Publications by authors named "O E Obasi"

21 Publications

ASSESSMENT OF LEVELS AND HEALTH RISKS OF TRACE METALS IN SOILS AND SOME FOOD CROPS CULTIVATED IN FARMS AROUND ENYIGBA MINING SITES, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA.

J Food Prot 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Ebonyi State University.

Mining is one of the major sources of heavy metals in most developing countries and this has become a major health concern to the populace due to the possibility of food contamination with these heavy metals. We investigated the levels of titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), selenium (Se), niobium (Nb) and vanadium (V) in 64 soil and  320 samples of regularly consumed staple food crops and vegetables (cassava tubers, white yam, groundnut seed, fluted pumpkin leaf and Z. zanthoxyloides from farms around Enyigba mining sites in Ebonyi State and the possible health risks due to consumption of these staple foods. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used in determination of the metals in the samples respectively. The mean levels of the metals except Mn, Pb and Zn were below the threshold limits for agricultural soils. Our data also showed that food crops cultivated around this sites bio-accumulated toxic levels of these metals above the recommended legal limits set by WHO, NAFDAC and CODEX especially Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Rb. This perhaps may have potential health implication on the local dwellers. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of the toxic metals through the consumption of the crop samples were below the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) except lead and nickel by eating of groundnut, cassava and yam. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ), computed based on EDI of the heavy metals were above unity for the metals due to cassava, yam and groundnut consumption, suggesting significant health risk. Raised amounts of heavy metal in cassava and groundnut samples as revealed by their metal extraction coefficient computed in this study hint that they may be used as bio-indicators of ecological, health hazards and phytoremediators of Mn, Zn, Cu, and Pb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-20-295DOI Listing
January 2021

Ethanol leaf extract of rich in quercetin restores heavy metal induced redox imbalance in rats.

Heliyon 2020 Sep 1;6(9):e04999. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike, PMB, 1010, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

is a plant found in Africa and many parts of the world where the leaves are locally used in folk medicine for the treatment of toxicity related liver diseases. We investigated the antioxidant potentials of ethanol leaf extract of (ELE-PM) in restoring hepatic redox dysregulations in rats exposed to heavy metals. HPLC was used in quantifying the bioactive compounds in ELE-PM. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) and NO (Nitric Oxide) assays were used for studies. The studies involved 30 rats randomly divided into 5 groups ( = 6). Group 1 received normal saline (2 mg/kg), group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a combined solution of Pb(NO) (11.25 mg/kg) and HgCl (0.4 mg/kg) respectively. After 7 days of heavy metal exposure, groups 3, 4 and 5 received a daily bolus administration of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of EE-PM respectively through oral intubation for 28 days. HPLC quantification revealed a high amount of quercetin (27.43 ± 0.04 mg/100g), lower amounts of gallic acid (7.60 ± 0.06 mg/100g) and rutin (0.38 ± 0.009 mg/100g). Additionally, ELE-PM demonstrated strong inhibitory potentials against free radical scavenging activity generated . More interestingly, administration of ELE-PM significantly ameliorated hepatic redox dysregulations elicited by the exposure of the rats to heavy metals in a dose dependent pattern. ELE-PM is highly rich in flavonoid compound quercetin and perhaps this may be responsible for the strong antioxidant potentials exhibited in this investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534181PMC
September 2020

The role of the Deki Reader™ in malaria diagnosis, treatment and reporting: findings from an Africare pilot project in Nigeria.

Malar J 2018 Jun 1;17(1):221. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

National Malaria Elimination Project (NMEP), Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: The Deki Reader is a diagnostic device used with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and linked to an online database for real-time uploads of patient information and results. This is in contrast to visual interpretation of malaria RDTs recorded on the District Health Information System (DHIS). This paper compares records for use of the Deki Reader with DHIS records of visual interpretation of RDTs.

Results: A total of 4063 patient encounters/tests were recorded on the Deki Reader database between June 1st and December 31st, 2016. These tests were for 2629 persons who presented with fever and had RDT done. In comparison, data from DHIS 2.0 for same period recorded 7201 persons presenting with fever. 2421 out of the 2629 persons (92.1%), received RDT using Deki Reader compared to 6535 out of 7201 persons (90.4%) recorded on DHIS (p = 0.04). From DHIS records, malaria positivity rate was 51.6% (3375 out of 6535 persons) compared to Deki Reader records of 23.6% (572 out of 2421 persons). The difference between these two rates was significant (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) for the association between use of Deki Reader and having a positive malaria result was 0.29 (0.26-0.32). DHIS showed that 4008 persons received Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) while 3989 persons tested positive with RDT or microscopy, compared to 691 out of 705 persons (98.0%) using Deki Reader. Finally, Deki Reader identified 618 processing and manufacturers errors with an error rate of 15.3%.

Conclusion: The Deki Reader is likely a useful tool for malaria diagnosis, treatment, and real-time data management. It potentially improves diagnostic quality, reduces wastage in ACT administration and improves data quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2356-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5984800PMC
June 2018

and antioxidant potentials of leaf extract, fractions and isolated bioactive compounds.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 Jan-Feb;7(1):80-92

Department of Pharmaceutical and medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Objective: leaves are widely used in ethnomedicine for the management of immuno-inflammatory disorders. We investigated the and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract, fractions and isolated compounds of .

Materials And Methods: The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol leaf extract was subjected to several chromatographic separations to isolate compounds 1-4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. Oxidative stress was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl). Further analysis on the isolated phenolic compounds were done using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity tests.

Results: The ethyl acetate fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05) elevations of catalase enzyme activity and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in serum malondialdehyde. The chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction led to the isolation of three flavans, (-) cathechin (1), (-) epicathechin (2), (+) epicathechin (3) and a flavanone, 2R, 3R dihydroquercitin (4). In hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, (-) epicathechin exhibited an EC value of 8 μg/ml, similar to the standard ascorbic acid (EC = 8 μg/ml). (-) epicathechin showed scavenging of DPPH radical with EC value of 19 μg/ml while in the FRAP assay, it had EC value of 46 μg/ml which was lower than that of the standard, ascobic acid (EC = 66 μg/ml).

Conclusion: The medicinal uses of may be due to the antioxidant activities of its phenolic compounds.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5329180PMC
March 2017

Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria.

Afr J Reprod Health 2008 Apr;12(1):101-8

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of the respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. The most popular modern method was the condom (24.2%). This was followed by the IUD, used by only 2.5% of the respondents. Some of the identified factors that hindered the use of MBCM included perceived negative health reaction, fear of the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better understanding and utilization of MBCM, it is recommended that adequate educational campaign should be mounted in the rural areas on the advantages of MBCM. This campaign should target the men the more because they make the major decisions on MBCM use.
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April 2008