Publications by authors named "Obasanjo Afolabi Bolarinwa"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Health trends, inequalities and opportunities in South Africa's provinces, 1990-2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Over the last 30 years, South Africa has experienced four 'colliding epidemics' of HIV and tuberculosis, chronic illness and mental health, injury and violence, and maternal, neonatal, and child mortality, which have had substantial effects on health and well-being. Using data from the 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2019), we evaluated national and provincial health trends and progress towards important Sustainable Development Goal targets from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: We analysed GBD 2019 estimates of mortality, non-fatal health loss, summary health measures and risk factor burden, comparing trends over 1990-2007 and 2007-2019. Additionally, we decomposed changes in life expectancy by cause of death and assessed healthcare system performance.

Results: Across the nine provinces, inequalities in mortality and life expectancy increased over 1990-2007, largely due to differences in HIV/AIDS, then decreased over 2007-2019. Demographic change and increases in non-communicable diseases nearly doubled the number of years lived with disability between 1990 and 2019. From 1990 to 2019, risk factor burdens generally shifted from communicable and nutritional disease risks to non-communicable disease and injury risks; unsafe sex remained the top risk factor. Despite widespread improvements in healthcare system performance, the greatest gains were generally in economically advantaged provinces.

Conclusions: Reductions in HIV/AIDS and related conditions have led to improved health since 2007, though most provinces still lag in key areas. To achieve health targets, provincial governments should enhance health investments and exchange of knowledge, resources and best practices alongside populations that have been left behind, especially following the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2021-217480DOI Listing
January 2022

Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years for 29 Cancer Groups From 2010 to 2019: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Dec 30. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq.

Importance: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden.

Objective: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019.

Evidence Review: The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Findings: In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8719276PMC
December 2021

Spatial distribution and factors associated with modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: A multilevel analysis.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(12):e0258844. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

School of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Evidence suggests that in countries with high fertility and fecundity rates, such as Nigeria, the promotion of modern contraceptive use prevents approximately 32% and 10% of maternal and child mortality, respectively. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of modern contraceptive use and its predictors among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional analysis of population-based data involving 24,281 women of reproductive age in Nigeria. The study adopted both multilevel and spatial analyses to identify the predictors of modern contraceptive use and its spatial clustering among women in Nigeria.

Results: Modern contraceptive use among the study population in Nigeria ranged from 0% to 75%, with regional variations. The spatial analysis showed that areas with a low proportion of modern contraceptive use were Sokoto, Yobe, Borno, Katsina, Zamfara, Kebbi, Niger, Taraba and Delta. Areas with a high proportion of modern contraceptive use were Lagos, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Federal capital territory, Plateau, Adamawa, Imo, and Bayelsa. The multilevel analysis revealed that at the individual level, women with secondary/higher education, women from the Yoruba ethnic group, those who had four children and above, and those exposed to mass media had higher odds of using modern contraceptives. On the other hand, women who were 35 years and above, those who were married, and women who were practicing Islam were less likely to use modern contraceptives. At the household/community level, women from the richest households, those residing in communities with medium knowledge of modern contraceptive methods, and women residing in communities with a high literacy level were more likely to use modern contraceptives.

Conclusion: There were major variations in the use of modern contraception across various regions in Nigeria. As a result, areas with low contraceptive rates should be given the most deserving attention by promoting contraceptive education and use as well as considering significant factors at the individual and household/community levels.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258844PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8654187PMC
January 2022

Health facility delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: Does age at first birth matter?

PLoS One 2021 4;16(11):e0259250. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

School of Public Health University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: High maternal mortality ratio in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been linked to inadequate medical care for pregnant women due to limited health facility delivery utilization. Thus, this study, examined the association between age at first childbirth and health facility delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

Methods: The study used the most recent secondary dataset from Nigeria's Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) conducted in 2018. Only women aged15-49 were considered for the study (N = 34,193). Bi-variate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between age at first birth and place of delivery. The results were presented as crude odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

Results: The results showed that the prevalence of health facility deliveries was 41% in Nigeria. Women who had their first birth below age 20 [aOR = 0.82; 95%(CI = 0.74-0.90)] were less likely to give birth at health facilities compared to those who had their first birth at age 20 and above.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest the need to design interventions that will encourage women of reproductive age in Nigeria who are younger than 20 years to give birth in health facilities to avoid the risks of maternal complications associated with home delivery. Such interventions should include male involvement in antenatal care visits and the education of both partners and young women on the importance of health facility delivery.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259250PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8568178PMC
December 2021

Factors associated with access to condoms and sources of condoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa.

Arch Public Health 2021 Oct 27;79(1):186. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Evidence has shown that the prescribed lockdown and physical distancing due to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have made accessing essential health care services much more difficult in low-and middle-income countries. Access to contraception is an essential service and should not be denied, even in a global crisis, because of its associated health benefits. Therefore, it is important to maintain timely access to contraception without unnecessary barriers. Hence, this study examines the factors contributing to limited access to condoms and sources of condoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa.

Methods: This study used the National Income Dynamics Study-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) wave 1 survey dataset. The NIDS-CRAM is a nationally representative survey of the National Income Dynamics Survey (NIDS) conducted via telephone interview during COVID-19 in the year 2020. This is the first secondary dataset on COVID-19 conducted by NIDS during pandemic. A total of 5304 respondents were included in the study. Data were analysed using frequencies distribution percentages, chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: Almost one-quarter (22.40%) of South Africans could not access condoms, and every 7 in 10 South Africans preferred public source of condoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who were from other population groups [AOR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.19-0.74] and those who were in the third wealth quintile [AOR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.38-0.93] had lower odds of having access to condoms while those respondents who were aged 25-34 [AOR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.83] and those with a secondary level of education and above [AOR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.08-0.71] were less likely to prefer public source of condom.

Conclusions: This study concludes that there was limited access to condoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and that the preferred source of condoms was very skewed to public sources in South Africa. Strategic interventions such as community distribution of free condoms to avert obstruction of condom access during the COVID-19 pandemic or any future pandemics should be adopted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00701-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8548264PMC
October 2021

Multi-Level Analysis and Spatial Interpolation of Distributions and Predictors of Childhood Diarrhea in Nigeria.

Environ Health Insights 2021 19;15:11786302211045286. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

School of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Diarrhea is one of the health problems contributing to Nigeria's under-5 mortality rate, ranked as the eighth highest globally. As our search is concerned, there is limited evidence on the spatial distribution of childhood diarrhea in Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the spatial distribution and predictors of diarrhea among under-5 children in Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Using data from the child's recode file of the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, a sample of 28 583 children of women of reproductive age was considered as the sample size for this study. The outcome variable used in this study was childhood diarrhea. We employed both multilevel and spatial analyses to ascertain the factors associated with childhood diarrhea as well as its spatial clustering.

Results: The regional distribution of the prevalence of diarrhea among children in Nigeria ranged from 0% to 62%. The hotspots for childhood diarrhea were in Yobe, Bauchi, Gombe, Kano, Sokoto, Imo, and Taraba. The likelihood of a child having diarrhea in Nigeria was higher among women whose partners have secondary education and above [aOR = 1.18; 95%CI = 1.05-1.33], women currently working [aOR = 1.24; 95%CI = 1.13-1.35], women practicing Islam [aOR = 1.24; 95%CI = 1.04-1.46], and women who were exposed to mass media [aOR = 1.29; 95%CI = 1.18-1.42], compared to women whose partners had no formal education, women not currently working, women practicing Christianity, and those who were not exposed to mass media. Children born to mothers who reside in North East [aOR = 2.55; 95%CI = 2.10-3.10], and communities with medium socioeconomic status [aOR = 1.44; 95%CI = 1.09-1.91] were more likely to experience diarrhea compared to those born to mothers residing in the North Central and in communities with low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: High proportions of childhood diarrhea among under-5 children in Nigeria were located in Yobe, Bauchi, Gombe, Kano, Sokoto, Imo, and Taraba. Policies and interventions that seek to reduce or eliminate diarrhea diseases among under-5 children in Nigeria should take a keen interest in the factors identified as predictors of childhood diarrhea in this study as this will help in achieving the aims of WASH, ORT corners, and SDG 3 by the year 2030.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11786302211045286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8529312PMC
October 2021

Spatial Patterns and Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Antenatal Care Visits in Nigeria: Insight from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Oct 18;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar P.O. Box 196, Ethiopia.

Despite global progress towards antenatal care (ANC) uptake, ANC utilization in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, such as Nigeria, is low. Although several studies have identified the determinants and factors associated with ANC services utilization in Nigeria, there is a gap in knowledge about the spatial patterns in ANC use. Therefore, this study aims to map the spatial distribution and factors associated with ANC visits in Nigeria. A cross-sectional dataset was obtained from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 20,003 women aged 15-49 were considered in this study. Both spatial and multilevel analyses were carried out. The results were presented in spatial maps and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Hot spot areas (high proportion of an incomplete ANC visit) were located in Sokoto, Kebbi, Zamfara, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Bauchi, Niger, Borno, Gombe, and Bayelsa. Regional disparities in incomplete ANC visits were found in this study. Maternal age, maternal education, partner's level of education, working status, ethnicity, parity, religion, exposure to media, place of residence, wealth index, region, and community literacy level were factors associated with incomplete ANC. There is a need to consider these factors in the design and strengthening of existing interventions (e.g., mini-clinics) aimed at increasing ANC visits to help attain maternal health-related Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The regional disparities in incomplete ANC visits also need to be considered by encouraging pregnant women in hotspot areas to attend ANC visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535197PMC
October 2021

Maternal mental health in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic: a neglected global health issue.

Epidemiol Health 2021 6;43:e2021078. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Education, Direction, Empowerment, and Nurturing (EDEN) Foundation, Abuja, Nigeria.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly impacted mental health and well-being around the globe. Public health measures to control the virus's rapid spread, such as physical distancing, social isolation, lockdown, restricted movements, and quarantine, caused fear and panic in the general population. Although pandemic-related stressors have been reported, changes that occur during the perinatal period compounded by those made to obstetric care guidelines may put pregnant and postpartum mothers at an increased risk of poor mental health. While an abundance of research has examined the impact of the pandemic on maternal mental health in developed nations such as Europe and America, very few studies have done so in the African continent. Considering that Africa has prominently weak health systems, poor mental health policies and infrastructure, high poverty rates, and unreliable maternal care, the pandemic is expected to have dire consequences on maternal mental health in the region. As such, multipronged mental health interventions and strategies that consider the heterogeneity within and between African regions must be developed. Doing so will close existing and widening global health disparities to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021078DOI Listing
January 2022

Prevalence and predictors of long-acting reversible contraceptive use among sexually active women in 26 sub-Saharan African countries.

Int Health 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

John's Hopkins Centre for Communications Programs, 111 Market Place Suite 310 Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are associated with high efficacy rates and continuity of use. Based on the foregoing, we sought to examine the prevalence and factors associated with LARC use among sexually active women in 26 countries in sub-Saharan Africa(SSA).

Methods: Secondary data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 26 countries in SSA between January 2010 and December 2019 were pooled and analysed. A total of 56 067 sexually active women 15-49 y of age met the inclusion criteria. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the association between selected factors and the use of LARCs in SSA. Results were presented as crude odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with statistical precision at <0.05.

Results: The prevalence of LARC use was 21.73%, ranging from 1.94% in Namibia to 54.96% in Benin. Sexually active women with secondary or higher education (aOR 1.19 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08 to 1.32]), those cohabiting (aOR 1.25 [95% CI 1.06 to 1.47]) and those with four or more children (aOR 2.22 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.78]) were more likely to use LARCs compared with those without education, never married and with no biological child.

Conclusions: The use of LARCs in the 26 countries in SSA was relatively low. Hence, the identified contributory factors of LARC use should be tackled with appropriate interventions. These include continuous campaigns on the efficacy of LARCs in reducing unintended pregnancy, maternal mortality and morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihab053DOI Listing
August 2021

When it is available, will we take it? Social media users' perception of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 2;38:230. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health threat facing mankind. There is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19, and many vaccine candidates are currently under clinical trials. This study aimed to understand the perception of social media users regarding a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria.

Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional survey among social media users in Nigeria in August 2020 using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire includes sections on the demographic characteristics of the respondents and their perception regarding a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 517 respondents completed and returned the informed consent along with the questionnaire electronically. Data were coded and abstracted into Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and loaded into the STATA 14 software for final analysis.

Results: the results showed that more than half of the respondents were male 294 (56.9%). Most of the respondents 385 (74.5%) intend to take the COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available. Among the 132 respondents that would not take the COVID-19 vaccine, the major reason for non-acceptance was unreliability of the clinical trials 49 (37.1%), followed by the belief that their immune system is sufficient to combat the virus 36 (27.3%). We found a significant association between the age of the respondents and the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance (P-value=0.00) as well as geographical location and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance (P-value=0.02).

Conclusion: it was observed that most of the respondents were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Our findings also reiterate the need to reassure the public the benefits an effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine can reap for public health. There is a need for national health authorities in Nigeria to ensure public trust is earned and all communities, including the marginalized populations, are properly engaged to ensure an optimal COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2021.38.230.27325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140724PMC
June 2021

Mapping Evidence of Impacts of COVID-19 Outbreak on Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Scoping Review.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa.

Introduction: The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly transformed the pre-existing worldwide sexual and reproductive health environment. The provision and supply of contraceptives, and a wide variety of sexual health, new-born, and maternal health services have been seriously affected. Thus, this scoping review mapped the available evidence on the impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on sexual and reproductive health.

Methods: Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework guided this scoping review. A search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) chart and PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The McMaster critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Thematic analyses were conducted using NVivo version 12.

Results: Three studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning services, six studies reported on maternal and child services and eleven studies reported on sexual health (sexual behavior). Limited access to family planning use, reduction in multiple sexual partnership, decreased transactional sex, and maternal and child services disruption were some impacts reported in the included studies.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the impacts of COVID-19 on family planning access, multiple sexual partnership, transactional sex, and disruption of maternal and child health services. Interventions that will consider the immediate availability of and access to all sexual and reproductive health services should be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068100PMC
April 2021

Psychosocial factors of stigma and relationship to healthcare services among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Kano state, Nigeria.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 13;7(4):e06687. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Global Health Focus, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Stigma associated with HIV shapes all aspect of prevention and treatment, yet there are limited data on how HIV-infected adolescents are affected by stigma. Stigma increases risk of psychological problems among HIV-infected individuals which can affect access to treatment and social support services. This study aimed at identifying psychosocial factors of stigma and relationship to healthcare services among adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Gwale Local Government Area (LGA) of Kano state, Nigeria.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional survey was carried out from January 26 to February 28, 2020 across six health facilities providing ART service in Gwale local government. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. ART clients attending clinics were interviewed following an informed consent. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data and results are presented using simple frequency tables and percentages. Upon completion of univariate analysis, the data was analyzed at the bivariate level using chi-square test to determine associations between different variables.

Results: One hundred and eight (108) clients voluntarily participated in the study of which 54 (50%) are male respondents and 54 (50%) are female respondents. Under the internalized stigma item, 67% of HIV-infected adolescents who have lost their father or mother to AIDS reported feeling less valuable than other children who are not infected with HIV. Under the perceived stigma items, 86% of participants who have lost their father or mother to AIDS reported to have excluded themselves from health services and social activities in the last twelve months due to fear of being insulted. Under the experienced stigma items, 62% of participants who have lost their father or mother to AIDS reported to have been avoided by friends and colleagues in the last twelve months.

Conclusion: The study revealed that loss of intimate relation (father or mother) to AIDS and equal treatment with other HIV negative siblings were found to be significantly associated with the three forms of stigma (internalized stigma, perceived stigma, and experienced stigma) including access to healthcare services. There is a need for social and psychological support programs among HIV-infected adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065261PMC
April 2021

Knowledge, attitude, perception, and preventative practices towards COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249853. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard Campus, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Knowledge, attitudes, perception, and preventative practices regarding coronavirus- 2019 (COVID-19) are crucial in its prevention and control. Several studies have noted that the majority of people in sub-Saharan African are noncompliant with proposed health and safety measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and respective country health departments. In most sub-Saharan African countries, noncompliance is attributable to ignorance and misinformation, thereby raising questions about people's knowledge, attitudes, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 in these settings. This situation is particularly of concern for governments and public health experts. Thus, this scoping review is aimed at mapping evidence on the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and preventive practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: Systematic searches of relevant articles were performed using databases such as the EBSCOhost, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, the WHO library and grey literature. Arksey and O'Malley's framework guided the study. The risk of bias for included primary studies was assessed using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). NVIVO version 10 was used to analyse the data and a thematic content analysis was used to present the review's narrative account.

Results: A total of 3037 eligible studies were identified after the database search. Only 28 studies met the inclusion criteria after full article screening and were included for data extraction. Studies included populations from the following SSA countries: Ethiopia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda, Rwanda, Ghana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and Sierra Leone. All the included studies showed evidence of knowledge related to COVID-19. Eleven studies showed that participants had a positive attitude towards COVID-19, and fifteen studies showed that participants had good practices towards COVID-19.

Conclusions: Most of the participants had adequate knowledge related to COVID-19. Despite adequate knowledge, the attitude was not always positive, thereby necessitating further education to convey the importance of forming a positive attitude and continuous preventive practice towards reducing contraction and transmission of COVID-19.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249853PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055009PMC
May 2021

Socio-demographic correlate of knowledge and practice toward COVID-19 among people living in Mosul-Iraq: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 31;16(3):e0249310. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic, many countries' authorities, including the Iraqi authorities, started responding and taking action to control the spread of the pandemic. The public's knowledge and practices play an important role in curbing the spreading of the virus by following the health guidelines. This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic correlate of knowledge and practices of Iraqi living in Mosul-Iraq towards COVID-19 during its rapid rise. A cross-sectional online survey of 909 participants was conducted among a sample of the Mosul-Iraq population between 20th June to 1st July 2020. The survey included three parts: 1) socio-demographic characteristics, 2) participants' knowledge, 3) participants' practices. T-test, ANOVA, chi-square, and binary logistic regression were used. A p-value less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) was considered statistically significant. The results showed a knowledge and practice mean score of (12.91±1.67) and (21.56± 2.92) with cumulative knowledge and practice of 86% and 76% respectively towards COVID-19. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, marital status, gender, level of education and employment were statistically related with a higher mean score of knowledge and practice towards the virus as P<0.05. We concluded that the majority of the respondents demonstrate a high level of knowledge and practices towards COVID-19 except for respondents with socio-demographic characteristics such as those who were younger, male respondents, those with lower education and those unemployed as such campaigns that will increase the knowledge and encourage adequate preventive practice towards COVID-19 should be targeted towards this group.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249310PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011757PMC
April 2021

Socio-demographic predictors of adherence to 2019 coronavirus prescribed recommendations and lockdown psychological impacts: Perspectives of Nigerian social media users.

J Public Health Res 2020 Oct 25;9(4):1864. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a highly infectious viral disease that has spread to over one hundred and eight countries, including Nigeria. Governments across the globe have been implementing preventive measures towards curbing the spread and impact of the virus. These measures have continued to interfere with the general lifestyle of the people. Hence, this study was aimed at examining the socio-demographic predictors of adherence to prescribed recommendations and the psychological impacts of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown among Nigerian social media users. This research implemented a cross-sectional survey using an online Google-based questionnaire to elicit required information from potential respondents via social media channels such as WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, Telegram and Facebook. An external link to the questionnaire was shared among Nigerian social media users between 1 and 31 April 2020, and a total of 1,131 respondents participated in the survey. The explanatory and outcome variables were displayed by frequency and percentage distribution while chi-square analysis was used to show the relationship between the explanatory and outcome variables at 5% level of significant. The study showed that 99% of the respondents reported to have been following some of the prescribed recommendations, however, only 40.4% of the respondents followed all the recommendations. More than three fifths (63.4%) of the respondents also reported having experienced stressed during the lockdown. Only respondents' professional background (p<0.05) was a predictor of psychological impact of lockdown, other selected socio-demographic characteristics were not predictors of the outcome variables as p>0.05 We concluded that majority of Nigerian social media users were complying to the prescribed recommendations and that younger age group, female respondents and respondents who are more educated had higher proportion of psychological impacts of lockdown, while the medical/scientific background is the only socio-demographic predictor of psychological impacts of COVID-19 lockdown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2020.1864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706366PMC
October 2020

Knowledge and factors influencing long-acting reversible contraceptives use among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

Gates Open Res 2019 20;3. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 1000009, Nigeria.

Approximately 48% of unintended pregnancies occur as a result of contraceptives failure around the world, which is mostly due to incorrect use, poor adherence, and/or technology failure. Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods have been developed to close this gap. The main aim of this study is to identify factors associated with the use of LARCs among women of reproductive age and to examine the relationship between knowledge of LARCs and the current use of LARCs in Nigeria. This study assessed the PMA2020 methodology and secondary dataset using female datasets from PMA 2016 (Round 3) exercise. The survey was conducted out in seven states of Nigeria. The target population for this study was women of reproductive age (15-49 years) currently using contraception prior to the survey. The sample size of women that met the inclusion criteria was 1927. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution, chi-square, and logistic regression at a 5% level of significance. The results showed that 21.0% of women were using traditional methods. 14.8% of the sampled women were using LARCs methods. Findings further showed that at both levels of analyses, there is a significant relationship (P<0.05 and P=0.00 for binary and logistic regression, respectively) between knowledge of LARCs and the use of LARCs. This means that knowledge of LARCs and socio-demographic variables among women of reproductive age in Nigeria can influence the use of LARCs. We concluded in this study that 14.8% of women using contraception were using LARCs. Additionally, the level of education, age of women, household wealth, and the number of living children were significantly associated with using LARCs in Nigeria. Also, when discussing contraception with women, health care practitioners should discuss the risks and benefits of LARCs with women of reproductive age and recommend them as a first-line method.
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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.12902.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447856PMC
May 2020
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