosed with EOA (n=11), DCD (n=10), and central hypotonia (n=11). Three paediatric neurologists independently assessed videotaped motor behaviour phenotypically and quantitatively (using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia [SARA]). We determined: (1) phenotypic interobserver agreement and phenotypic homogeneity (percentage of phenotypes with full consensus by all three observers according to the underlying diagnosis); (2) SARA (sub)score profiles; and (3) the effect of three scientifically validated EOA features on phenotypic consensus.

Results: Phenotypic homogeneity occurred in 8 out of 11, 2 out of 10, and 1 out of 11 patients with EOA, DCD, and central hypotonia respectively. Homogeneous phenotypic discrimination of EOA from DCD and central hypotonia occurred in 16 out of 21 and 22 out of 22 patients respectively. Inhomogeneously discriminated EOA and DCD phenotypes (5 out of 21) revealed overlapping SARA scores with different SARA subscore profiles. After phenotypic reassessment with scientifically validated EOA features, phenotypic homogeneity changed from 16 to 18 patients.

Interpretation: In contrast to complete distinction between EOA and central hypotonia, the paediatric motor phenotype did not reliably distinguish between EOA and DCD. Reassessment with scientifically validated EOA features could contribute to a higher phenotypic consensus. Early-onset ataxia (EOA) and central hypotonia motor phenotypes were reliably distinguished. EOA and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) motor phenotypes were not reliably distinguished. The EOA and DCD phenotypes have different profiles of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia.
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January 2020

Scaled Subprofile Modeling and Convolutional Neural Networks for the Identification of Parkinson's Disease in 3D Nuclear Imaging Data.

Int J Neural Syst 2019 Nov 3;29(9):1950010. Epub 2019 Mar 3.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

Over the last years convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown remarkable results in different image classification tasks, including medical imaging. One area that has been less explored with CNNs is Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is a PET technique employed to obtain a representation of brain metabolic function. In this study we employed 3D CNNs in FDG-PET brain images with the purpose of discriminating patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) from controls. We employed Scaled Subprofile Modeling using Principal Component Analysis as a preprocessing step to focus on specific brain regions and limit the number of voxels that are used as input for the CNNs, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in our data. We performed hyperparameter optimization on three CNN architectures to estimate the classification accuracy of the networks on new data. The best performance that we obtained was and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve on the test set. We believe that, with larger datasets, PD patients could be reliably distinguished from controls by FDG-PET scans alone and that this technique could be applied to more clinically challenging tasks, like the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders with similar symptoms, such as PD, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA).
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November 2019

Distinguishing Patients With a Coordination Disorder From Healthy Controls Using Local Features of Movement Trajectories During the Finger-to-Nose Test.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 06 29;66(6):1714-1722. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Assessment of coordination disorders is valuable for monitoring progression of patients, distinguishing healthy and pathological conditions, and ultimately aiding in clinical decision making, thereby offering the possibility to improve medical care or rehabilitation. A common method to assess movement disorders is by using clinical rating scales. However, rating scales depend on the evaluation and interpretation of an observer, implying that subjective phenotypic assignment precedes the application of the scales. Objective and more accurate methods are under continuous development but gold standards are still scarce. Here, we show how a method we previously developed, originally aimed at assessing dynamic balance by a probabilistic generalized linear model, can be used to assess a broader range of functional movements. In this paper, the method is applied to distinguish patients with coordination disorders from healthy controls. We focused on movements recorded during the finger-to-nose task (FNT), which is commonly used to assess coordination disorders. We also compared clinical FNT scores and model scores. Our method achieved 84% classification accuracy in distinguishing patients and healthy participants, using only two features. Future work could entail testing the reliability of the method by using additional features and other clinical tests such as finger chasing, quiet standing, and/or usage of tracking devices such as depth cameras or force plates.
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June 2019

Machine learning in the integration of simple variables for identifying patients with myocardial ischemia.

J Nucl Cardiol 2020 02 22;27(1):147-155. Epub 2018 May 22.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: A significant number of variables are obtained when characterizing patients suspected with myocardial ischemia or at risk of MACE. Guidelines typically use a handful of them to support further workup or therapeutic decisions. However, it is likely that the numerous available predictors maintain intrinsic complex interrelations. Machine learning (ML) offers the possibility to elucidate complex patterns within data to optimize individual patient classification. We evaluated the feasibility and performance of ML in utilizing simple accessible clinical and functional variables for the identification of patients with ischemia or an elevated risk of MACE as determined through quantitative PET myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR).

Methods: 1,234 patients referred to Nitrogen-13 ammonia PET were analyzed. Demographic (4), clinical (8), and functional variables (9) were retrieved and input into a cross-validated ML workflow consisting of feature selection and modeling. Two PET-defined outcome variables were operationalized: (1) any myocardial ischemia (regional MPR < 2.0) and (2) an elevated risk of MACE (global MPR < 2.0). ROC curves were used to evaluate ML performance.

Results: 16 features were included for boosted ensemble ML. ML achieved an AUC of 0.72 and 0.71 in identifying patients with myocardial ischemia and with an elevated risk of MACE, respectively. ML performance was superior to logistic regression when the latter used the ESC guidelines risk models variables for both PET-defined labels (P < .001 and P = .01, respectively).

Conclusions: ML is feasible and applicable in the evaluation and utilization of simple and accessible predictors for the identification of patients who will present myocardial ischemia and an elevated risk of MACE in quantitative PET imaging.
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February 2020

Automatic classification of gait in children with early-onset ataxia or developmental coordination disorder and controls using inertial sensors.

Gait Posture 2017 02 2;52:287-292. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.

Early-Onset Ataxia (EOA) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two conditions that affect coordination in children. Phenotypic identification of impaired coordination plays an important role in their diagnosis. Gait is one of the tests included in rating scales that can be used to assess motor coordination. A practical problem is that the resemblance between EOA and DCD symptoms can hamper their diagnosis. In this study we employed inertial sensors and a supervised classifier to obtain an automatic classification of the condition of participants. Data from shank and waist mounted inertial measurement units were used to extract features during gait in children diagnosed with EOA or DCD and age-matched controls. We defined a set of features from the recorded signals and we obtained the optimal features for classification using a backward sequential approach. We correctly classified 80.0%, 85.7%, and 70.0% of the control, DCD and EOA children, respectively. Overall, the automatic classifier correctly classified 78.4% of the participants, which is slightly better than the phenotypic assessment of gait by two pediatric neurologists (73.0%). These results demonstrate that automatic classification employing signals from inertial sensors obtained during gait maybe used as a support tool in the differential diagnosis of EOA and DCD. Furthermore, future extension of the classifier's test domains may help to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of pediatric coordination impairment. In this sense, this study may provide a first step towards incorporating a clinically objective and viable biomarker for identification of EOA and DCD.
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February 2017

Tremor Detection Using Parametric and Non-Parametric Spectral Estimation Methods: A Comparison with Clinical Assessment.

PLoS One 2016 3;11(6):e0156822. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

In the clinic, tremor is diagnosed during a time-limited process in which patients are observed and the characteristics of tremor are visually assessed. For some tremor disorders, a more detailed analysis of these characteristics is needed. Accelerometry and electromyography can be used to obtain a better insight into tremor. Typically, routine clinical assessment of accelerometry and electromyography data involves visual inspection by clinicians and occasionally computational analysis to obtain objective characteristics of tremor. However, for some tremor disorders these characteristics may be different during daily activity. This variability in presentation between the clinic and daily life makes a differential diagnosis more difficult. A long-term recording of tremor by accelerometry and/or electromyography in the home environment could help to give a better insight into the tremor disorder. However, an evaluation of such recordings using routine clinical standards would take too much time. We evaluated a range of techniques that automatically detect tremor segments in accelerometer data, as accelerometer data is more easily obtained in the home environment than electromyography data. Time can be saved if clinicians only have to evaluate the tremor characteristics of segments that have been automatically detected in longer daily activity recordings. We tested four non-parametric methods and five parametric methods on clinical accelerometer data from 14 patients with different tremor disorders. The consensus between two clinicians regarding the presence or absence of tremor on 3943 segments of accelerometer data was employed as reference. The nine methods were tested against this reference to identify their optimal parameters. Non-parametric methods generally performed better than parametric methods on our dataset when optimal parameters were used. However, one parametric method, employing the high frequency content of the tremor bandwidth under consideration (High Freq) performed similarly to non-parametric methods, but had the highest recall values, suggesting that this method could be employed for automatic tremor detection.
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August 2017