Publications by authors named "Nuray Ari"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preventive role of Pycnogenol against the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in diabetic rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Feb 19;124:54-63. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Diabetes mellitus, a complex progressive metabolic disorder, leads to some oxidative stress related complications. Pycnogenol (PYC), a plant extract obtained from Pinus pinaster, has been suggested to be effective in many diseases including diabetes, cancer, inflammatory and immune system disorders. The mechanisms underlying the effects of PYC in diabetes need to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PYC treatment (50 mg/kg/day, orally, for 28 days) on the DNA damage and biochemical changes in the blood, liver, and kidney tissues of experimental diabetic rats. Changes in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes, and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, total glutathione, malondialdehyde, insulin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were evaluated. DNA damage was also determined in the whole blood cells and the liver and renal tissue cells using the alkaline comet assay. PYC treatment significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress, lipid profile, and liver function parameters as well as DNA damage in the hyperglycemic rats. The results show that PYC treatment might improve the hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and physiological changes in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.11.038DOI Listing
February 2019

Antioxidant SMe1EC2 modulates pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in tissues of aged diabetic rats.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2017 Dec 1;10(4):148-154. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Cellular Stress Response & Signal Transduction Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

The pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione-associated metabolism are the main antioxidant cellular defense systems. This study investigated the effects of the powerful antioxidant SMe1EC2 (2-ethoxycarbonyl-8-methoxy-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b] indolinium dichloride) on pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in aged diabetic and aged matched control rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection in rats aged 13-15 months. Diabetic and control rats were divided into two subgroups, one untreated and one treated with SMe1EC2 (10 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 months. SMe1EC2 ameliorated body weight loss, but not hyperglycemia of aged diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in decreased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), yet in unchanged glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver of aged diabetic rats. In the liver of the aged control rats, SMe1EC2 did not affect G6PDH, 6PGDH and GR, but it inhibited GST. SMe1EC2 also failed to affect diabetes-induced decline in 6PGDH, it ameliorated G6PDH but produced further decline in GST in the liver of aged diabetic rats. In the kidney of aged rats, G6PDH and GST were found to be comparable among the groups, but diabetes up-regulated 6PGDH and GR; these alterations were prevented by SMe1EC2. In the heart of aged diabetic rats, while GST remained unchanged, the recorded increase in G6PD, 6PGD, GR was prevented by SMe1EC2. Furthermore, an unchanged GR and remarkable increases in G6PD, 6PGD and GST were found in the lung of the aged diabetic group. These alterations were completely prevented by SMe1EC2. The results suggest that in aged rats SMe1EC2 can ameliorate the response of the kidney, heart and lung but not that of the liver against diabetes-induced glucotoxicity by interfering with the activity of redox network enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/intox-2017-0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6102677PMC
December 2017

Protective Effects of Ursolic Acid in the Kidneys of Diabetic Rats.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2018 Aug 17;15(2):166-170. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Hacettepe Unversity, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Diabetes, a heteregenous metabolic and chronic disease, is a growing health problem in most countries. It has been claimed that diabetes is associated with the increased formation of free radicals and decreased in antioxidant potential. Oxidative stress formed in diabetes may cause DNA damage in the tissues. Ursolic acid, a well-known pentacylic triterpene, is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine due to its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant, anticancer, and antiulcer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ursolic acid in the kidneys of Wistar albino rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

Materials And Methods: DNA damage was evaluated in the kidney cells of rats using alkaline comet assays. Oxidative stress parameters such as CAT, SOD, GR, and GSH-Px enzyme activities and total GSH and MDA levels were also evaluated.

Results: Ursolic acid treatment was found to significantly decrease DNA damage, GR enzyme activities, and MDA levels, and significantly increase GSH levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities in diabetic rats.

Conclusion: According to our results, it seems that ursolic acid may be beneficial against diabetes-induced renal damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.49469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228012PMC
August 2018

A pyridoindole antioxidant SMe1EC2 regulates contractility, relaxation ability, cation channel activity, and protein-carbonyl modifications in the aorta of young and old rats with or without diabetes mellitus.

Geroscience 2018 08 27;40(4):377-392. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Laboratory for Cellular Stress Response and Signal Transduction Research, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

We studied the effects of treatment with SMe1EC, a hexahydropyridoindole antioxidant, on vascular reactivity, endothelial function, and oxidonitrosative stress level of thoracic aorta in young and old rats with or without diabetes mellitus. The rats were grouped as young control (YC 3 months old), old control (OC 15 months old), young diabetic (YD), old diabetic (OD), young control treated (YCT), old control treated (OCT), young diabetic treated (YDT), and old diabetic treated (ODT). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and subsequently SMe1EC2 (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered to YCT, OCT, YDT, and ODT rats for 5 months. In young and old rats, diabetes resulted in hypertension, weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which were partially prevented by SMe1EC2. SMe1EC2 also inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in aorta levels of AGEs (advanced glycosylation end-protein adducts), 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-nonenal-histidine), 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine), and RAGEs (receptors for AGEs). The contractions of the aorta rings to phenylephrine (Phe) and KCL did not significantly change, but acetylcholine (ACh) and salbutamol relaxations were reduced in OC compared to YC rats. Diabetes induction increased Phe contractions in YC and OC rats, KCL contractions in YC rats, and did not cause further inhibition in already inhibited ACh and salbutamol relaxations in OC rats. We have achieved the lowest levels of ACh relaxation in YD rats compared to other groups. SMe1EC2 did not change the response of aorta to ACh, salbutamol and Phe in YC rats, and ameliorated ACh relaxations in OC and YD but not in OD rats. In YDT and ODT rats, increased Phe and KCL contractions, high blood pressure, and impaired salbutamol relaxations were amended by SMe1EC2. Phe contractions observed in YD and OD rats as well as KCl contractions observed in OC rats were the lowest levels when the rats were treated with SMe1EC2. When the bath solution was shifted to cyclopiazonic acid (CYP) or CYP plus Ca-free medium, the contraction induced by a single dose of Phe (3 × 10 M) was more inhibited in YD and OD than in YC but not in OC rats. In SMe1EC2-treated rats, neither the presence of CFM nor CFM plus CYP exhibited a significant change in response of aorta to a single dose of Phe. These findings suggest that α1-adrenergic receptor signaling is activated in both age groups of diabetic rats, diabetes activates K-depolarization and calcium mobilization via Ca especially in the aorta of young rats, and sensitizes the aorta of old rats to the regulating effect of SMe1EC2. ACh relaxations were inhibited in YC rats, increased in OC rats and unchanged in YD and OD rats when aortic rings pretreated with TEA, an inhibitor of calcium-activated K channels (K), or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), an inhibitor of voltage-sensitive K channels (K). ACh relaxations were inhibited in YCT, OCT, and YDT rats in the presence of 4-AP or TEA. In ODT rats, 4-AP did not change ACh relaxation but TEA inhibited. These findings suggest that the contribution of K and K to ACh relaxation is likely upregulated by SMe1EC2 when the relaxations were inhibited by aging or diabetes. We conclude that SMe1EC2 might be a promising agent for aging and diabetes related vascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-018-0034-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136298PMC
August 2018

Effects of cinnamic acid on complications of diabetes

Turk J Med Sci 2018 Feb 23;48(1):168-177. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. Cinnamic acid (CA) and its derivatives are synthesized in plants and increasing attention has been given to them in recent years due to the high number of beneficial health properties attributed to their consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CA on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: DNA damage was evaluated in the blood, liver, and kidney cells of rats by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative stress parameters such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, total glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels; biochemical parameters including insulin, total bilirubin, and BCA protein levels; hepatic enzyme levels such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase; and lipid profile parameters including high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were also evaluated. Results: DM caused genotoxic damage and alterations in lipid profiles, oxidative stress parameters, and hepatic enzymes levels. CA treatment ameliorated these effects. Conclusion: It seems that CA might have a role in the prevention of the complications of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1708-8DOI Listing
February 2018

d-limonene ameliorates diabetes and its complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Dec 18;110:434-442. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

It is known that diabetes causes some complications including alterations in lipid profile, hepatic enzyme levels but also it causes oxidative stress. Limonene, a major component of Citrus oils, has important health beneficial effects in lowering the level of oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-limonene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. For this purpose, DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Changes in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin, total bilirubin and BCA protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride were also evaluated. D-limonene treatment was found to significantly decrease DNA damage, GR enzyme activities and MDA levels and significantly increase GSH levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities and altered lipid and liver enzyme parameters in diabetic rats. According to our results, it seems that D-limonene might have a role in the prevention of the complication of diabetes in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.09.020DOI Listing
December 2017

Flaxseed Protects Against Diabetes-Induced Glucotoxicity by Modulating Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Glutathione-Dependent Enzyme Activities in Rats.

J Diet Suppl 2016 28;13(3):339-51. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

d Cellular Stress Response & Signal Transduction Research Laboratory , Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Pharmacology , Ankara , Turkey.

This study investigated the effects of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) intake on general metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glutathione-dependent enzymes in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and the enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Diabetic and control rats were divided in two subgroups, one untreated, and one treated with flaxseed (0.714 g/kg body weight/day; orally) for 12 weeks. Flaxseed ameliorated decreased body weight (p < .05) and increased blood glucose (p < .001), triglyceride (p < .001), ALT (p < .001) and AST (p < .001) in diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) (p < .05) and decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (p < .01), but unchanged 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the brain of rats. These alterations were partially improved by flaxseed in comparison to diabetic untreated group (p < .05). G6PD, 6PGD, GR were elevated (p < .001), while GST unchanged in the lung of diabetic untreated group compared to control. Flaxseed partially prevented the increase in 6PGD (p < .05) and GR (p < .01), but unaffected G6PD in the lung of diabetic rats. G6PD (p < .001), 6PGD (p < .05), GR (p < .001) were augmented, while GST showed a significant (p < .001) depletion in the pancreas of diabetic untreated rats compared to control. Diabetic alterations observed in pancreatic enzyme activities were significantly prevented by flaxseed. Furthermore, a remarkable decrease in 6PGD (p < .001) and an increase in G6PD (threefold of control) were found in the lens of diabetic untreated group that were completely prevented by flaxseed (p < .001). Flaxseed has beneficial effects against diabetes-induced glucotoxicity by modulating G6PD, 6PGD, GR and GST activities in tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2015.1036188DOI Listing
August 2016

Age- and diabetes-induced regulation of oxidative protein modification in rat brain and peripheral tissues: consequences of treatment with antioxidant pyridoindole.

Exp Gerontol 2013 May 5;48(5):476-84. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

Cellular Stress Response & Signal Transduction Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

The increased glyco- and lipo-oxidation events are considered one of the major factors in the accumulation of non-functional damaged proteins, and the antioxidants may inhibit extensive protein modification and nitrosylated protein levels, enhancing the oxidative damage at the cellular levels in aging and diabetes. Because of its central role in the pathogenesis of age-dependent and diabetes-mediated functional decline, we compared the levels of oxidatively modified protein markers, namely AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-protein adducts), 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-nonenal-histidine) and 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine), in different tissues of young and old rats. Separately, these three oxidative stress parameters were explored in old rats subjected to experimentally induced diabetes and following a long-term treatment with a novel synthetic pyridoindole antioxidant derived from stobadine-SMe1EC2 (2-ethoxycarbonyl-8-methoxy-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indolinium dichloride). Diabetes induced by streptozotocin injection in rats aged 13-15 months, and SMe1EC2 treatment was applied during 4months to aged diabetic rats. AGEs and 4-HNE levels were significantly elevated in brain, ventricle and kidney, but not in lens and liver of aged rats when compared with young rats. Diabetes propagated ageing-induced increase in AGEs and 4-HNE in brain, ventricle and kidney, and raised significantly lens and liver AGEs and 4-HNE levels in aged rats. In aged diabetic rats, SMe1EC2 protected only the kidney against increase in AGEs, and inhibited significantly 4-HNE levels in brain, kidney, liver and lens that were observed more pronounced in lens. 3-NT was significantly increased in brain of aged rats and in kidney, lens and ventricle of aged diabetic rats, while SMe1EC2 has no protective effect on 3-NT increase. Results demonstrate that (1) the responsiveness of different tissue proteins to glyco-lipo-oxidative and nitrosative stress in the course of normal aging was miscellaneous. (2) Diabetes is a major factor contributing to accelerated aging. (3) SMe1EC2 selectively inhibited the generation of oxidatively modified proteins, only in a limited number of tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2013.02.028DOI Listing
May 2013

Polyphenolic extracts from Olea europea L. protect against cytokine-induced β-cell damage through maintenance of redox homeostasis.

Rejuvenation Res 2011 Jun 11;14(3):325-34. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Various pancreatic β-cell stressors, including cytokines, are known to induce oxidative stress, resulting in apoptotic/necrotic cell death and inhibition of insulin secretion. Traditionally, olive leaves or fruits are used for treating diabetes, but the cellular mechanism(s) of their effects are not known. We examined the effects of Olea europea L. (olive) leaf and fruit extracts and their component oleuropein on cytokine-induced β-cell toxicity. INS-1, an insulin-producing β-cell line, was preincubated with or without increasing concentrations of olive leaf or fruit extract or oleuropein for 24 hr followed by exposure to a cytokine cocktail containing 0.15 ng/mL interleukin-1β (IL-1β), 1 ng/mL interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and 1 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) for 6 hr. The cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) testing. Apoptosis was quantified by detecting acridine orange/ethidium bromide-stained condensed nuclei under a fluorescent microscope. The cells exposed to cytokines had a higher apoptotic rate, a decreased viability (MTT), and an increased caspase 3/7 activity. Both extracts and oleuropein partially increased the proportion of living cells and improved the viability of cells after cytokines. The protective effects of extracts on live cell viability were mediated through the suppression of caspase 3/7 activity. Oleuropein did not decrease the amount of both apoptotic and necrotic cells, whereas extracts significantly protected cells against cytokine-induced death. Cytokines led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibited glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity, and insulin secretion in INS-1. Insulin secretion was almost completely protected by leaf extract, but was partially affected by fruit extract or oleuropein. Neither cytokines nor olive derivatives had a significant effect on cellular cytochrome c release and catalase activity. Moreover, the cells incubated with each extract or oleuropein showed a significant reduction in cytokine-induced ROS production and ameliorated abnormal antioxidant defense. The molecular mechanism by which olive polyphenols inhibit cytokine-mediated β-cell toxicity appears to be involving the maintenance of redox homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2010.1111DOI Listing
June 2011

Effects of a long-term treatment with an antioxidant pyridoindole on vascular responsiveness in diabetes-induced aging rats.

Curr Aging Sci 2011 Jul;4(2):150-7

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

Impaired vascular reactivity is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases induced by diabetes, which is also an accelerated aging model. This study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic treatment of stobadine, a pyridoindole antioxidant, on vascular responsiveness in diabetic animals. Age- (13-week old) and gender-matched Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and diabetic groups. Streptozotocin (55mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce experimental diabetes. After induction of diabetes, rats were randomly assigned for receving stobadine (24.7 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle for 8-10 months. Stobadine treatment significantly reduced the severity of hyperglycemia, heart and kidney weights, systolic blood pressure, and attenuated diabetes-induced loss in body weight gain. Increased vasoconstriction responses to phenylephrine (PE; 10(-8)-10(-5) M) and BayK-8644 (3x10(-7)-3x10(-5) M) were significantly decreased by stobadine treatment in diabetes. Although stobadine treatment increased acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-9)-10(-5) M)-induced relaxation responses, sodium nitroprusside (10(-11)-10(-6) M)-induced relaxations were not affected by the treatment or diabetes. Stobadine treatment markedly reduced A23187 (10(-9)-3x10(-6) M)-induced relaxation responses while it remained unchanged in diabetics compared to controls. The transient vasoconstriction to PE was reduced by cyclopiazonic acid (10(-6) M) or thapsigargin (TH; 10(-6) M) in all groups. TH also inhibited the relaxation to ACh (3x10(-6) M) in control and stobadine-treated diabetic groups. These results suggest that antioxidative and Ca(2+) current regulatory effects of stobadine, contribute to the mechanisms responsible for its beneficial effects in aged diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874609811104020150DOI Listing
July 2011

Effect of long term, non cholesterol lowering dose of fluvastatin treatment on oxidative stress in brain and peripheral tissues of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2011 Mar 21;654(1):80-5. Epub 2010 Dec 21.

Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

One of the main goals of treatment of diabetes mellitus is to prevent its complications. Oxidative stress is universal in diabetes, being ultimately involved with the development complications. As a result of hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are produced in various tissues that leads to tissue damage with lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, along with disruption in cellular homeostasis and accumulation of damaged molecules. Hence, supplementation with antioxidant compounds may offer some protection against diabetic complications. The pleiotropic effects of statins, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, represent an area of great interest in prevention and therapy of cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Using biomarkers of oxidative stress, in this study we examined the effect of non cholesterol lowering dose, long term fluvastatin treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Experiments were conducted in 24 Wistar adult male rats. Diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated orally for 6 months with fluvastatin (2mg/kg/day, p.o) starting one week after streptozotocin injection (55 mg/kg, i.p.), (preventive study). In brain, heart, liver, pancreas and kidney homogenates malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxide, protein carbonyl content, advanced oxidation protein products, 3-nitrotyrosine levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase activities were measured. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic groups remained unchanged after fluvastatin treatment. The drug act as antioxidant in the tissues. Hence, antioxidant property of fluvastatin, independent of cholesterol lowering effect, may play a role in prevention of diabetic complications. Clinical relevance of this effect of fluvastatin seems worthy of further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.11.035DOI Listing
March 2011

Glycoxidative and nitrosative stress in kidney of experimental diabetic rats: effects of the prydoindole antioxidant stobadine.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2010 ;31(3):313-8

Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Recent basic research and clinical data have provided new insights into the role of glycoxidative and nitrosative stresses (both oxidative stress) in diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a different and innovative approach to antioxidant therapy. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney, the present study investigated the effects of the synthetic pyridoindole antioxidant stobadine (STB) on renal total antioxidant potential (AOP) and protein oxidation parameters such as protein carbonyl content (PCC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and nitrotyrosine (NT), a marker specific for protein modification by peroxynitrite.

Materials And Methods: Wistar Albino rats were divided into two groups: normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Each group of the animals was further divided into two groups: untreated and treated with stobadine (24.7 mg/kg) during 16 weeks daily by oral gavage.

Results: The renal tissue AOP and the levels of AOPPs, PCC and NT were increased in diabetic rats compared with the untreated control animals. Furthermore, stobadine treatment significantly decreased protein carbonylation and AOPPs but not NT.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that STB is an antioxidant factor which can improve glycoxidative stress markers in kidney, while it has no effect on protein nitrosylation.
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October 2010

Effect of 17beta-oestradiol replacement on vascular responsiveness in ovariectomized diabetic rats.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2009 Nov 29;36(11):e65-71. Epub 2009 Jun 29.

Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Ankara, Turkey.

1. Women with functional ovaries exhibit a gender advantage in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether this gender bias pertains in diabetes is unknown. 2. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) on vascular responsiveness in normal and diabetic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Aged-matched female rats were divided into four groups as follows: (i) OVX; (ii) OVX + E2 treated; (iii) diabetic OVX; and (iv) diabetic OVX + E2 treated. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed and streptozotocin was used to induce experimental diabetes. Rats were treated with 1 mg/kg per day, p.o., E2 for 8 weeks. 3. Although E2 treatment had no effect on blood glucose levels in normal and diabetic OVX rats, it significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and prevented diabetes-induced loss of bodyweight gain. 4. In segments of the thoracic aorta, concentration-dependent vasoconstrictor responses to KCl and phenylephrine were significantly attenuated following E2 treatment in both the normal and diabetic groups. The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (10(-6) mol/L) and the Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine (10(-6) mol/L) inhibited the transient vasoconstriction to PE in all groups. The constrictor effect of PE was increased by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 10(-6) mol/L), but was reduced by superoxide dismutase (SOD; 100 U/mL) and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-6) mol/L) in all groups. Responses to acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-6) mol/L) demonstrated reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in non-E2-treated groups. Relaxation responses to ACh were increased by 100 U/mL SOD and 10(-6) mol/L indomethacin, but were reduced by 10(-6) mol/L l-NAME in all groups. There were no differences among the four groups in terms of relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside (10(-11) to 10(-6) mol/L). 5. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that oestrogen treatment has beneficial effects on vascular function in both diabetic and non-diabetic OVX rats due to Ca(2+) regulation and anti-oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2009.05255.xDOI Listing
November 2009

In vitro and in vivo transdermal studies of atenolol using iontophoresis.

Acta Pol Pharm 2008 Jan-Feb;65(1):29-36

Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tandoğan, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Matrix formulations of Eudragit E 100: NE 40D polymers (100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50% w/w) with 20% w/w of triacetine and 5% w/w of atenolol were prepared by film casting method with different solvents (methanol, 2-propanol and acetone). In vitro release of atenolol from the films were studied by vertical Franz diffusion cells in HEPES buffer (pH 7.4) for 78 h. Direct currents of 0.1 and 0.5 mA/cm2 were applied for 6 h to the formulations with Ag/AgCl electrodes. Also, transdermal application for the Eudragit E 100: NE 40 D (70:30% w/w) formulation was compared by iontophoresis or oleic acid (2.5% w/v) with control group on Wistar rats. As a result, the in vitro release rate of atenolol from films were increased with iontophoresis by increasing the current density (from 0.240 to 0.424 mg/cm2 for 70:3% w/w formulation) and also increased with the amount of Eudragit NE 40D (from 0.646 to 1.30 mg/cm2 at the end of 78 h). It is obtained from the in vivo studies that oleic acid provided a higher plasma and skin concentration (0.825 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/cm2, respectively) than iontophoresis treatment (0.399 mg/mL and 1.81 mg/cm2, respectively) due to the different mechanisms. However, the results showed that iontophoresis is a good alternative for enhancing the transdermal delivery of atenolol.
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June 2008

Effects of antioxidant stobadine on protein carbonylation, advanced oxidation protein products and reductive capacity of liver in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: role of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

Biofactors 2007 ;30(3):171-8

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is important in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and the protective effects of antioxidants are a topic of intense research. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a pyridoindole antioxidant stobadine (STB) have a protective effect on tissue oxidative protein damage represented by the parameters such as protein carbonylation (PC), protein thiol (P-SH), total thiol (T-SH) and non-protein thiol (Np-SH), nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitonal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Some of the non-diabetic (control) and diabetic rats treated with STB (24.7 mg/kg/day) during 16 weeks, and the effects on blood glucose, PC, AOPP, 3-NT, P-SH, T-SH and Np-SH were studied. Biomarkers were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or by colorimetric methods.

Results: Administration of stobadine to diabetic animals lowered elevated blood glucose levels by approximately 16% relative to untreated diabetic rats. Although stobadine decreased blood glucose, poor glycemic control was maintained in stobadine treated diabetic rats during the treatment period. Biochemical analyses of liver proteins showed significant diminution of sulfhydryl groups, P-SH, T-SH, Np-SH, and elevation of carbonyl groups in diabetic animals in comparison to healthy controls. As a biomarker of nitrosative stress, 3-NT levels did not significantly change by diabetes induction or by stobadine treatment when compared to control animals. However, the treatment with stobadine resulted in a significant decrease in PC, AOPP levels and normalized P-SH, T-SH, Np-SH groups in liver of diabetic animals.

Conclusions: The results are in accordance with the pro-oxidant role of chronic hyperglycemia, and the ability of stobadine to attenuate protein oxidation and improving tissue reductive capacity may account, at least partly for its observed beneficial effects on tissue function in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520300304DOI Listing
August 2008

Cod liver oil supplementation improves cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2007 Dec;59(12):1629-41

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Abnormalities in the metabolism of essential fatty acids and the results of increased oxidative stress have been implicated in cardiovascular disorders observed in diabetes mellitus. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of cod liver oil (CLO, Lysi Ltd, Iceland), which comprises mainly an antioxidant vitamin A, n:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n:3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cardiovascular abnormalities in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Two days after single STZ (55 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or vehicle injection, diabetes was verified by increased blood glucose, and non-diabetic and diabetic rats were left untreated or treated with CLO (0.5 mL kg(-1) daily, by intragastric probing) for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations were significantly elevated in 12-week untreated-diabetic rats; CLO provided better weight gain, entirely prevented the plasma lipid abnormalities, but partially controlled the glycaemia in diabetic rats. In isolated aorta rings, diabetes resulted in increased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and isoprenaline-induced vasorelaxation, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and unchanged responsiveness to sodium nitroprusside. CLO treatment completely prevented endothelial deficiency, partly corrected the phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and did not affect the responses to isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside in diabetic aorta. Diabetes also produced a marked decrease in the rate of spontaneously beating right atria and a significant increase in basal contractile force of left ventricular papillary muscle. The responsiveness of right atria to the positive chronotropic effect of isoprenaline was significantly decreased in diabetic rats, and was increased in CLO-treated diabetic rats. The positive chronotropic effect of noradrenaline was markedly increased in diabetic atria, but prevented by CLO treatment. Diabetes also resulted in an increased positive inotropic response of papillary muscle to both noradrenaline and isoprenaline, which were prevented by CLO treatment. CLO treatment also resulted in lower tissue sensitivity (pD(2)) to these agonists in diabetic papillary muscle. Ventricular hydroxyproline content was found to be unchanged among the experimental groups. The ultrastructure of diabetic myocardium displayed various degenerations (i.e. intracellular oedema, myofibrillar fragmentation, condensed pleomorphic mitochondria, thick capillary irregular basement membrane, swollen endothelial cells), which were partially prevented by CLO treatment. We conclude that the supplementation with CLO is effective in preventing cardiovascular disorders observed in experimental diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.59.12.0004DOI Listing
December 2007

Effects of stobadine and vitamin E in diabetes-induced retinal abnormalities: involvement of oxidative stress.

Arch Med Res 2007 Jul;38(5):503-11

Department of Ophthalmalogy, Gazi University, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Because hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may be a cause of retinopathy, this study examined the hypothesis that administration of exogenous antioxidants, stobadine (ST) and vitamin E (vitE), can restore retinal abnormalities in experimental diabetes.

Methods: Normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male Wistar rats received daily intraoral doses of ST (24.7 mg/kg) and vitE (alpha-dl-tocopherol acetate, 400-500 IU/kg) individually or in combinations for 8 months. The biochemical parameters including aldose reductase enzyme (AR) activity and lipid peroxidation (MDA), and histopathological changes such as retinal capillary basement membrane thickness (RCBMT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated.

Results: A 37.99% increase in RCBMT was observed in rats after 8 months diabetes duration. The increase in RCBMT was 12.34% in diabetic rats treated with ST and 23.07% in diabetic rats treated with vitE. In diabetic rats treated with antioxidant combination, just a 4.38% increase was observed in RCBMT. The excess VEGF immunoreactivity and increased MDA and AR activity determined in diabetic retina were significantly attenuated by individual antioxidant treatments. Although both antioxidants decreased blood glucose, HbA1c, fructosamine and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats, poor glycemic control was maintained in all experimental groups during the treatment period. However, the antioxidant combination led to almost complete amelioration in retinal MDA and RCBMT in diabetic rats.

Conclusions: The ability of antioxidant combination to arrest retinal abnormalities and lipid peroxidation even in the presence of poor glycemic control might advocate the key role of direct oxidative damage and the protective action of antioxidants in retinal alterations associated with diabetic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2007.02.006DOI Listing
July 2007

Alteration of vascular reactivity in diabetic human mammary artery and the effects of thiazolidinediones.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2006 Dec;58(12):1647-53

Department of Pharmacology, University of Ankara, Tandoğan 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Vascular reactivity was investigated in endothelium-denuded human internal mammary artery (IMA) rings from type 2 diabetic patients. It was also investigated whether insulin sensitizer thiazolidinedione drugs, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, can directly affect the reactivity of IMA. Using organ bath techniques, cumulative concentration-response curves to phenylephrine (PE), KCl, cromakalim (CRO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were constructed in diabetic and non-diabetic IMA rings. Means of maximal responses (% Emax) and pEC50 values (sensitivity) were compared. Emax values and the sensitivity to PE and KCl were increased while K(ATP)-channel-mediated relaxations were reduced significantly in diabetic rings compared with non-diabetic rings (n = 5-12, P < 0.05). No changes were observed for SNP responses (n = 5, P > 0.05). Incubations with pioglitazone (1 and 10 microM) and rosiglitazone (1 and 20 microM), for 30 min, did not affect K(ATP)-channel-mediated relaxations (n = 5 each, P > 0.05). Pioglitazone partly inhibited pre-contractions of PE and KCl at 10 microM, rosiglita-zone did not. Vascular dysfunction observed in diabetic IMA may be of specific importance since they are widely used as coronary bypass material. Thiazolidinedione drugs may not worsen arterial dilatation through K(ATP) channels in ischaemic or hypoxic insults in diabetic patients who are prone to such conditions. Pioglitazone has vasorelaxant property in the grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.58.12.0012DOI Listing
December 2006

Aqueous humor and serum penetration of tacrolimus after topical and oral administration in rats: an absorption study.

Clin Ophthalmol 2007 Mar;1(1):61-4

Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Ophthalmology Department, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the penetration of tacrolimus to the aqueous and serum after topical and oral administration.

Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups. In the first group (n = 12), a single dose of 0.3 % isotonic tacrolimus solution was applied topically to the rat eyes. The second group (n = 12), received 0.1 mg/kg/day tacrolimus for three days. In control group (n = 6), the rats were administered a single drop of 0.3% salin solution topically. Following collection of samples, the amounts of tacrolimus in aqueous and serum samples were compared with each other.

Results: In group I, the mean concentration of tacrolimus was 35.16 ng/ml in aqueous and 2.22 ng/ml in serum. In group II, the mean concentration of tacrolimus was 13.08 ng/ml in aqueous and 13.45 ng/ml in serum. There was no significant difference in the serum concentration levels of tacrolimus between group I and control group. However there was a significant difference of the drug concentrations in aqueous between the groups (p < 0.001). The mean aqueous and serum concentrations of tacrolimus in group II, differed significantly from the mean concentrations in group I (p < 0.001) and the control group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Tacrolimus may be a promising treatment modality in intraocular inflammation by topical application besides systemic administration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699987PMC
March 2007

Pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione-dependent enzymes and antioxidant defense during oxidative stress in diabetic rodent brain and peripheral organs: effects of stobadine and vitamin E.

Neurochem Res 2003 Jun;28(6):815-23

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treatment with antioxidant stobadine (ST) on the activities of enzymes related with pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione-dependent metabolism and the other markers of oxidative stress in brain and peripheral organs of diabetic rats, and to compare the effects of ST treatment alone with the effects of treatments with another antioxidant vitamin E and ST plus vitamin E. Rats were made diabetic by the injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg IP), and, 2 days later, some control and diabetic rats were left untreated or treated with ST (24.7 mg/kg/day, orally), vitamin E (400-500 U/kg/day, orally), or both substances together. In the brain, although 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity (6-PGD) did not change, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (G-6PD) was markedly increased in diabetic rats compared with controls; only combined treatment with ST and vitamin E produced a partial prevention on this alteration. The aorta G-6PD and 6-PGD of diabetic rats were 52% and 36% of control values, respectively. Neither single treatments with each antioxidant nor their combination altered the G-6PD and 6-PGD in aorta of diabetic rats. Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity was increased by STZ-diabetes in brain, heart, and kidney. In diabetic brain, vitamin E alone or combination with ST kept GSHPx at normal levels. Diabetes-induced stimulation in GSHPx did not decrease in response to the treatment with vitamin E in heart and kidney, but was greatly prevented by ST alone. The activity of glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased in brain and heart of diabetic rats. The treatment with each antioxidant or with a combination of both agents completely prevented this deficiency and resulted in further activation of GR in diabetic tissues. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly change in diabetic brain and aorta. GST was stimulated by all treatment protocols in the brain of diabetic rats and was depressed in aorta of control rats. Catalase (CAT) was activated in diabetic heart but depressed in diabetic kidney. Diabetes-induced abnormalities in CAT activity did not respond to vitamin E alone in heart, was moderately ameliorated by the treatment with this vitamin in kidney, and was completely prevented by ST alone in both tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of brain and heart was unchanged by the diabetes but inhibited in diabetic kidney after the treatment ST alone or ST plus vitamin E. The lipid peroxidation (MDA) was increased in diabetic brain and heart. ST or vitamin E alone partly prevented diabetes-induced increase in MDA in brain and heart; however, antioxidant combination achieved a completely amelioration in MDA of these tissues of diabetic rats. Kidney MDA levels were similar in control and untreated diabetic animals. ST and vitamin E treatments, when applied separately or together, significantly reduced kidney MDA in both control and diabetic rats; and the combined effect of antioxidants was greater than that of each alone. These results are consistent with the degenerative role of hyperglycemia on cellular reducing equivalent homeostasis and antioxidant defense, and provide further evidence that pharmacological intervention of different antioxidants may have significant implications in the prevention of the prooxidant feature of diabetes and protects redox status of the cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1023202805255DOI Listing
June 2003

Hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of vasomotor activity: evaluation of single and combined treatments with vitamin A and insulin in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Int J Exp Diabetes Res 2002 Apr-Jun;3(2):119-30

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Tandogan, Turkey

A positive correlation has been established between increased oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the effects of single or combined treatments with vitamin A (retinol acetate, 30 mg/kg/day, for 12-weeks) and insulin (8-10 IU/rat/day for the final 6-week) on vasomotor activity, oxidative stress and retinol metabolism in 12-week streptozotocin diabetic rats. The vasomotor activity was determined by measuring in vitro responsiveness of aorta rings to phenylephrine (PE) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the absence or in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Preincubation with H2O2 (10 microM) produced a significant decrease in PE (1 mM)-induced contraction in untreated-diabetic but not in control rats. Single treatment with insulin counteracted this effect of H2O2 and also reversed the increased contractile response of diabetic aorta to PE, while vitamin A was found to be ineffective. H2O2 (10 microM) also inhibited ACh (1 mM)-stimulated endothelium-dependent relaxation two fold more in diabetic than in control aorta. In the prevention of H2O2-induced inhibition of vascular relaxation to ACh, vitamin A alone was markedly effective while insulin alone was not. The combination of vitamin A plus insulin removed the inhibitory action of H2O2 in diabetic aorta. Diabetic animals displayed an increased level of aorta thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in association with decreased levels of plasma retinol and retinol-binding protein (RBP). Single treatment with insulin, in spite of allowing recovery of normal growth rate and improved glucose and retinol metabolism in diabetic rats, was unable to control TBARS production to the same extent as vitamin A alone. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of ACh-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant tone in normal physiological levels depends largely on the prevention and/or inhibition of peroxidative stress, which is achieved by combined treatment with vitamin A plus insulin. The use of vitamin A together with insulin provides a better metabolic control and more benefits than use of insulin alone in the reduction of diabetes-induced vascular complications.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2478572PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15604280214484DOI Listing
November 2002
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