Publications by authors named "Nur Kartinee Kassim"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cytotoxic constituent of (DC.) T. G. Hartley.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Feb 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

An undescribed conjugated sesquiterpene, amelicarin (), together with nine known compounds (-) were isolated for the first time from . Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods. The conjugated sesquiterpene possesses a unique 6/6/9/4-ring fused tetracyclic skeleton. The proposed biosynthesis pathway of consist of three reactions steps: (1) polyketide formation, (2) cyclisation and (3) addition to form the conjugated sesquiterpenoid as final metabolite. Out of the ten isolated metabolites, amelicarin () showed activity against 4 cancerous cell lines namely SK-MEL skin cancer, KB oral cancer, BT-549 breast cancer, and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer with IC values between 15 and 25 µg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1885031DOI Listing
February 2021

Discrimination of Malaysian stingless bee honey from different entomological origins based on physicochemical properties and volatile compound profiles using chemometrics and machine learning.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 15;346:128654. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Identification of honey origin based on specific chemical markers is important for honey authentication. This study is aimed to differentiate Malaysian stingless bee honey from different entomological origins (Heterotrigona bakeri, Geniotrigona thoracica and Tetrigona binghami) based on physicochemical properties (pH, moisture content, ash, total soluble solid and electrical conductivity) and volatile compound profiles. The discrimination pattern of 75 honey samples was observed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA), Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The profiles of H. bakeri and G. thoracica honey were close to each other, but clearly separated from T. binghami honey, consistent with their phylogenetic relationship. T. binghami honey is marked by significantly higher electrical conductivity, moisture and ash content, and high abundance of 2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-acetaldehyde and ethyl 2-(5-methyl-5-vinyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl)propan-2-yl carbonate. Copaene was proposed as chemical marker for G. thoracica honey. The potential of different parameters that aid in honey authentication was highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128654DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 and α-Amylase Inhibitors from (Blume) T. G. Hartley (Rutaceae) Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, In Vitro and In Silico Methods.

Molecules 2020 Dec 22;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahsa University, Bandar Saujana Putra, Jenjarom, Selangor 42610, Malaysia.

The present study investigated the antidiabetic properties of the extracts and fractions from leaves and stem bark of based on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and α-Amylase inhibitory activity assays. The chloroform extract of the leaves was found to be most active towards inhibition of DPP-4 and α-Amylase with IC of 169.40 μg/mL and 303.64 μg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaves' chloroform extract revealed fraction 4 (CF4) as the most active fraction (DPP-4 IC: 128.35 μg/mL; α-Amylase IC: 170.19 μg/mL). LC-MS/MS investigation of CF4 led to the identification of trans-decursidinol (), swermirin (), methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (), renifolin (), 4',5,6,7-tetramethoxy-flavone (), isorhamnetin (), quercetagetin-3,4'-dimethyl ether (), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-flavone (), and 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy-fruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one () as the major components. The computational study suggested that () and () were the most potent DPP-4 and α-Amylase inhibitors based on their lower binding affinities and extensive interactions with critical amino acid residues of the respective enzymes. The binding affinity of () with DPP-4 (-8.1 kcal/mol) was comparable to that of sitagliptin (-8.6 kcal/mol) while the binding affinity of () with α-Amylase (-8.6 kcal/mol) was better than acarbose (-6.9 kcal/mol). These findings highlight the phytochemical profile and potential antidiabetic compounds from that may work as an alternative treatment for diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792625PMC
December 2020

Rapid Quantification and Validation of Biomarker Scopoletin in by qNMR and UV-Vis for Herbal Preparation.

Molecules 2020 Nov 6;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43300, Selangor, Malaysia.

Scopoletin has previously been reported as a biomarker for the standardization of twigs. This study is the first report on the determination and quantification of scopoletin using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) in the different extracts of twigs. The validated qNMR method showed a good linearity ( = 0.9999), limit of detection (LOD) (0.009 mg/mL), and quantification (LOQ) (0.029 mg/mL), together with high stability (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 0.022%), high precision (RSD < 1%), and good recovery (94.08-108.45%). The quantification results of scopoletin concentration in chloroform extract using qNMR and microplate ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer was almost comparable. Therefore, the qNMR method is deemed accurate and reliable for quality control of and other medicinal plants without extensive sample preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664186PMC
November 2020

Phenolic profiling and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb) Leenh fruit extracts.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 17;331:127240. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The present study focused on the phytochemical profiling along with evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of various crudes and fractions obtained from Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb) Leenh fruit. Ethanolic seed crude extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching activity, α-glucosidase inhibition and the highest total phenolic content (TPC). Column chromatography afforded various fractions with fraction M4 being the most potent due to the strongest radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, α-glucosidase inhibition and greatest amount of TPC. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of ethanolic seed crude extract and fraction M4 showed the presence of various phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, which include mostly flavonoids and tannins. The results may suggest that the ethanolic crude seed extract and its fraction could be an excellent source of bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127240DOI Listing
November 2020

Cytotoxic Activity of Root and Leaf Extracts and Fractions against Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

Molecules 2020 Jun 4;25(11). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43300, Malaysia.

, commonly known as 'Daun Rerama', has recently garnered attention from numerous sources in Malaysia as an alternative treatment. Its herbal decoction was believed to show anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of the extract of root and leaf of . The plant parts were successively extracted using the solvent maceration method. The most active extract was further fractionated to afford F1-F8. The cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay against human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant properties of the extract were also studied using DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assays. The ethyl acetate root extract demonstrated selective cytotoxicity especially against MDA-MB-231 with the highest TPC and antioxidant properties compared to others ( < 0.05). The TPC and antioxidant results suggest the contribution of phenolic compounds toward its antioxidant strength leading to significant cytotoxicity. F3 showed potent cytotoxic effects while F4 showed better antioxidative strength compared to others ( < 0.05). Qualitative phytochemical screening of the most active fraction, F3, suggested the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and quinones to be responsible toward the cytotoxicity. The study showed the root extracts of to possess notable anti-breast cancer effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321190PMC
June 2020

Identification of Antidiabetic Metabolites from L. Twigs by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Molecular Docking Study.

Biomed Res Int 2019 29;2019:7603125. Epub 2019 May 29.

Laboratory of Natural Product, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

L. (Rubiaceae) is a climber which is widely distributed in Asian countries including Malaysia. The plant is traditionally used to treat various diseases including diabetes. This study is to evaluate the enzymatic inhibition activity of twigs extracts and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics profiling. Three different twig extracts, namely, hexane (PFH), chloroform (PFC), and methanol (PFM), were submerged for their -amylase and -glucosidase inhibition potential in 5 replicates for each. Results obtained from the loading column scatter plot of orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model revealed the presence of 12 bioactive compounds, namely, dl--tocopherol, n-hexadecanoic acid, 2-hexyl-1-decanol, stigmastanol, 2-nonadecanone, cholest-8(14)-en-3-ol, 4,4-dimethyl-, (3,5)-, stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, 1-ethyl-1-tetradecyloxy-1-silacyclohexane, ɣ-sitosterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol, (3,5,24S)-, and -monostearin. molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure -amylase (PDB ID: 4W93) and -glucosidase (PDB ID: 3WY1). -Amylase-n-hexadecanoic acid exhibited the lowest binding energy of -2.28 kcal/mol with two hydrogen bonds residue, namely, LYS178 and TYR174, along with hydrophobic interactions involving PRO140, TRP134, SER132, ASP135, and LYS172. The binding interactions of -glucosidase-n-hexadecanoic acid complex ligand also showed the lowest binding energy among 5 major compounds with the energy value of -4.04 kcal/mol. The complex consists of one hydrogen bond interacting residue, ARG437, and hydrophobic interactions with ALA444, ASP141, GLN438, GLU432, GLY374, LEU373, LEU433, LYS352, PRO347, THR445, HIS348, and PRO351. The study provides informative data on the potential antidiabetic inhibitors identified in twigs, indicating the plant has the therapeutic effect properties to manage diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7603125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560335PMC
January 2020

Comparative study of the antidiabetic potential of twig extracts and compounds from two different locations in Malaysia.

Pharm Biol 2019 Dec;57(1):345-354

a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science , Universiti Putra Malaysia , Selangor , Malaysia ;

L. (Rubiaceae) is an edible plant distributed in Asian countries including Malaysia. Fresh leaves have been traditionally used as a remedy for indigestion and diarrhea. Several phytochemical studies of the leaves have been documented, but there are few reports on twigs. This study investigates the enzyme inhibition of twig extracts and compound isolated from them. In addition, molecular docking of scopoletin was investigated. Plants were obtained from two locations in Malaysia, Johor (PFJ) and Pahang (PFP). Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts along with isolated compound (scopoletin) were evaluated for their enzyme inhibition activities (10,000-0.000016 µg/mL). The separation and identification of bio-active compounds were carried out using column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques, respectively. molecular docking of scopoletin with receptors (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) was carried out using AutoDock 4.2. The IC values of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of PFJ chloroform extract were 9.60 and 245.6 µg/mL, respectively. PFP chloroform extract exhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activity (IC = 14.83 and 257.2 µg/mL, respectively). The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of scopoletin from both locations had IC values of 0.052 and 0.057 µM, respectively. Separation of PFJ chloroform extract afforded scopoletin (), stigmasterol () and γ-sitosterol () and the PFP chloroform extract yielded (), (), () and ergost-5-en-3-ol (). Scopoletin was isolated from this species for the first time. calculations gave a binding energy between scopoletin and α-amylase of -6.03 kcal/mol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2019.1610462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566874PMC
December 2019

Isolation of antioxidative compounds from Micromelum minutum guided by preparative thin layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (PTLC-DPPH) bioautography method.

Food Chem 2019 Jan 10;272:185-191. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The application of preparative thin layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (PTLC-DPPH) bioautography technique successfully isolated a lignan sesamin (1), two prenylated coumarins (2 and 3) and a marmesin glycosides (4) from Micromelum minutum methanol bark extract. Compounds 2 and 3 were identified as new compounds whereas 1 and 4 were first isolated from Micromelum genus. Structural identification of all compounds were done by detailed spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. Antioxidant capacities of extract, active fraction and compounds were measured based on DPPH free radical savenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and β-carotene bleaching. The DPPH activity of methanol extract and its fraction present the IC values of 54.3 and 168.9 µg/mL meanwhile the β-carotene bleaching results were 55.19% and 5.75% respectively. The ORAC measurements of M. minutum extract, compounds 2 and 4 showed potent antioxidant activity with the values of 5123, 5539 and 4031 µmol TE/g respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.045DOI Listing
January 2019

Clausenidin Induces Caspase 8-Dependent Apoptosis and Suppresses Production of VEGF in Liver Cancer Cells

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Apr 25;19(4):917-922. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Clausena excavata Burm f. is used by traditional healers to treat cancer patients in South East Asia. The use of the plant and its compounds is based on Asian folklore with little or no scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy The current study aimed to determine the effect of pure clausenidin isolated from C. excavata on caspase-8-induced cell death as well as angiogenesis in the HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Caspase-8 and extrinsic death receptor protein expression was determined using spectrophotometry and protein profile arrays, respectively. Ultrastructural analysis of clausenidin-treated cells was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, anti-angiogenic effects of clausenidin were investigated by Western blot analysis. Clausenidin significantly (p<0.05) increased the activity of caspase-8 and expression of protein components of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) in HepG2 cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the clausenidin-treated HepG2 cells revealed morphological abnormalities typical of apoptosis. Furthermore, clausenidin significantly (p<0.05) decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Therefore, clausenidin is a potential anti-angiogenic agent which may induce apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.4.917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031786PMC
April 2018

Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells.

PLoS One 2017 19;12(1):e0170233. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170233PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5245823PMC
August 2017

Clausenidin from Clausena excavata induces apoptosis in hepG2 cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 8;194:549-558. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Clausena excavata Burm.f. is used locally in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer in South East Asia.

Aim Of The Study: To determine the mechanism of action of pure clausenidin crystals in the induction of hepatocellular carcinoma (hepG2) cells apoptosis.

Materials And Methods: Pure clausenidin was isolated from Clausena excavata Burm.f. and characterized using H and C NMR spectra. Clausenidin-induced cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The morphology of hepG2 after treatment with clausenidin was determined by fluorescence and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The effect of clausenidin on the apoptotic genes and proteins were determined by real-time qPCR and protein array profiling, respectively. The involvement of the mitochondria in clausenidin-induced apoptosis was investigated using MMP, caspase 3 and 9 assays.

Results: Clausenidin induced significant (p<0.05) and dose-dependent apoptosis of hepG2 cells. Cell cycle assay showed that clausenidin induced a G2/M phase arrest, caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly (p<0.05) increased expression of caspases 3 and 9, which suggest the involvement of the mitochondria in the apoptotic signals. In addition, clausenidin caused decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl 2 and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. This finding was confirmed by the downregulation of Bcl-2 gene and upregulation of the Bax gene in the treated hepG2 cells.

Conclusion: Clausenidin extracted from Clausena excavata Burm.f. is an anti-hepG2 cell compound as shown by its ability to induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Clausenidin can potentially be developed into an anticancer compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.030DOI Listing
December 2016

Hypolipidemic activities of xanthorrhizol purified from centrifugal TLC.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 09 27;478(3):1403-8. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

ZACH Biotech Depot Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Hyperlipidemia is defined as the presence of either hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia, which could cause atherosclerosis. Although hyperlipidemia can be treated by hypolipidemic drugs, they are limited due to lack of effectiveness and safety. Previous studies demonstrated that xanthorrhizol (XNT) isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb. reduced the levels of free fatty acid and triglyceride in vivo. However, its ability to inhibit cholesterol uptake in HT29 colon cells and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells are yet to be reported. In this study, XNT purified from centrifugal TLC demonstrated 98.3% purity, indicating it could be an alternative purification method. The IC50 values of XNT were 30.81 ± 0.78 μg/mL in HT29 cells and 35.07 ± 0.24 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Cholesterol uptake inhibition study using HT29 colon cells showed that XNT (15 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD uptake by up to 27 ± 3.1% relative to control. On the other hand, higher concentration of XNT (50 μg/mL) significantly suppressed the growth of 3T3-L1 adipocytes (5.9 ± 0.58%) compared to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (81.31 ± 0.55%). XNT was found to impede adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 3.125 to 12.5 μg/mL, where 12.5 μg/mL significantly suppressed 36.13 ± 2.1% of lipid accumulation. We postulate that inhibition of cholesterol uptake, adipogenesis, preadipocyte and adipocyte number may be utilized as treatment modalities to reduce the prevalence of lipidemia. To conclude, XNT could be a potential hypolipidemic agent to improve cardiovascular health in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.08.136DOI Listing
September 2016

Clausenidin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2016 Jul 29;16:256. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Enzyme Technology Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Clausena excavata Burm.f. is a shrub traditionally used to treat cancer patients in Asia. The main bioactive chemical components of the plant are alkaloids and coumarins. In this study, we isolated clausenidin from the roots of C. excavata to determine its apoptotic effect on the colon cancer (HT-29) cell line.

Method: We examined the effect of clausenidin on cell viability, ROS generation, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential in HT-29 cells. Ultrastructural analysis was conducted for morphological evidence of apoptosis in the treated HT-29 cells. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of clausenidin treatment on the expression of caspase 3 and 9 genes and proteins in HT-29 cells.

Result: Clausenidin induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells with significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell population. The DNA fragmentation assay also showed apoptotic features in the clausenidin-treated HT-29 cells. Clausenidin treatment had caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in the expression of caspase 9 protein and gene in HT-29 cells and mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The results suggest the involvement of the mitochondria in the caspase-dependent apoptosis in clausenidin-treated colon cancer cells.

Conclusion: Clausenidin induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancers through the stimulation of the mitochondria. The study demonstrates the potential of clausenidin for use in the treatment of colon cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1247-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966865PMC
July 2016

Xanthorrhizol: a review of its pharmacological activities and anticancer properties.

Cancer Cell Int 2015 21;15:100. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

ZACH Biotech Depot Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Cheras, Selangor Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol (XNT) is a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. It has been well established to possess a variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Since many synthetic drugs possess toxic side effects and are unable to support the increasing prevalence of disease, there is significant interest in developing natural product as new therapeutics. XNT is a very potent natural bioactive compound that could fulfil the current need for new drug discovery. Despite its importance, a comprehensive review of XNT's pharmacological activities has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, the present review aims to summarize the available information in this area, focus on its anticancer properties and indicate the current status of the research. This helps to facilitate the understanding of XNT's pharmacological role in drug discovery, thus suggesting areas where further research is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-015-0255-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618344PMC
October 2015

Antioxidant activity-guided separation of coumarins and lignan from Melicope glabra (Rutaceae).

Food Chem 2013 Aug 10;139(1-4):87-92. Epub 2013 Feb 10.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The ethyl acetate and methanol bark extracts of Melicope glabra were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching/linoleic acid system. Both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against the DPPH radical (IC50 values of 24.81 and 13.01 μg ml(-1), respectively) and strong antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay. Both samples were found to have high phenolic content with values of 39 and 44 mg GAE/g as indicated by Follin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant TLC assay-guided isolation on the methanol extract led to the isolation of a new pyranocoumarin, glabranin (1), umbelliferone (2), scopoletin (3) and sesamin (4), and their structures were determined by spectroscopy. Compounds (1-3) showed significant activities on DPPH free radical with the IC50 of 240.20, 810.02 and 413.19 μg ml(-1), respectively. However, in β-carotene bleaching assay, sesamin (4) showed higher inhibitory activity (1 mg ml(-1), 95%) than glabranin (1) (1 mg ml(-1), 74%), whilst umbelliferone (2) and scopoletin (3) were slightly pro-oxidant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.108DOI Listing
August 2013

Two new xanthones from Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferae).

Molecules 2011 Oct 25;16(11):8973-80. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Malaysia.

The air-dried powdered stem bark of Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferea) collected from Sandakan (Sabah, Malaysia), was extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to give dark viscous extracts. Detailed and repeated chromatographic separation of the extracts lead to isolation of two new xanthones, identified as nodusuxanthone and trapezifolixanthone A. Other common terpenoids such as betulinic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and friedelin were also isolated from the extracts and identified. The structures of the compounds were established by detailed spectral analysis and comparison with previously reported data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16118973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264213PMC
October 2011