Publications by authors named "O O Ugwu"

19 Publications

Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Patients on Long Term Treatment in a Tertiary Health Institution in Jos Nigeria.

Int J Prev Med 2022 5;13:46. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.

Background: The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is on the increase globally and found to be more pronounced among those with chronic illnesses even in the face of insufficient scientific evidence to support its efficacy. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the level of use of CAM and its predictors among patients on long term care in tertiary health institution.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 176 patients accessing treatment for chronic medical conditions in Jos University Teaching Hospital using quantitative method of data collection. Epi Info statistical software version 7 was used for data analysis and a value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The median age of respondents was 50 (IQR 30-84) years with 83 (47.2%) being 51 years and above. Utilization of CAM was reported among 72 (40.9%) with herbal preparation ranking highest among 56 (77.8%) the respondents. Absence of side effects (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.6918-3.2135) and consistency with culture (AOR = 4.46; 95% CI = 1.4695-6.1851) were identified predictors of CAM use.

Conclusions: This study has demonstrated a relatively high level of CAM use with perceived absence of side effects, peer influence, and consistency with culture predicting its use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_362_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9188877PMC
April 2022

Micronutrient and Trace Element Levels in Serum of Women With Uterine Fibroids in Lagos.

Cureus 2021 Oct 10;13(10):e18638. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital/College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NGA.

Background: Uterine fibroids significantly affect the quality of life of reproductive-age women. The socioeconomic cost and psychological strain on patients cannot be overemphasized. The role of diet and micronutrients on the onset and development of uterine fibroids has come under review in recent times. This study assessed the levels of some micronutrients and trace elements in the serum of women with uterine fibroids.

Methods: Eighty-eight women were recruited from the Gynecology Outpatient Clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 44 with uterine fibroids and 44 women without uterine fibroids. Blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum levels of selected micronutrients (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and trace elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus). Pelvic ultrasonography was performed on all study participants.

Results: Women with uterine fibroids had statistically significant lower serum levels of vitamin C (1.20 ± 0.59 vs 1.62 ± 1.75 mg/dl; p = 0.01), vitamin D (34.23 ±10.67 vs 37.06 ±11.46 ng/ml; p = 0.04), and calcium (2.27 ± 0.19 vs 2.32 ± 0.09 mmol/L; p = 0.02) compared with women without uterine fibroids. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins A (39.63 ± 15.71 vs 40.09 ±15.26 μ/dl; p = 0.91), vitamin E (5.44 ± 4.65 vs 5.26 ± 4.62 µg/mL; p = 0.87), magnesium (0.89 ± 0.09 vs 0.89 ± 0.08 mmol/L; p = 0.78), and phosphorus (1.29 ± 0.38 vs 1.19 ± 0.17 mmol/L; p = 0.14) in women with uterine fibroids compared to those without uterine fibroids.

Conclusion: This study showed lower serum levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, and calcium in women with uterine fibroids when compared to women without uterine fibroids. It is possible that these micronutrients and trace elements may play a role in the etiopathogenesis, progression, and/or proliferation of uterine fibroids. However, whether the findings of low serum levels of these elements are a cause or an effect of uterine fibroid, is yet to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576852PMC
October 2021

Disclosure of Sexual Orientation and its Predictors among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Contemporary African Setting.

Indian J Community Med 2021 Jul-Sep;46(3):541-545. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Human Anatomy, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.

Background: Sexual orientation disclosure has been reported to promote good peer support, improve psychological health, as well as access to STIs and HIV prevention services. Hence, this study sought to assess the level of disclosure sexual orientation and its predictors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Plateau state Nigeria.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study design conducted between October 2018 and December 2019 among 114 HIV-infected MSM through respondent driven sampling technique. Epi Info version 7 was used for the data analysis with adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) used as point and interval estimates on the logistic regression model and < 0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.0 ± 5.4 years with disclosure of sexual orientation to nonpartner being reported by 45 (39.5%). Positive family history of same sex practice was found to significantly predict self disclosure of sexual orientation (adjusted odds ratio: 3.30; 95% CI: 1.2356-8.8038; = 0.017).

Conclusions: This study has revealed a low level of disclosure of sexual orientation among HIV-positive MSM in Plateau state with a positive family history of same sex involvement as its predictor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_35_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8575202PMC
October 2021

Study of the Antimalarial Activity of the Leaf Extracts and Fractions of and and Their HPLC Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 17;2021:5218294. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu, Nigeria.

In the present study, the antimalarial activity of the extracts and fractions of the leaves of and as well as their phytochemical compositions were examined. Each of the extracts of the plants was successively fractionated to obtain hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water fractions. The extracts and fractions were tested against in both curative and suppressive antimalarial mouse models. Their major phytochemical composition was studied by the standard chemical tests and HPLC analysis. The extracts and fractions of and demonstrated significant ( < 0.05) maximal plasmodial inhibition as 52.16 ± 2.77% and 57.10 ± 1.98%, respectively, and chemosuppression of parasitemia as 64.01 ± 0.08% and 71.99 ± 0.06%, respectively. The major secondary metabolites identified in the plants include alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. It was concluded that and possess promising antimalarial activity and they are potential sources of new lead compounds against malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5218294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313334PMC
July 2021

Retention in HIV care and its predictors among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Plateau state, North Central Nigeria.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1596-1601. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Anatomy, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Background: Retention in HIV care is the constancy of engagement in HIV treatment, care and support services which is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the infection as well as halting the development of resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In most African countries, Nigeria inclusive, men who have sex with men (MSM) are major contributors to HIV/AIDS burden. HIV-positive MSM are generally understudied and mostly underserved due to social, political and legislation factors resulting in limited characterization and documentation of the existing health disparities particularly with regards to retention in HIV care. It was against this backdrop that we conducted this study to assess the level of retention in HIV care and its predictors among MSM linked to HIV care.

Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 114 HIV-positive MSM in 2019 using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using version 7 of Epi Info statistical software version 7 and a probability value of less than 0.05 used as the cut-off for drawing statistically significant conclusion.

Results: The average age in years of the respondents was 26.0 ± 5.4 while 43 (37.7%) of the participants were adequately retained in HIV care. Adequate retention in HIV care was found to be predicted by awareness of regular male partner's HIV status (AOR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.924-65.167) and financial difficulty (AOR = 0.1; 95% CI = 0.022-0.840).

Conclusions: A suboptimal level of retention in HIV care was demonstrated in the study with awareness of male partner's HIV status and financial buoyancy as its main predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1748_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144791PMC
April 2021
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