Publications by authors named "O Meyer"

781 Publications

Prediction of Eye Colour in Scandinavians Using the EyeColour 11 (EC11) SNP Set.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 27;12(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Description of a perpetrator's eye colour can be an important investigative lead in a forensic case with no apparent suspects. Herein, we present 11 SNPs (Eye Colour 11-EC11) that are important for eye colour prediction and eye colour prediction models for a two-category reporting system (blue and brown) and a three-category system (blue, intermediate, and brown). The EC11 SNPs were carefully selected from 44 pigmentary variants in seven genes previously found to be associated with eye colours in 757 Europeans (Danes, Swedes, and Italians). Mathematical models using three different reporting systems: a quantitative system (PIE-score), a two-category system (blue and brown), and a three-category system (blue, intermediate, brown) were used to rank the variants. SNPs with a sufficient mean variable importance (above 0.3%) were selected for EC11. Eye colour prediction models using the EC11 SNPs were developed using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) in an independent data set of 523 Norwegian individuals. Performance of the EC11 models for the two- and three-category system was compared with models based on the IrisPlex SNPs and the most important eye colour locus, rs12913832. We also compared model performances with the IrisPlex online tool (IrisPlex Web). The EC11 eye colour prediction models performed slightly better than the IrisPlex and rs12913832 models in all reporting systems and better than the IrisPlex Web in the three-category system. Three important points to consider prior to the implementation of eye colour prediction in a forensic genetic setting are discussed: (1) the reference population, (2) the SNP set, and (3) the reporting strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12060821DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of Skin Pigmentation and Genetic Ancestry in Three Subpopulations from Pakistan: Punjabi, Pashtun, and Baloch.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 13;12(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Skin pigmentation is one of the most prominent and variable phenotypes in humans. We compared the alleles of 163 SNPs and indels from the Human Pigmentation (HuPi) AmpliSeq™ Custom panel, and biogeographic ancestry with the quantitative skin pigmentation levels on the upper arm, lower arm, and forehead of 299 Pakistani individuals from three subpopulations: Baloch, Pashtun, and Punjabi. The biogeographic ancestry of each individual was estimated using the Precision ID Ancestry Panel. All individuals were mainly of mixed South-Central Asian and European ancestry. However, the Baloch individuals also had an average proportion of Sub-Saharan African ancestry of approximately 10%, whereas it was <1% in the Punjabi and Pashtun individuals. The pairwise genetic distances between the Pashtun, Punjabi, and Baloch subpopulations based on the ancestry markers were statistically significantly different. Individuals from the Pashtun subpopulation had statistically significantly lower skin pigmentation than individuals from the Punjabi and Baloch subpopulations ( < 0.05). The proportions of European and Sub-Saharan African ancestry and five SNPs (rs1042602, rs10831496, rs1426654, rs16891982, and rs12913832) were statistically significantly associated with skin pigmentation at either the upper arm, lower arm or forehead in the Pakistani population after correction for multiple testing ( < 10). A model based on four of these SNPs (rs1426654, rs1042602, rs16891982, and rs12913832) explained 33% of the upper arm skin pigmentation. The four SNPs and the proportions of European and Sub-Saharan African ancestry explained 37% of the upper arm skin pigmentation. Our results indicate that the four likely causative SNPs, rs1426654, rs1042602, rs16891982, and rs12913832 located in and respectively, are essential for skin color variation in the admixed Pakistani subpopulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12050733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152963PMC
May 2021

Lifecourse socioeconomic changes and late-life cognition in a cohort of U.S.-born and U.S. immigrants: findings from the KHANDLE study.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 13;21(1):920. Epub 2021 May 13.

Biomedical Sciences 1C, University of California Davis School of Medicine, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Background: Low socioeconomic status (SES) in early and late life has been associated with lower late-life cognition. Less is known about how changes in SES from childhood to late life are associated with late-life cognition, especially among diverse populations of older adults.

Methods: In a multi-ethnic sample (n = 1353) of older adults, we used linear regression to test associations of change in comprehensive measures of SES (financial, cultural, and social domains) from childhood to late life with semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive function. We tested whether the association between SES trajectory and late-life cognition differed by populations who resided in the U.S. during childhood or immigrated to the U.S. as adults.

Results: Participants with low childhood/high late-life financial capital had better semantic memory (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) versus those with low financial capital in both childhood and late life, regardless of childhood residence. We observed a significant interaction in the association of verbal episodic memory and cultural capital by childhood residence (p = 0.08). Participants with a foreign childhood residence had higher verbal episodic memory if they had low childhood/high late-life cultural capital (β = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.63), but lower verbal episodic memory if they had high childhood/low late-life cultural capital (β = - 0.40; 95% CI: - 0.94, 0.13). Having high lifecourse social capital was associated with better verbal episodic memory scores among those with a U.S. childhood (β = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.55), but lower verbal episodic memory among those with a foreign childhood (β = - 0.10; 95% CI: - 0.51, 0.31).

Conclusions: High financial and cultural capital in late life is associated with better cognition, regardless of early childhood SES or childhood residence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10976-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120825PMC
May 2021

Differences in COVID-19 Vaccine Concerns Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: The COMPASS Survey.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Asian American Research Center on Health (ARCH), UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Understanding concerns for receiving COVID-19 vaccines is key to ensuring appropriately tailored health communications to increase vaccine uptake. However, limited data exists about vaccine concerns among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI).

Methods: Data from the COVID-19 Effects on the Mental and Physical Health of AAPI Survey Study (COMPASS), a cross-sectional, national survey for AAPI adults in the U.S. were used (N=1,646). Descriptive statistics were used to assess sample characteristics including proportions of AAPI with various COVID-19 vaccine concerns, categorized as none, side-effects only, unsafe only, and multiple reasons, and differences in vaccine concerns by socio-demographics. Ordinary multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between a characteristic and having any vaccine concerns.

Results: Overall, 76% of the respondents reported having at ≥1 concerns about the vaccine. The most common concern was side effects (65%). Vietnamese Americans reported less concerns (vs. Chinese Americans). Those who were 30-39 and 40-49 years old (vs. <30), females (vs. males), and experienced mild negative impacts from COVID-19 on family income/employment (vs. no change) reported more concerns about the vaccine. Those who had less vaccine concerns were those who reported higher (vs. low) health status, ≥60 years old (vs. <30), and separated/divorced/widowed (vs. single).

Discussion: AAPI is a diverse population and this study revealed differences in vaccine concerns across AAPI groups. Findings revealed potential targets for patient education needs. Effective strategies to address various vaccine concerns across subgroups of AAPI will be crucial to ensure equity in vaccination uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-021-01037-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045435PMC
April 2021

Disease Severity, Fever, Age, and Sex Correlate With SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody Responses.

Front Immunol 2020 29;11:628971. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Institute of Medical Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Clinical trials on the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma remain inconclusive. While data on safety is increasingly available, evidence for efficacy is still sparse. Subgroup analyses hint to a dose-response relationship between convalescent plasma neutralizing antibody levels and mortality. In particular, patients with primary and secondary antibody deficiency might benefit from this approach. However, testing of neutralizing antibodies is limited to specialized biosafety level 3 laboratories and is a time- and labor-intense procedure. In this single center study of 206 COVID-19 convalescent patients, clinical data, results of commercially available ELISA testing of SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG and -IgA, and levels of neutralizing antibodies, determined by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), were analyzed. At a medium time point of 58 days after symptom onset, only 12.6% of potential plasma donors showed high levels of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320). Multivariable proportional odds logistic regression analysis revealed need for hospitalization due to COVID-19 (odds ratio 6.87; -value 0.0004) and fever (odds ratio 3.00; -value 0.0001) as leading factors affecting levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers in convalescent plasma donors. Using penalized estimation, a predictive proportional odds logistic regression model including the most important variables hospitalization, fever, age, sex, and anosmia or dysgeusia was developed. The predictive discrimination for PRNT50 ≥ 1:320 was reasonably good with AUC: 0.86 (with 95% CI: 0.79-0.92). Combining clinical and ELISA-based pre-screening, assessment of neutralizing antibodies could be spared in 75% of potential donors with a maximal loss of 10% of true positives (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.628971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878374PMC
February 2021