Publications by authors named "Nwokocha Magdalene"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of an aqueous extract from Guinep fruit (Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq) in rats.

Sci Rep 2020 10 29;10(1):18623. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Environmental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, 77004, USA.

Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq (Mb) has been reported to have cardiovascular modulatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the antihypertensive effects and mechanism of action of Mb on N-Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA) rat models. Aqueous extract of Mb fruit (100 mg/kg) was administered for 6 weeks to rats by gavage and blood pressure was recorded. Effects of the extract on vascular reactivity was evaluated using isolated organ baths, and tissues were collected for biochemical and histological analysis. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced with extract (100 mg/kg) administration and treatment compared to the hypertensive models. Mb (100 µg/mL) reduced the vascular contractility induced by phenylephrine (PE), and caused a dose-dependent relaxation of PE-induced contraction of aortic vascular rings. The vasorelaxation properties seemed to be endothelium dependent, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and guanylyl cyclase, but not prostaglandin dependent. Histomicrograph of transverse sections of the ventricles from the Mb group did not show abnormalities. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced an L-NAME induced elevation of cardiac output and Creatine Kinase Muscle-Brain (CKMB), but had no significant impact on the activities of arylamine N-acetyltransferase. In conclusion, Mb significantly decreased blood pressure in hypertensive models. The extract possesses the ability to induce endothelium dependent vasodilation, which is dependent on guanylyl cyclase but not prostaglandins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75607-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596469PMC
October 2020

Blood pressure-reducing activity of Gongronema latifolium Benth. (Apocynaeceae) and the identification of its main phytochemicals by UHPLC Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Aug 14;31(1). Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

Background Gongronema latifolium Benth. (family Apocynaceae) leaves (GL) has interesting medicinal properties. The effects of extracts from G. latifolium on blood pressure (BP) and the possible mechanisms of action were also investigated. Methods The ultrahigh resolution liquid chromatography orbitrap MS analysis was used to identify the phytochemicals present. Normotensive Wistar rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, and the jugular vein was cannulated for infusion of drugs while the carotid artery was cannulated for direct BP measurement. GL extract (5-20 mg) alone or with nifedipine (10 mg/kg), atropine (2 mg/kg), L-NAME (5 mg/kg), methyl blue (3 mg/kg) and propranolol (1 mg/kg) were administered intravenously to Wistar rats and direct BP measurements were carried out. Results Systolic and diastolic BP levels (128/90 mm Hg; MAP 103 ± 3 mm Hg) and heart rates were all significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after GL administration. Raised mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate by atropine, L-NAME and methyl blue were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced after GL administration, while propranolol significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited hypotension caused by GL. Infusion of GL reduced MAP (95 ± 3 mm Hg) comparable with nifedipine (93 ± 2 mm Hg), a calcium channel blocker. The phytochemicals identified were 34 compounds, including oleanolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, antioxidant fatty acids, 2 coumarins and 2 iridoids. Conclusions These results suggest that G. latifolium has hypotensive properties mediated by the synergistic activity of the compounds, probably via the β-adrenergic blockade mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2018-0178DOI Listing
August 2019

Blood Pressure Screening Campaign in Jamaica: May Measurement Month 2017.

Am J Hypertens 2019 11;32(12):1186-1191

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

Background: Hypertension (HTN) is responsible for a significant disease burden in Jamaica. We are reporting the results of the 2017 blood pressure (BP) screening campaign May Measurement Month in Jamaica that aimed to increase the awareness of HTN.

Methods: Adults, 18 years old and older, from different parishes of Jamaica were invited to participate during May to June 2017. Demographic data were collected. BP, weight, and height were measured and recorded.

Results: Five hundred sixty-six participants (n = 566) were enrolled, 91.6% (519) from urban areas, and 72.6% (410) were females. The average age was 53.7 (18-95) years old and body mass index was 28.2 ± 6.6 kg/m2. The prevalence of HTN was 47.3% (267/566), without gender or living areas differences (both P > 0.1). Prevalence of HTN was lower in those who self-identified as Interracial ethnicity, in comparison with Afro-Caribbean (33% vs. 48.3%; P = 0.04). About third of the hypertensive patients were not aware of the high BP (89/267; 35.6%). Between hypertensive patients, 64.4% (172/267) were receiving antihypertensive drugs. The rate of BP control was 32% of the hypertensive patients and 50% of those receiving antihypertensive medication. Significant lower BP control was observed between diabetic vs. nondiabetic patients (34.3% vs. 60%; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of HTN in this population, especially in patients with diabetes or previous cardiovascular diseases. We report an increase in HTN awareness in Jamaica but more advances need to be performed to increase HTN treatment and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz117DOI Listing
November 2019

Modulatory Effect of Guinep ( Jacq) Fruit Pulp Extract on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats. Identification of Major Metabolites Using High Resolution UHPLC Q-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

Molecules 2019 Jan 10;24(2). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Laboratorio de Fisiología Experimental, Instituto Antofagasta, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.

Guinep is traditionally used in the management of cardiovascular ailments. This study aims to evaluate its medicinal constituents and effects in the management of myocardial injury in an experimental isoproterenol (ISO) rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 was the control group; Group 2 received extract (100 mg/Kg; MB) for six weeks; Group 3 was given ISO (85 mg/Kg) i.p. twice during a 24-hour period; and Group 4 was given ISO (85 mg/Kg) i.p. and MB extract (100 mg/Kg) for six weeks. The MB was administered orally by gavage, daily. The blood pressure of conscious animals was measured, while ECG was performed under anesthesia. Blood and serum were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The ISO group treated with MB showed a significant decrease ( < 0.001) in (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP) and heart rate (HR) compared to the ISO only group. Conversely, MB treated rats that were not induced with ISO displayed a significant decreases ( < 0.001) in SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR. ISO significantly elevated the ST segment ( < 0.001) and shortened the QTc interval ( < 0.05), which were recovered after treatment with 100 mg/Kg of MB. In addition, the results showed a significant decrease ( < 0.001) in the heart to body weight ratio of the ISO group treated with MB compared to the ISO only group. Furthermore, the extract normalized the hematological values depressed by the ISO while significantly elevating the platelet count. UHPLC high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis results revealed the presence of several antioxidants like vitamin C and related compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoid, fatty acids (oxylipins), and terpene derivatives. The results of this study indicated that did display some cardio-protective effects in relation to myocardial injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359499PMC
January 2019

Genomic coordinates and continental distribution of 120 blood group variants reported by the 1000 Genomes Project.

Transfusion 2018 11 12;58(11):2693-2704. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, NIH Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: The 1000 Genomes Project provides a database of genomic variants from whole genome sequencing of 2504 individuals across five continental superpopulations. This database can enrich our background knowledge of worldwide blood group variant geographic distribution and identify novel variants of potential clinical significance.

Study Design And Methods: The 1000 Genomes database was analyzed to 1) expand knowledge about continental distributions of known blood group variants, 2) identify novel variants with antigenic potential and their geographic association, and 3) establish a baseline scaffold of chromosomal coordinates to translate next-generation sequencing output files into a predicted red blood cell (RBC) phenotype.

Results: Forty-two genes were investigated. A total of 604 known variants were mapped to the GRCh37 assembly; 120 of these were reported by 1000 Genomes in at least one superpopulation. All queried variants, including the ACKR1 promoter silencing mutation, are located within exon pull-down boundaries. The analysis yielded 41 novel population distributions for 34 known variants, as well as 12 novel blood group variants that warrant further validation and study. Four prediction algorithms collectively flagged 79 of 109 (72%) known antigenic or enzymatically detrimental blood group variants, while 4 of 12 variants that do not result in an altered RBC phenotype were flagged as deleterious.

Conclusion: Next-generation sequencing has known potential for high-throughput and extended RBC phenotype prediction; a database of GRCh37 and GRCh38 chromosomal coordinates for 120 worldwide blood group variants is provided as a basis for this clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.14953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302860PMC
November 2018

Aqueous extract from leaf of Artocarpus altilis provides cardio-protection from isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats: Negative chronotropic and inotropic effects.

J Ethnopharmacol 2017 May 22;203:163-170. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Natural Products Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The leaves of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn, Fosberg) (Moraceae) are used in the management of hypertension; this study assessed the cardio-protective effects of the leaf extract on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial damage in rats.

Material And Methods: Twenty (20) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-230g) were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (Control), 2 (AA) received 50mg/Kg Artocarpus altilis (AA) only; 3 (ISO) received 85mg/Kg ISO only; 4 (ISO+AA/50) and 5 (ISO+AA/100) received 50 and 100mg/Kg AA respectively for 6 days, after induced with ISO twice (85mg/Kg) at a 24-h period. Blood pressure readings were taken before and after the administering of ISO using the tail cuff method. ECG was performed on anaesthetized rats. Cardiac contractility was measured in isolated right atrial muscles. Assessment of myocardial infarct (MI) size, heart/body weight ratio, biochemical, hematological and histo-morphological parameters were conducted at the end of seven days. An aqueous extract from leaves of A. altilis was analyzed for organic compounds using UHPLC mass spectrometry.

Results: ISO induced myocardial damage through an elevation of the heart rate (HR), infarct size and ECG distortions. Treatment with AA significantly (p˂0.05) reduced heart/body weight ratio (49%), MI (96%), HR (27%), sympathovagal imbalance (36%) and serum cardiac biomarkers (AST, LDH, HDL, triglycerides and CCK) caused by ISO. AA decreased the beat frequency of isolated right atrium (11%) cause by ISO, an action similar to propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist; 20%), but showed no significant changes in the QTc intervals of the ECG (suggesting no cardio-toxic drug-herb interactions), Thirty nine compounds were detected using high resolution LC-MS analysis (HPLC-Orbitrap-APCI-MS) in the extract. Pure compounds, as gallic acid and rutin, presented a higher negative chronotropic effect, similar to propranolol.

Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous extract of Artocarpus artilis has cardio-protective functions in myocardial injury, in part, by decreasing the HR, reduced contractility and infarct size. These findings may explain the cardio-protective use of A. altilis in traditional medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.03.037DOI Listing
May 2017

A comparative study of the effect of some nutritional medicinal plants effect on lead accumulation in the liver following different modes of administration.

Pharmacognosy Res 2014 Oct;6(4):306-11

Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Context And Objectives: Lead (Pb) toxicity leads to cell damage in many organs of the body. Using different treatment interventions and modes of administration we comparatively examined the protective ability of some medicinal plants on liver Pb accumulation.

Materials And Methods: Rats were fed on either 7% w/w Zingiber officinale, 7% w/w Allium sativum, 10% w/w Lycopersicon esculentum, 5%, w/w Garcinia kola (all in rat chow), while Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. The additives were administered together with (mode 1), a week after exposure to (mode 2) or a week before metal exposure to (mode 3) the metal for a period of 6 weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared using analysis of variance.

Results: Some additives significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while others enhanced Pb accumulation. Mode 2 yielded the highest mean % protection and mode 3 the lowest, no significant interaction between modes of administration and time of measurement in their relationships to percentage protection, but there was statistically significant (P < 0.05) interaction between modes of administration and additive used in their relationships to percentage protection.

Conclusion: Protective effects of medicinal plants are varied and depend on the nature of lead exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.138278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166819PMC
October 2014

Investigation of effects of time of measurement and modes of administration on cadmium accumulation in rat liver under some medicinal plants food supplemented diet.

Pharmacognosy Res 2014 Jul;6(3):240-5

Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Context And Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity leads to cell and organ damage, we comparatively examined the protection ability of different medicinal plants on Cd liver accumulation following different treatment interventions and modes of administration.

Materials And Methods: Rats were fed either 7% w/w Zingiber officinale, 7% w/w Allium Sativum, 10% w/w Lycopersicon esculentum, 5%, w/w Garcinia kola (all in rat chow), while Cd (200 ppm) was given in drinking water. Additives were administered together with (mode 1), a week after (mode 2) or a week before metal exposure (mode 3) for a period of six weeks. Cd liver was determined using AAS and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: All additives significantly (P <0.5) reduced the accumulation of Cd in the liver. After adjusting for time and mode of administration, mean %protection for week 4 was significantly lower by 14.1% (P=0.02) from that for week 2 but the means did not differ with respect to additive used or mode of administration, no statistically significant interaction between modes of administration and either of additives used or time of administration in their respective relationships to percentage protection from Cd.

Conclusion: Additives significantly reduced Cd accumulation through a reduction in absorption and enhancement of metal excretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.132604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4080505PMC
July 2014

Apocynin ameliorates cadmium-induced hypertension through elevation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2013 Dec;13(4):357-63

Physiology Section, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica,

Apocynin is reported to have antioxidant and NADPH oxidase inhibitor activities. Cadmium toxicity is reported to causes oxidative damage, resulting in vascular dysfunction, reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the protective effects of apocynin in cadmium-induced hypertension. Thirty-six (36) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. Group 1 served as control, Groups 2 and 3 received 50 and 100 mg/Kg (b.w) apocynin, respectively, Group 4 received 100 ppm CdCl2 in their drinking water, while Group 5 and 6 received 100 ppm CdCl2 in their drinking and 50 and 100 mg/Kg (b.w) apocynin, respectively, for 8 weeks. Blood pressure readings were taken weekly using the tail-cuff method. cGMP, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NO and hematological parameters were analyzed at the end of 8 weeks. Apocynin, although a poor antioxidant, caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in systolic and mean arterial pressures in the cadmium-induced elevations in blood pressure and amelioration of altered hematological parameters. However, while cadmium exposures did not alter the cGMP, eNOS and nitrate concentrations in serum, apocynin reduced the cGMP and nitrite values while significantly elevating (p < 0.05) the eNOS concentrations and also improved the cadmium-induced anemia. Apocynin was effective in reducing cadmium-induced elevated blood pressures through elevation of eNOS. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity may be a useful strategy for prevention and treatment of cadmium-induced hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-013-9216-0DOI Listing
December 2013

Comparative analysis on the effect of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in reducing cadmium and lead accumulation in liver of Wistar rats.

Pharmacognosy Res 2012 Oct;4(4):214-8

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica, Nigeria.

Context: Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is an edible nutrient substance with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We examined its protective effect against lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver.

Materials And Methods: 12% w/w of palm oil (PO) in rat chow concentrate was fed to rats exposed to Cd (200ppm) and Pb (100ppm) in drinking water at different feeding regimens. PO was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2), post-treatment after exposure (group 3) or pre-treatment before exposure (group 4) for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS.

Results: Weight losses induced by these metals were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by PO administration. Analysis among the groups showed that post-treatment group had a significant (P<0.05) higher percentage protection to Cd, but same time treatment for Pb (P<0.05) when compared with other groups. The protective ability to PO was only significantly (P<0.05) increased for Pb at week 2, but showed a time-dependent significant (P<0.05) increase for Cd across all treatment regimens.

Conclusion: PO is beneficial in reducing metal accumulation in the liver and has a higher hepatoprotective effect to Cd compared to Pb at the selected doses by possibly affecting the processes of uptake, assimilation and elimination of these metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.102266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510874PMC
October 2012

Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale.

Pharmacognosy Res 2012 Oct;4(4):208-13

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Nigeria.

Context: Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.

Objectives: We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026;

Methods: Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS.

Results: Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups.

Discussion And Conclusion: Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.102263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510873PMC
October 2012

Comparative analysis on the effect of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in reducing cadmium, mercury and lead accumulation in liver.

Food Chem Toxicol 2012 Jun 5;50(6):2070-3. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.

Scope: L. esculentum (tomato) contain compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, able to synthesize metal chelating proteins. We examined the ability of fruit extract to protect against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver.

Methods And Results: Rats were fed on tomato mixed with rat chow (10% w/w), while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Tomato was administered together with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure (group 3) or a week before metal exposure (group 4) for a period of six weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in protection by tomato to Cd and Hg accumulation but not to Pb (P<0.05) in weeks 2 and 4 for groups 2 and 3. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.05) increased for Pb in group 4, but was less comparable to Cd and Hg.

Conclusion: Tomato reduces uptake while enhancing the elimination of these metals in a time dependent manner. The highest hepatoprotective effect was to Cd followed by Hg and least to Pb. Its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.03.079DOI Listing
June 2012

Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2012 Jan;25(1):169-73

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Jamaica.

We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.
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January 2012

Comparative study on the efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) in reducing some heavy metal accumulation in liver of wistar rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2012 Feb 11;50(2):222-6. Epub 2011 Nov 11.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

Scope: Heavy metals are known to cause damage through indirect oxidative effects. This study was undertaken to compare the therapeutic efficacy and protective ability of garlic extracts on reducing toxicity induced by mercury, lead and cadmium in the liver.

Methods And Results: Rats were fed with rat chow mixed with raw garlic (7% w/w) while mercury (10ppm), cadmium (200ppm) and lead (100ppm) were given in drinking water. Garlic was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for 6weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. The percentage protection showed a time-dependent effect and was significantly (P<0.01) higher for cadmium compared to mercury and lead-treated groups. Analysis between the groups showed that garlic treatment after exposure had a significantly (P<0.05) higher percentage protection when compared with other modes.

Conclusion: These results suggest that garlic offered more hepatoprotective effect to cadmium followed by mercury and least protection to lead at the selected dose of each metal in this study through the processes of uptake, assimilation and elimination of these metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.003DOI Listing
February 2012