Publications by authors named "O Laitinen-Vapaavuori"

41 Publications

Clinical and Genetic Findings in 28 American Cocker Spaniels with Aural Ceruminous Gland Hyperplasia and Ectasia.

J Comp Pathol 2021 May 22;185:30-44. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Finland.

American Cocker Spaniels (ACSs) develop aural ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia more often than dogs of other breeds. Data on the cause and development of these breed characteristic histopathological changes are lacking. We performed video-otoscopic examinations and dermatological work-up on 28 ACSs, obtained aural biopsies from each dog and assessed the statistical associations between the presence of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia and disease history, clinical or microbiological findings and underlying cause of otitis externa (OE). Histological lesions of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia were observed in aural biopsies from 6/13 clinically healthy ears and 13/15 ears with OE from 19/28 examined dogs. Nine of 28 dogs had histologically normal ceruminous glands (odds ratio [OR] 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-36.6). Bacterial growth in microbiological culture of aural exudate (OR 14.1, 95% CI 2.1-95.3) was associated with ceruminous glandular changes, whereas previous history of OE, cutaneous findings or underlying allergies were not. Pedigree analysis and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) were performed on 18 affected and eight unaffected dogs based on histopathological diagnosis. While the GWAS indicated a tentative, but not statistically significant, association of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia with chromosome 31, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this preliminary result. Based on our results, ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia may also precede clinical signs of OE in ACSs and a genetic aetiological component is likely Further studies with larger cohorts are warranted to verify our preliminary results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2021.03.005DOI Listing
May 2021

The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentration in assessing vitamin D deficiency in pet rabbits.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Oct 27;16(1):403. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency and related metabolic bone diseases in pet rabbits have been intermittently debated. In human research, the parathyroid hormone concentration in relation to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is used to determine vitamin D deficiency. Thus, this study aimed to identify the breakpoint in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicating a significant change in the parathyroid hormone concentration in 139 pet rabbits. An enzyme immunoassay kit was used for 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis and the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-84) immunoradiometric assay kit for parathyroid hormone analysis. The mid-tibial cortical bone density was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. A segmented linear regression analysis was performed, with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as the independent variable, and parathyroid hormone, ionised calcium, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus concentrations and the mid-tibial cortical density as the dependent variables.

Results: The breakpoint for the parathyroid hormone concentration occurred at a 25(OH)D concentration of 17 ng/mL, whereas the cortical bone density breakpoint occurred at a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 19 ng/mL. No breakpoints were found for ionised calcium, total calcium or phosphorus.

Conclusions: These results suggest that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 17 ng/mL serves as the threshold for vitamin D deficiency in rabbits. Nearly one-third of the rabbits had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration below this threshold. Concerns persist regarding the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pet rabbits and the possible health consequences caused by a chronic vitamin D deficiency, including the risk for metabolic bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02599-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590739PMC
October 2020

Antimicrobial prophylaxis is considered sufficient to preserve an acceptable surgical site infection rate in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries in dogs.

Acta Vet Scand 2020 Sep 17;62(1):53. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, Viikintie 49, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30-60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012-2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed.

Results: Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3-2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI 0.4-5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI 1.4-57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI 1.0-2.7; mean difference + 0.4 °C compared to dogs without SSI).

Conclusions: Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-020-00545-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495856PMC
September 2020

Aural CT characteristics of American Cocker Spaniels have features of both mesaticephalic and brachycephalic breeds.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2020 Nov 17;61(6):649-658. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Otitis externa and otitis media are common in American Cocker Spaniels, however breed-specific aural CT descriptions are currently lacking. This prospective and retrospective, observational, analytical study aimed to describe quantitative CT characteristics of the horizontal ear canal and the tympanic bulla in American Cocker Spaniels versus similar-sized mesaticephalic dogs. We prospectively performed clinical examinations and aural CT scanning for 38 American Cocker Spaniels. Computed tomographic transverse area of the osseous horizontal ear canal (TA1), transverse area of the widest air-filled part of the cartilaginous horizontal ear canal (TA2), tympanic bulla volume, and tympanic bulla wall thickness were measured. The TA1 and TA2 measurements were compared with those of 23 retrospectively recruited, similar-sized mesaticephalic dogs that had undergone CT-scanning of the head for non-ear-related reasons. The TA1 and TA2 did not differ for healthy American Cocker Spaniels and mesaticephalic dogs. Severely affected American Cocker Spaniels had significantly smaller TA2 (P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver and interobserver repeatability was 0.972 and 0.983 for TA1 and 0.994 and 0.998 for TA2, respectively. Variation between individuals was subjectively noted in healthy and affected American Cocker Spaniels, but mean tympanic bulla volume was slightly smaller in relation to body weight, and the tympanic bulla wall was thicker than in previous reports for mesaticephalic dogs. The tympanic bulla wall appeared thicker rostro-ventrally than caudo-ventrally in 44% of the dogs. Our results imply that a relatively thick tympanic bulla wall may be a normal CT variation and should be interpreted cautiously in this breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12900DOI Listing
November 2020

The intra- and intertester repeatability of radiographic elbow incongruity grading is high in chondrodystrophic dog breeds.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2020 May 6;61(3):329-335. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Elbow incongruity is a form of elbow dysplasia that causes osteoarthritis, pain, and lameness, and it is common in chondrodystrophic dog breeds. The objective of this retrospective secondary analysis study was to evaluate the intra- and interobserver repeatability of a novel radiographic incongruity grading system for assessing elbow incongruity in three chondrodystrophic dog breeds-the dachshund, Skye Terrier, and Glen of Imaal Terrier. We conducted an observer agreement study that included 220 mediolateral antebrachial radiographs from 110 dogs with the elbow in 90° flexion. The radiographs were independently assessed by three observers at three time points, using a four-stepped grading scale. The proportion of agreement and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Both the intra- and interobserver proportions of agreement were substantial when three grades were required to be identical (.705-.777 and .609, respectively), and almost perfect for two identical grades (.991-1.000 and .991, respectively). Some differences in repeatability between breeds were noted; specifically, the intraobserver repeatability was higher in the dachshund, and the interobserver repeatability was lower in the Glen of Imaal Terrier. Our study showed that the radiographic imaging protocol and incongruity grading system have high repeatability when assessing elbow incongruity in chondrodystrophic dog breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12853DOI Listing
May 2020
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